Imatges de pÓgina



[As we take the articles under this de Seine, No. 48. In 8vo. Price

head from the foreign periodical 2 francs. publications, chiefly the Revue En

This work is more important than cyclopédique, we are responsible its title seems to denote : this remark for the translation only.]

we address to the translator. The

title announces a polemical work, Der Prophet Jesaia.

whilst the production of M. BretThe prophet Isaiah, recently trans- schneider is entirely historical. It is lated from Hebrew into German, by a very interesting biography of the G. Gesenius, Divinity Professor at life and labours of the French ReHalle, in the circle of Mersebourg. former. In it we find a precise and Leipsic, 1820. Pp. 165, in 8vo. clear exposition of the theological

Commentar uber den Jesaia, von doctrines of Calvin. M. de Felice, G. GESENICS. Philological, Critical in translating the German work into and Historical Commentary on Isaiah, French, has principally aimed at anby the same. Leipsic, 1821. Pp. swering the calumnies of the Conser140. 8vo.

vateur. In the book of M. BretschneiM. GESENIUS has obtained aston- der is to be found a justness and oriishing success in teaching the Hebrew ginality of thought sometimes very

He has published the his- remarkable, joined to a profound tory of this language, a grammar and knowledge of the circumstances and a dictionary, as well as other analo. spirit of the Reformation. There are gous books, much esteemed in Eu- also many details of the life of Calvin,

The most learned Hebraists, hitherto but little known.' I have reand the most able theologians in Ger- marked (pp. 34, 35) a brilliant parallel many are inexhaustible in the praise between Calvin and Luther. The of this new translation of Isaial, the author points out the noble features merit of the commentary, the erudi- of the character of Calvin, considered tion displayed by the author, and the as a legislator. He discusses fully justness of his reflections. He ene the conduct of Calvin in the judgment deavours to point out, in his text, the against Castellio, J. Gruet, Bolsec prophetic annunciation of the Chris- and particularly Servetus. In the tian religion, the most remarkable times in which we live, Protestant traits of the life of Jesus Christ, and theologians ought at once to acknowthe establishment of his doctrine ledge that Calvin countenanced the amongst the Gentiles.

burning of Servetus; that no one Hebraische Grammatik, &c.—He thinks of maintaining that the Rebrew Grammar, by the same. Fifth formers were men entirely undeservEdition. Halle, 1822. One Vol. in ing of reproach, any more than the 8vo. Pp. 232.

enlightened priests of the Roman At the end of this volume, the au. Church maintain that the Popes were thor announces a new edition of his all perfect; neither should it be consiHebrew and German Dictionary, dered that the defects of their characwhich is to assume the form of He- ters can at all diminish the gratitude brew and Latin, and in which will be the Protestants owe them for having, found the etymologies, and a compari- according to them, delivered reason son of the Hebrew dialects.

from bondage and strengthened the sacred rights of conscience.

Charles COQUEREL. Calvin et l'Eglise de Genève. Calvin and the Church of Geneva; by M. Bretschneider, of Gotha; a Notice sur l'Etat actuel des Eglises G. de Felice. Geneva, 1822. J. J. Piémont.-Account of the present conPaschoud. Paris, J. J. Paschoud, rue dition of the Protestant Churches of the



Valleys of Piedinont, followed by the “that in all ages innocent persons intolerant decrees issued against the have been condemned to death.” He Christian Reformers, their petition to brings forward the most celebrated the King of Sardinia, and the statistic and most lamentable proofs of it in cal description of the Vaudois dis- his poem. Philosophical reasoning tricts.

and quotations from history, someThis account is drawn up by M. times damp the ardour and imaginaCharles Coquerel, one of the contri- tion of the poet. In luminous notes butors to the Revue Encyclopédique. he discusses the opinions of Mably, It is an useful supplement to the his- Jean Jacques Rousseau, Filangieri and tory of the Vaudois and of the perse- Montesquieu, immortal writers who cutions they have undergone. Their we regret not to see amongst the depresent population amounts to 18,000 fenders of a moral truth, so victori. souls in 22 communes. It is the effect ously demonstrated by the learned of the government they have been un- Beccaria, and in our days by the illusder since 1814, that they are precisely trious Pastoret, the ingenious Rein the same condition as were the Pro- derer, and so many other distinguished testants of France before the edict of writers. M. Valant is worthy to walk 1787, that is, exposed to a mass of in their footsteps: the moment is not, oppressive laws and regulations, which perhaps, far distant when the cause he inay at every instant be put in force defends will triumph : the epoch will against then. They are excluded arrive, when a while continent, adfrom every employment and all pub- vancing towards a new and superior lic functions, except the profession civilization, under the auspicious in, of soldiers, without the hope of being struction of religion and liberty, will promoted above the rank of sergeant: expiate the crimes committed formerly they are waiting for liberty of con- in its bosom by the guilty supporters science to be restored to them; they of ignorance, fanaticism and slavery. live on hope, may they not be deceived ! LANJUINAIS.


