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he declined preaching, and removed to excuse for wilful and sinful negligence. Bath. His successor was Mr. Youatt, We can seldom attempt to produce who, in March 1812, was succeeded any favourable change in the state of by Mr. Fox, who removed to London society, without encountering more or in March 1817.

less that is unpleasant; painful oppoIn the absence of any further au- sition and misapprehensions, if not rithentic information, it may be conjec- dicule or persecution. And even when tured that Kingston, where the first these are still absent, there is much congregation is said to have assem- unthankful and, to present appearbled, is the place called also Kings- ances, fruitless labour. With whatham ; which is a field or two distant ever ardour, therefore, the young phifrom Chichester. That Mr. Predden, lanthropist may enter on the prosecuwhom Mr. Neale would touch with his tion of his schemes, however he may little finger only, paved the way by his have been animated while tasting in liberal sentiments for the introduction forethought the pleasures of benevoof what some would call greater lence, and the luxury of doing good, heresy, which was silently gaining a little real experience of the world strength under the successive ministra- will convince him that be has taken tions of Mr. Watson and Mr. Youatt; an erroneous view of the subject. so that Mr. Fox was cheered, at an Many, indeed, are the pleasures of early period of his ininistry at Chi- virtue, nor are any sweeter than those chester, by the annual meeting, of which spring from deeds of love and the Southern Unitarian Book Society compassion ; yet I apprehend that the being held tliere on the first of July, practical philanthropist will find his 1812. I have only to remark, that feelings harmonize not so well with Binderton, where the clergymen drop- the sentimental descriptions of the ped the pall, is about four miles from pleasures of virtue, as with the words Chichester; and that if you think this which encourage us to patient conticommunication suitable for your valu- nuance in well-doing, and bid us not able' monthly work, and I can glean to be weary, for that in due season any more particulars connected with we shall reap, if we faint not. This, the above persons or subject, I will then, being the true state of the case, with pleasure transmit them.

we are likely enough to entertain very J. F. willingly ideas which 'represent our

exertions as unayailing, inasmuch as

Penzance, they seem to excuse us from an irkSir,

May 14, 1823. some duty, 'and allow us to sink into THERE is a discouraging feeling, the spatly and supineness to which, acquainted who are in the habit of There are three considerations by contemplating public improvements. which, I think, we should principally It is this, that what an obscure indivi- endeavour to counteract the injurious dual can effect towards these great influence which we have been consiobjects, is so trifling and insignificant, dering. In the first place, we may so insensible and evanescent a quan- inquire whether we do not underrate tity, compared with the mighty sum the real value of our exertions. It is required, that it is not worthy of con- true, that very fow individuals can sensideration, and can never afford a suffi- sibly influence public events, opinions cient reward for much self-denial or

He that can do this exertion. From such thoughts as performs, for an individual, an imthese, two bad results are likely to mense work. Every thing involving be produced in the mind. In the first the interests of that vast and everplace, they tend to enervate virtue; succeeding multitude which constitutes for it cannot be expected that the best- the public, is a matter of great magdisposed man will persevere in bene- nitude and importance. In order to volent exertions, any longer than he estimate aright the value of individual sees before him a reasonable prospect exertions in these things, we may conof success. Without this, indeed, vir- ceive a sort of rough arithmetical tue, becoming separated from wisdom, operation. The amount of good or ceases to be venerable. But, in the evil produced is to be divided fairly second place, such thoughts form an among all those who have contributed

or manners.

Hints to Proselytists.

