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work for me to undertake ; neither does understand French. On Saturday do I ever mean to trouble the world early I employed a servant to seek at with any of my scribblings, and least London, who was as unsuccessful that of all with translations, (which is or- day as I have been here. In Paul's dinarily but the spoiling of good Church-yard it was not to be found books ;
the robbing of others without ready bound. Always he hath this enriching one's-self); but if you will morning borrowed it for me, and I appoint ine any chapters of it which have it here; it is Mr. Bates' book. may be of use to you, or any point As the choice you have made of me handled in it, I shall most willing- to do you this inconsiderable service ly translate them faithfully at least, was an effect of your justice, (because and as well as I can, and send them my time may indeed better be spared,) sheet by sheet to you. The whole so give me leave to understand it as an work, I think, will not be of use to effect of your friendship to me. And you; therefore you may know the if you suffer by the choice by my not contents of any who hath and under- doing it so well, I must appeal to that stands the book. Then be pleased to friendship for a pardon ; seeing, I asset me my task, and I shall speedily sure you, I do undertake it as willingly go about it. It will be to me no as any friend you have, I shall do it more trouble than to read; for I can as well as I can, and by God's assistread or write English out of French ance I shall endeavour to give you with as much ease as read or write his sense faithfully. I have been English. If, therefore, I can thus looking on his preface, and I find serve you in this or any other French him apologise for his translating or Italian book, command me freely; Basileus, King, (where an Emperor for Spanish books I shall also make a is meant,) and ispevs, sacerdot. This shift. This offer is to compliment, way will be more tolerable in me, for I shall be most really pleased to and therefore I mean to take it, that be employed by you. By being thus is, not to trouble myself nor you with an amanuensis to you, I shall be more polishing the English of it, but squarely useful than any other way I can pro- to give you the author's true meaning pose; besides, my respects to you are in any intelligible word which suits it so real, and so above all compliment, best, and which first venerit in buccam. that it shall be a great satisfaction tó Neither will I spare the English lanme in this or any other way to witness guage more than Blondel hath done inyself, Sir, a true 'honourer of you, the French : where he renders Sacerand
dot, I will do so too, (for I am sure it “ Your most affectionate, real is as good English as it is French); friend and servant,
in a word, I write for you; if I make “ LAUDERDAILL. it intelligible to you, I hope you will Windsor Castle, 17th August, 1658.
excuse me if I do not care for polishing “ To the Rev. and much-honoured
my English. Before I saw ihe book
I did intend to have followed your
method, but now I will do quite con-
trary. For in the last place you desire
and seeing I find it well printed, I
will in the first place translate the “Windsor Castle, 20th Sept. 1658. send to London translated this week.
contents, which I shall, God willing, “ Reverend and much-honoured, And while I am expecting what chap
“ Yours of the 7th came to my ters or sections you will choose as most hands on Thursday the 16th late; and proper for the purpose, I shall be the diligence I have used since to going on in satisfying your other two procure the book, in order to my queries. But when you have the conobeying you, hath been the reason of tents, I shall entreat you to pitch on my delaying iny answer. Friday was the sections which you are most curispent in seeking for the book at Eton, ous to be satisfied 'in, and I shall do and I was amazed not to find it in them first. Be confident I shall be as soine good libraries, especially seeing diligent as I can, and therefore I shall one of the owners of a very good one wish you may not put out your book
Letters to and from Richard Baxter.
261 till you have what you desire out of and the mass to be a propitiatory Blondel. Spare not my pains, and use sacrifice for living and dead, if these nothing to me like compliment; I am be Popery. I have looked but an hour a plain man, and be assured of this into it. It is set out by an excommugreat truth, that I honour you so nicate Scots Bishop, now living in really, that I am hugely pleased to do Edinburgh under the shadow of the you service, and I will vie with any English army. If you be called on body in my respects to you. Nay, I any more, this book will help to intend more; there is a French book, justify your charge. I intended to in two volumes, folio, entitled, “ of have told you how I have escaped a the Liberties of the Gallican Church;' very uneasy remove_lately, but this is it is above twelve years since I saw it, too long already. Be pleased to tell but I have heard it exceedingly com
me how I shall address your papers to mended; and if I be not inistaken, you; and direct mine to be left with there are many
authentic testimonies Peter Cuninghame, at his house in in it against the Pope's usurped power. Duke Street, near Lincoln's Inn Fields, It was written, as I remember, by a London, and they will come safe, i French President, and when I was a hope, and speedily to, dealer in books, (for now I am but for small ware,) it was very dear, which “ Your true friend and servant, spoke it much esteemed. I have also
“LAUDERDAILL. sent to London for those two volumes,
To the Reverend my muchand at idle hours I shall run over the honoured Friend, contents of them, and acquaint you “ Mr. Richard Baxter, with thein. For I desire that you may “ Minister of the Gospel have all the helps you can before your
“ At Kiderminster.” book comes out; you may expect
" (In Birmingham Post.)" answers, and therefore do not hasten. Pardon ine if I be not so quick as
LETTER III. you expect, and believe it I shall
« Reverend and much-honoured, strive to conquer my natural laziness.