The lectures at our university conDe la Nécessité d'abolir la Peine de tinue to be much frequented. The Mort.

number of pupils during the winter On the Necessity of abolishing the season was 1102, amongst whom Punishment of Death, an Essay in 480 were studying divinity ; 381 juVerse, followed by Four Discussions in risprudence; 163 physic; and 74 phiProse, in which are examined the Opi- lology. On the 1st of December, the nions of Mably, J. J. Rousseau, Filan. total number was increased by 51 pugieri and Montesquieu on that Subject. pils. This prosperity is not astonishParis, 1822. Pelicier, Place du Palais ing to those who know the names of Royal. Pamphlet in 8vo. Price 3 the professors. The celebrity of M. francs.

M. Rosenmüller, Hermann, Beck, The work of M. VALANT, who when Weiske, Kruse and Spohn, who preyoung pleaded this noble cause before side over the philological studies, the National Convention, is dedicated would convince us that in every deto one of the most respectable mem. partment of science true merit alone bers of that assembly, whose eloquent has been entrusted with the care of and courageous voice abandoned nei- education in this university. ther a virtuous king in misfortune, nor his country bowed down under the weight of a brilliant despotism, to M.

AUSTRIA. LANJUINAIS, whom our liberal and Public Instruction. -Jesuits. - A constitutional institutions still reckon great number of Jesuits, expelled from amongst their most invariable sup- Russia, have been allowed to settle in ports. The motto of the pamphlet Gallicia, where the direction of the contains the principal idea that runs gymnasium of Tacnopol has been enthrough it: “I dare remind the arbi- trusted to them. An imperial decree ters of nations,” says the author, exempts them from the duties im

This song

Select Notices of Foreign Literature.-Deaths Abroad. 107 posed by the laws of amortisation, on pames, to the number of 60,000 wricondition that they shall declare all ters, are here denounced as corrupters their acquisitions to the proper author and seducers of youth, blasphemers, rities. At the time of the arrival of liars, incendiaries; who have formed, the Jesuits from Russia, there was at directly and indirectly, an association, Vienna a provincial of the order, who by which all thrones are threatened, fixed their ulterior destination, keep- and from which all the revolutions we ing some in the Austrian states, and have witnessed proceeded. M. Fabrisending the others to Italy. At the cius knows this association; he even same time, measures were taken in prints the oath taken by the members. Hungary for their being well received He proposes to abolish all the Univerthere on their journey. Doubts are sities, or at least to place them under still entertained as to their order being the most rigid surveillance ; for the entirely re-established in Austria. The tutelage under which they now are Jesuits having obtained a noviciate is very far from satisfying him! house at Vienna, would seem, however, to decide the question in the affirmative.

Greek Patriotic Song.
When the Turks penetrated into the

Morea, the Greeks of that beautiful

country displayed an extraordinary The faculty of theology, assembled heroisin, worthy of ancient Greece. under the presidency of its dean, M. Thousands of young warriors, and Gesenius, a learned man, distinguished even old men, sang with enthusiasm by many works, and recently by the a noble patriotic hymn, composed by publication of an excellent Cominen- a Greek Professor, and set to music tary of the Prophet Isaiah, has awarded by a German pusician. the diploma of Doctor of Divinity to contributed much to excite the couMr. LEE, Hebrew Professor at Cam- rage of the heroes who destroyed the bridge, as a mark of gratitude for the army of Khourchid. The following Syriac and Arabic Versions of the strophe is particularly remarkable : Bible which he has made for the Bible Our war is not that of ambitions Society. The motives for granting conquerors and enemies to humanity, the diploma are thus expressed : it is a sacred war. Nature and reli"Propter insignem linguarum orien- gion impose upon us the duty of drivtalium doctrinam, permultis biblioriem ing out our tyrants that we may have versionibus antiquo nitori restitatis a country.” splendidè probatam, atque ad propuganda sacra christiana pie adhibitam."