331 to it. The number by which we divide To discern the general tendencies of will of course be great, but so will actions is not difficult, but to calculate also the dividend; and on this account, what may be expedient in a particular the quotient resulting to each indivi- case, considered alone, is commonly dual may be much larger than he beyond human sagacity. It is safer, would expect. Let us suppose, for then, for man to adopt rules of coninstance, that the country is on the duct which he is assured will answer, eve of a war, and that the actual oc- on the whole, than to trust to his currence of this war or not, is likely judgment in particular cases. Moreto depend on the expression of public over, it is to the adoption of general, opinion. If the war should really take principles, that we owe the confidence place, it is probable a hundred thou- and mutual understanding which are sand bunnan lives may be wilfully and the foundations of society. The same violently destroyed, that is, a hundred is the foundation of morality, and its thousand murders may be committed; iinportant connexion with the present for this is the crime for which the subject we have already noticed. aggressing party has to answer, in Lastly, whether our influence on relation to every man that falls in public affairs be great or small, we battle, or by any other unnatural death. are still bound to use it faithfully, beA hundred thousand murders may, cause it is our proper personal duty therefore, become chargeable on the so to do. If it is right that a certain country, if a war be unjustifiably un- thing should be done, we cannot be dertaken. And among how many in- absolved from performing our part in dividuals is this awful amount of guilt it, because numbers must co-operate to be divided? We have not here to before it can be accomplished. We consider the whole population, be- liave to answer for our own part, and cause the great majority, from various neither more nor less.

But if we causes, exercise absolutely no voice neglect this part, it cannot be said nor influence in the matter. When that we shall only share the guilt, nor We select from the mass that number if perform this part shall we only only who take an active interest in share the merit. The whole guilt or political subjects, though without any merit of the whole transaction attaches official character, how inany hundred to every agent. If a thousand join in thousands of such there may be, I a murder, cach is guilty of the entire will not preterid to say, but I think it crime; and witli this remark, which is plain, that a very awful share in the seems to suggest very important recausing of a murder may be assigna- flections, I will conclude. ble to each. The same kind of rea

T. F. B. soning will apply with equal force to all other instances of public good and

Bath, evil, whether in religion, politics or Sir,

May 30, 1823. manners, and may convince us, that VOUR valuable Miscellany frewe have more in our power than we quently contains very interesting might at first suppose.

communications concerning the state In the second place, we are to con- and progress of Unitarianism, a cause sider not merely the effects of an in-" to which I sincerely wish success, bedividual action, but of the principle' lieving it to be that of truth; but the which we admit, and, tlrerefore, sanc- more earnestly I wish it to prevail, the tion. The part which a single man more I am concerned to observe the can contribute to the common weal,' manner which some of its advocates must indeed be small; but the prin- have adopted in their zeal for its difciple that cach man is bonnd to do his fusion. Zeal is good or bad in its part, if admitted and observed, will consequences according as it is emsecure all that can be desired. The ployed by wisdom and knowledge, or effects of general principles are some- stirred up by injudicious, though wellthing very different from those of indi- meaning persons, who mistake the vidual actions, such' principles are excitement which may be occasioned rules deduced from the general and by many external circumstances for average tendency of actions, and, that real, permanent conviction, which therefore, they will not fail to produce can proceed only froin sober thought their intended effect, in the long run. and seriously repeated examination.

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This process inay not rapidly increase Considered with reference to their the number of converts, but if slow object, they seem in Scripture to be diand quiet in its operation, it is pro- vided into four classes, which have the gressive, it is not that which appeareth following names in the Old Testament,

, away.

Well-directed zeal will not Latin, “ Holocaustum, sacrificia sacomplain of finding nothing to do if lutaria, sacrificium pro peccato, et sain this way its efforts are employed in crificium pro noxâ,” in English, the promoting Christian truth : it would, burnt-offering, the peace-offering, sinindeed, check much ebullition, it would offering, and trespass or guilt-offerentirely check all vaunting expressions, ings. all contemptuous epithets, all invi- Now from merely inspecting this dious comparisons with others whose classification of Jewish sacrifices, we creed is different, all which is incon- are naturally led to conclude, that as sistent with Christian charity and gen- sacrifices belonging to the two latter tlemanly courtesy. It is true, Uni- classes were specially provided for the tarians do not say, “stand off, we expiation of sin, the rest were apare holier than thou;” but even the pointed for other purposes; and, in civility of saying, “Come to us, we are particular, that sacrifices of the class of viser than thou,” may be construed as peace-offerings, with its subdivisions, savouring of intellectual pride, and (called (Lev. vii.] 177101 naga 773, dispose some to decline accepting the namely, the vow, the voluntary offerinvitation.