“I have read your answser to Pierce, “ You shall here receive the conwherein you fully satisfy me of Gro- tents of that book. I have been as tius being a Papist. I was at Paris diligent as I could in hastening it to acquainted with Grotius; he was there you, for I shall do no more until I Embassador for Sweden in the year hear from you. Now you will easily 1637, and though I was then very know what is in the book, and you young, yet some visits passed among can better choose what is fit for you. us. My discourse with him was only Be pleased, therefore, to send me in Humanities, but I remember well word what section you pitch on : do he was then esteemed such a Papist but design the chapter, the section as you call Cassandrian, and so did and the heads of it, (according as it Cordesius esteem him, who was a is here,) and I shall with all the speed priest. The owner of that great I can send it to you. Blondel, in his library, now printed in his name, with Preface, gives his reasons why in dealhim I was also acquainted : he was a ing with "Card. Perron he begun with great admirer of Grotius, an eminent the second part of his book. Ist. enemy to Jesuits, and a moderate Because that was the most elaborate, French Papist. This opposition of most cried up and fullest of collections Mr. Pierce makes me expect you will beyond all the rest of the reply. 2dly. have more from that sort of men; and For vindication of the honour of Jesus therefore to justify what you say of Christ, the Head of the Church, whose the new-fashioned bishops of this isle, office, in the decline of the last ages, I shall desire you to send for a book hath been so much invaded. 3rdly. entitled, Considerationes Modestæ et Because most of the Papists, who Pacificæ Controversiarnm, per Gul. have dealt in controversies of late, set Forbesium, S.T. D. Episcopum Edin- themselves chiefly to maintain the inburgensem. It is newly printed at terest and the grandeur of the Pope, London. In it you will see Popery which they set within the body of enough, if the defending images, prayer religion, as Phidias did his own picfor dead, a new-fashioned purgatory ture in the centre of that buckler
which sustained the statue of Minerva. intend is faithfulness, which, by God's From hence he concludes that the grace, I shall answer for. The rest jealousy of that great and formidable you have goodness enough to pass by, interest being the principal hindrance and I do only intend it for you. of the restoring the ancient faith of the “In my last, I told
I had scaped Catholic Church, and spiritual peace a troublesome remove, and it was among her children, whosoever desires this : the day before the late Goverto procure effectually that restitution nor died, it did please his Council to must first discuss the pretensions of order me forth with to be removed to the Court of Rome, inquire into their Warwick Castle, which would have beginnings, and make all Christendom been very grievous to me to be again remark the long and dangerous conse- hurried into a strange place, and noquences. For these reasons (he says) thing is more inconvenient for a long he begins with that part of the Car- journey than want of money, (a disdinal's book' which does concern the case I have long been under,) but I primacy. And in the Preface he hints bless God my wife prevailed to get at some of the heads of his work, and the order recalled. So here I am, and gives an account of his translation of shall be ready to go on in obeying some citations (of which I gave you you. Liberty I do not expect. a touch in my last letter on Monday Together with my scribbling, relast, late). Now, let me say a word ceive a copy of a sermon, which was or two as to my translation. I shall given me by the author, who is a not repeat what I said, nor say more pretty man, my neighbour, and, I for my retaining the words sacerdot think, my good friend. He gave me and pontif, wherein I follow my ori- more copies, and allowed me to send ginal. I do the same in the word one to you, and I have many times episcopat, and for this reason, because heard him express a great respect to bishoprick in our language regards you. rather the benefice nor the office. I “ In my last, I desired you to send do retain the French word deference, me word by whose hands I might conbecause I cannot in one English word vey the papers to you, that they may express the full meaning of it, for it not miscarry, and I desired you to is not so much as submission, and it is send any letter for me to London, and more than acknowledgement. You there appoint it to be delivered to will find one harsh expression in the Peter Cunninghame, at his house in second page, cited out of Prosper, Duke Street, near Lincoln's Inn • Dungeon of Religion, but I knew Fields. This I do because your last not how to help it, for it is the same was ten days by the way, and I doubt word in the French, only dongeon in was opened, for the seal was spoiled. French signifies also the strongest
“ I am, most heartily, part of any fortress, which may serve
Sir, for a retreat in any extremity, which
“Your real friend and servant, may be the signification here intended.