The sciences and arts have to deGERMAN UNIVERSITIES.

plore the loss of M. Galin, inventor

of the Méthode du Métoplaste, memGreat sensation has been excited in ber of the Philharmonic Society of Germany by a work bearing the fol- Amsterdam, &c., who died at Paris, lowing title: “On the disgraceful 31st August, 1822. Born at BourProceedings in German Universities, deaux in 1786, of an obscure family, Gymnasiuins, and Lyceums; or His- he owed to himself alone all his intory of the Acadeinical Conspiracy struction. He occupied himself whilst against Royalty, Christianity and Pro- very young in mathematical studies, perty. By K. M. E. Fabricius, Libra- and was professor of the higher marian at Bruchsal.” This work, of thematics in the Lyceum of Bourabout 200 pages, is dedicated to all deaux, then in the institution of the the Founders and German Members deaf and duunb in the same town. He of the Holy Alliance, their Ministers published, in 1818, his Method of and Ambassadors to the Diet; and Teaching Music, which is as remarkatells then things that make the hair ble for the clearness of the style as stand on end. Men such as Kant, for the depth of knowledge which it Fitche, Schelling, Campe, Loffler, implies. The method of "the MétoPaulus, Krug, and a long et cetera of plaste has obtained much success in

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Holland and at Paris. The pupils this eminent scholar having lulled his M. Galin has formed in that city, do friends into security: although he had no less honour to his character than arrived at the age of seventy-four, to his talents. It will soften the just there was no indication that science regrets which the death of their Pro- was about to lose the genius and the fessor causes them, to know that an labours of one of its most zealous extensive work, relative to music, promoters. Berthollet, like D'Alemwhich he has left ready for the press, bert, first studied physic, but chemiswill soon be brought forward. try soon became more attractive in

his eyes, and the path of useful dis

We Madame de CondoRCET, (see Mon. shall not on this occasion undertake

covery was open before him. Repos. XVII. 640,) widow of the il. to give an account of all that he has lustrious Secretary of the Academy of done for the science of chemistry; the Sciences, died at Paris, on Sunday, subject would require leisure for me 6th September, 1822. The end of thodical researches and an extended her life has given new proofs of that treatise. Suffice it, at present, to pure and sublime philosophy with mention some of his works: his Elewhich she was penetrated. Notwith

mens de Teinture and his Statique standing the acute and almost conti- Chimique, will be known and connual pains of her last long malady, sulted long after the ideas and facts the wants and future lot of those she which they contain shall be found in assisted occupied her incessantly; and subsequent works, which develope the even when her voice became indistinct, further advancement of science. it was the names of these persons In the article which we shall devote which she articulated the best and to Berthollet, a man so worthy of our most frequently. The same senti. ment of philanthropy led her to wish regret,,, we shall follow him in his

peaceful career of science, amidst the for the plainest funeral. This lady, revolution in Egypt; we shall recal so estimable for the goodness of her that glorious epoch when the arms of heart and the soundness of her under- France had conquered the land of standing, justly cherished and regret. the Pharaohs with its monuments of ted by all who had the happiness of grandeur; we shall contemplate Berapproaching her, and sharing her af- thollet and Monge amongst the ruins fections, had made herself known in of Tyre, enfeebled by disease, but the literary world by an elegant trans- animated by the love of knowledge lation of the Theory of Moral Senti- and of their country, plucking with ments by Adam Smith.

hands, bereft of their strength, some

fragments of the walls and buildings BERTHOLLET. The year which is of that ancient city, to subject them near its termination will be distinguish- to scientific analysis. After having ed by the great and numerous losses admired the scholar, we shall turn that have afflicted the learned world. our attention, with varied interest, to The science of Astronomy has been the public man; nor will the private deprived of D'Alembert and Herschel; individual be less worthy of our rethe Ecole normale and a great number gards. The task of the biographer of of eminent Professors are lost to us; this good citizen, this sincere and judithe studies of the most celebrated cious friend of liberty, this professor school of medicine in the world are whose zeal and genius have given the interrupted, and the very existence of character of demonstration to a science that Institution is endangered ; Haüy before imperfectly investigated, would is no more, a few months after his be a task affording the liveliest pleadecease, Berthollet follows him to the sure, did not every line he writes recal grave. The last-named calamity is to his memory, that death has put an the more afflictive because it was un- end to the labours he is delighted to expected, the vigorous constitution of trace.