“ LAUDERDAILL, In the title of the 26th chapter, I
“ Windsor Castle, translate as I found it, Letters formed, “ 23 of September, whieh it seems was one of the designations of the Communicatory Epis
“ For the Reverend and much-hotles, which anciently went betwixt noured bishop and bishop (of which Blondel,
“ Mr. Richard Baxter, in the examination of that chapter,
“ Minister of the Gospel discourses at large). You will find in
At Kiderminster." one or two places that French word, which is in Latin vestigium, translated On the Remission of Sins. by me restige, which I rather choosed
than footstep, because it is the
bark I making me so liberal an allowance
shall rather expect your pardon than of room in your valuable pages for trouble you more about such faults as my reply to Mr. Acton, (pp. 142– I have in this, and may in the rem- 147): my remaining remarks I will nant commit in my translation ; for I endeavour to compress as much as do not mind the polishing of it; all I possible. There are two points in
which those who are of your corres: the Israelites, and such, we may be pondent's way of thinking appear to assured, in an eminent degree, was me incorrect. The first is, that they found in the steps of the Christian abandon the use of scriptural terms, redemption. or even disapprove of them. An in- I have now, stated and illustrated stance of this occurs in Mr. A.'s what I apprehend to be the Scripture paper. He hesitates to acknowledge doctrine: I have represented the death any such doctrine as that of redemp- of Christ as an event appointed by tion by the blood of Christ. To reject God as being proper in order to the the use of scripture terms is in gene- forgiveness, of sins. We might now ral inexpedient, even where the sense inquire into the reasons of this apis retained; but too often it arises pointment, the grounds on which the from the sense also having been really propriety of such a transaction rested. abandoned, and the terms having there. But I will own that on this point I fore become inappropriate for express- am disposed to say but little: the ing our ideas. And this leads to my Scripture enters into no explanations; second ground of complaint, namely, our private opinions cannot therefore that the sense of the language of have much authority or much imporScripture is unduly lowered and limited tance. It was not necessary to the by your correspondent's mode of in- Jews of old to know why Jehovah terpretation. This is done by denying directed Moses to erect the serpent the immediate and proper connexion, for their deliverance; nor can it, I by Divine appointment, of the death conceive, be necessary for Christians of Christ with the forgiveness of sins, now to know the counsel of the Aland recognizing no other than such as mighty, in adopting that particular may be traced in the natural course method of redemption which the Gosof intermediate events, losing sight pel discovers.. We may be deriving of that great moral propriety which the highest spiritual improvement froin the Divine Being saw, and has declared the death of Christ, without being there to have been, in such a method ourselves aware that it was with a of reconciling the world unto himnself. view to this very end that he suffered In addition to my former arguments, for our sins. So, if a man believes, I think I may illustrate this case by he is justified by his faith; but it is another, to which our Lord also him- comparatively of little importance wheself compares it. "As Moses," said ther he knows this doctrine or not. he,“ lifted up the serpent in the However, I am far from intending to wilderness, so must the Son of Man discourage serious inquiry into the be lifted up, that whosoever believeth reasons of this Divine appointment, so on him may not perish, but have ever- far as they can be discovered. On the lasting life.” The Israelites had sin- contrary, I deem such inquiry edifying ned through their unbelief, and were and useful, and therefore in a former perishing by the bites of the venomous paper proceeded to point out those serpents; but at length it was the will salutary and seasonable lessons, natuof God to pardon them, and deliver rally flowing from the death of Christ, them from the consequences of their which I thought might, in part at transgression. A brazen image of the least, have been the grounds on which fatal reptile was ordered to be raised Infinite Wisdom adopted this method on higli, that whoever had faith to of reconciliation. But neither in this regard it might be saved. Vainly have I been so fortunate as to satisfy shall we in this case endeavour to trace your worthy, correspondent. I ain any efficacy that such a means could greatly surprised, 1 inust own, that have had towards their forgiveness; he should find a difficulty in admitting we may safely say that it had no that such an event as the death of natural efficacy whatever-none was Christ tended to establish the Divine wanted; the forgiveness of sins is a authority. When I contended that it sovereign act of God, and what he did so, I meant that it tended to prorequires is a moral propriety in the duce that fear of God which deter's circumstances and manner in which from transgression. Can it be neceshe dispenses it. Such a moral pro- sary to enlarge on such a point as priety his wisdom, no doubt, discerned this? Where then is the force of that in the mode here chosen for pardoning warning, “ Me that despised Moses's
law died without mercy; of how much have spoiled his argument. Now the sorer punishment shall he be thought death of Christ had no resemblance worthy who hath trodden under foot whatever to a religious rite: it was a the Son of God, and counted the blood judicial proceeding. a punishment inof the covenant with which he was flicted by the civil magistrate for an sanctified an unholy thing?" Or that alleged crime. To say, therefore, that other, “Pass the time of your so- it was a sacrifice strictly speaking, journing here in fear, forasmuch as ye seems to me an abuse of language. know that ye were not redeemed with Moreover, had it been literally a sacorruptible things, but with the preci- critice, it would have been a human ous blood of Christ”? Judging by my sacrifice, a thing which God abbors, own feelings, I should say that nothing But while I thus agree with those who can impress the Christian with so deep say that the death of Christ was a a dread of sin as the spectacle of the sacrifice only, in a figurative sense, I cross of Christ; and if this be the think that the force of the figure is case, how does it not maintain the not always justly apprehended. Any Divine authority? And why may not great expense is indeed sometimes this tendency be among the chief rea- called a sacrifice, as we say, “ a sacrisons for its being appointed to intro- fice of time or labour :” but the idea duce the dispensation of remission ? of expense or cost is not that, I conThere appears to me an evident moral ceive, which will satisfy the sense of fitness in such an arrangement. many passages of Scripture, and espe
There is one passage in my paper cially of the train of argument pur. on which your correspondent has sued in the Epistle to the Hebrews. animadverted, I think, not unjustly; I A sacrifice for sins was literally a cer. mean my parable, if I may call it so, tain kind of rite, appointed by God to of the father forgiving his child. Due be performed as requisite for remisconsideration would have led me to sion. Now in transferring the term see that our Lord himself had done to Christ, the leading ideas must still the same thing which I was aiming at, be retained : the death of Christ was infinitely better. The illustration í not indeed a rite, but is yet said to attempted was unsuitable, because the have been a sacrifice because it was nature of the mediation of Jesus is providentially appointed as requisite not such as occasions a moment's delay for the forgiveness of sins. This I or impediment in the reconciliation of apprehend to be the true view of the a returning peninent, but on the con- subject: but some have said that the trary, has anticipated repentance, in. sacrificial allusions of the New Testavited the sinner to return, declared ment were used merely in accommothe Father's love, and opened wide dation to Jewish ideas. This I shall the gates of mercy. In this particu- not deny ; they were the form in which lar, therefore, I willingly stand cor- the common Christian doctrine was rected, and am happy thus to derive most conveniently inculcated on the increase of light from friendly con- Jewish believers. But what of this? troversy.
The truth was the same, however ex, In the discussion of the present pressed ; and why may we not gather subject it is usual to agitate the ques- that truth as well from expressions tioui, in what sense our Lord's death primarily addressed to the Jews as was a sacrifice for sin; whether liter- from any other parts of Scripture, if ally, or only figuratively. Bishop we only take care to interpret thein Magee is of the former opinion. He correctly? But especially, when we says, “If the formal notion of a sacri- cite these passages inerely in confirfice for sin, that is, a life offered up mation of evidence derived from other in expiation, be adhered to, nothing parts, I can conceive no reasonable more can be required to constitute it objection to their testimony. I make a sacrifice.” Here I think we meet these remarks principally with a view something of that inaccuracy, if not to the Epistle io the Hebrews. The sophistry, which is so common in this writer, exclusively addressing Jews, writer. A sacrifice, literally speaking, uses language which he would not is essentially a religious 'rite. The have adopted in writing to Greeks ; writer could hardly have been unaware but still, if what he says we true, it of this ; but to have noticed it would must be so to us as spell as to them,