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Additions to Obituary.
SAMUEL PETT, Esq., M.D. consequendis; Eruditorum examini subjicit

Samuel Pett, Anglus. Soc. Med. Edin. (See p. 57.)

Soc. pecoon Soc. Nat. Stud. Edin.,Soc.Extr. The subject of this memoir was born et nuper Præses annuus.

Ad diem 24 on the 24th of September, in the year Junii, hora locoque solitis." On printing 1765, of a respectable family of Pro- his Dissertation, Dr. Pett dedicated it to testant Dissenters, at Liskeard, in the his respected tutor and valued friend, Mr. county of Cornwall. He received the ru- Belshamn, in the following appropriate diments of his education at the Grammar- terms : « Reverendo Thomæ Belsham, School of that towu. In 1781, and in cum ob Consilia et Præcepta, tum ob his 16th year, he entered the Dissenting Amicitiam, qua perplures arinos illam Academy at Daventry, then under the dignatus est, semper colendo ; hoc Opussuperintendance of the Rev. Thomas Bel- culum, animi gratissimi et devinctissimi sham, the present minister of Essex testimonium, sacrum voluit Auctor.” As Street. (Mon. Repos. XVII. 285.) His a member of the Medical Society of Edinexcellent character shone out in this burgh, Dr. Pett contributed a paper on early period of his life, and some of his the office of the Membrana Tympani, most valuable friendships were formed which is amongst the Society's manuscripts. with persons who were his fellow pupils. Before this period he had had the happi. For his tutor he entertained sentiments ness of connecting himself in marriage of the highest respect and esteem, and with Mary_Aun, the eldest daughter of for no one of the many gentlemen under Jonathan Eade, Esq., of Stoke Newinghis care did the tutor feel a warmer re- toa, the proprietor of the mansion in that gard. lo an affectionate letter, written village which was long the seat of the on occasion of his death, Mr. Belsham Abneys, and which is still an object of says, in reference to his character as a curiosity as the residence, for many years, stadent, “Entering with his whole soul of the learned and pious Dr. Watis.-Dr. into the innocent gaieties of youth, he was Pett's first settlement in his professional distinguished at all times by the steadi- character was at Plymouth, in which bess of his conduct, by his respect for place and the neighbourhood he was well religious principles, and by an ardent known and much esteemed. His success thirst after knowledge and ambition of was quite equal to his expectations, and improvement; while, at the same time, would have been probably such as to atthe suavity of his temper, and the cour- tach him to this place for life, had not tesy of his manners, rendered him the the party-spirit excited by the war of object of universal affection and esteem.” the French Revolution led him to feel On leaving the Academy, he was for some that the metropolis, or its vicinity, was time undecided in the choice of his pro- a much more congenial situation for a fession. He entered himself of one of Protestant Dissenter aud a friend of freethe ions of Court in London, and for a dom. He removed in 1796, and took up short period turned his attention to the his abode ac Clapton. Unambitious in law; but not finding legal studies agreea- his sentiments and retired in his habits, ble to the bent of his mind, he exchanged he contented himself at first with the them for those of medicine. To pursue life of a private gentleman, and would, these to the greatest advantage, he enter- in all probability, have continued in reed in 1789 the University of Edinburgh. tirement, had he not been overruled by Here he passed three sessions : but be the importunities of friends to resume his ing called home to England by the pri. profession. Some medical practitioners rate concerns of his family, for one win- of the first eminence, amongst whom ter, be did not graduate till the year were the late Drs. Pitcairn and Saunders, 1793. His Thesis for his degree, printed strongly urged him to fix in the metropoat Edinburgh, in that year, bears the fol- lis. To this he objected, on the ground lowing title: “Dissertatio Medica Inau- of health, and, it may be, from feeling guralis de Colica Pictonum. Quam, An: hiinself unequal to the anxiety and effort puente Summo Numine, ex Auctoritate required to a successful London practice. Reverendi admodum Viri D. Gulielmi He was, besides, increasingly bound to Robertson, S.S.T.P., Academiæ Edin- Hackney by several valuable friendships ; burgenæ Præfecti, necnon Amplissimi and here accordingly, in compliance with Senatus Academici Consensu, et nobi. the wishes of many, he again took up his lissimæ Facultatis Medicæ Decreto ; pro professional character, in the year 1804 ; Grada Doctoris, summisque in Medicina and the event proved that his decision Honoribus ac Privilegiis rite et legitime was wisely formed, for his practice soon

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