ing and the thanksgiving,) were in : I have no objection to doctrinal dis- no degree intended for expiatory sacussion, or to doctrinal discourses crifices.* from the pulpit, when not so frequent Now, if the sacrifice itself had no as to endanger thc engrossing the at- expiatory import, no part of the ceretention, or at least ahating it to the monial which attended the sacrifice practical duties of the Christian life. could have such import; but, the imThe discipline of the heart, the regu- position of hands on the head of the lation of the conduct, “ denying un- victim, and the shedding and sprinkling godliness and worldly lusts,” is harder of its blood, were constituent parts of work than the acquirement of specu- the ceremonial of peace-offerings ;. lative knowledge ; and the relish ex- hence it seems reasonable to infer, that cited by the latter may produce a these ceremonies cannot in themselves disrelish for “ dry morality." be considered as proofs of an expiatory

It has been said that the Unitarian's or vicarious import, in any connexion is a scanty creed: happily, no charge in which they occur. We mean, that can be brought against it as leading supposing they might admit of such its professors to satisfy thenıselves import, in cases where there was other with a scanty morality.

evidence for its existence, they can-
A CONSTANT. READER.

not, in defect of such evidence, be
adduced as in themselves proving a

vicarious import. An Essay on the Nature and Design

And here it may be well to remark of Sacrifices under the Mosaic Laro,

a notable instance of sophistry which and the Influence which Jewish

is to be met with, upon this very Ideas and Language concerning point, in the work of a modern chamthem had upon the Language of the New Testament. By the late Rev. views of sacrifice and atonement, whose

pion, for what are called orthodox Henry Turner.

fortune it has hitherto been to have (Continued from p. 275.) many admirers and few opponents. Design of the Mosaic Sacrifices.

“In order to prove," (says Dr. T now follows that we determine,

* This class includes so large a portion saic records, and in general from the of the Jewish sacrifices, that it has apwritings of the Old Testament, what propriated to itself the most general terin may be conceived to bave been the that is used in relation to animal sacridesign and object of sacrifices under fices, viz. Binas. Outram, lib. i. c. X. the law of Moses.

§ 1,

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An Essay on the Nature and Design of Sacrifices under the Mosaic Law. 333 Magee, Discourses, &c.,) “ that the He next states that Maimonides ceremony of the imposition of hands, concurs in this opinion, so far at was not attended with the acknow- least as appears from the following ledgment of sin in sacrifices not pia. passage :

** Ambas quisque manus cular, it is necessary to shew that in suas inter bina victimæ cornua ponit, none but piacular was there any re- et peccatum confitetur juxta victiference whatever to sin. In these, mam pro peccato noxamque juxta indeed, the pardon of sin is the ap- victimam pro noxâ cæsamn, ac juxta propriate object; but that in our ex- holocaustum confitetur ea, quæ contra pressions of praise and thanksgiving, leges jubentes facta sunt, vel quidem acknowledgment should be made of contra leges vetantes, quibus jubentes our own unworthiness, and of the implicantur.”. “ Juxta vietimas salugeneral desert of sin, seems not unrea- tares, ut mihi videtur, non confitetur sonable. That even the eucharistic [peccata sua] sed Dei laudes commesacrifices (the peace-offerings) then inorat.” Thus Maimonides gives it might bear some relation to sin, espe- as his opinion that, with respect to cially if animal sacrifice, in its first peace-offerings, no confessions of sins, institution, was designed to represent but praises of God, were uttered at the that death which had been brought in ceremony of the inposition of hands. by sin, will, perhaps, not be deemed Thus it appears far from obvious, improbable. And in confirmation of from this passage of Dr. Outram, that this it is certain that the Jewish Doc- the Jewish Doctors combine in all tors combine, in all cases, confession cases confessions of sins with impoof sins with imposition of hands.” sition of hands : for the words themThe reference here is to Dr. Outram, selves are ambiguous; and MaimoDe Sacr. lib. i. c. xv. § 8.

nides advances a directly different Now, what Dr. Outram states is opinion. this. It appears that the imposition Dr. Magee proceeds (in the place of hands was in all cases a method of before cited) to argue in the following prayer for good, or imprecation of manner: “But be this as it may, it evil, or both. Hence it arises that is at all events clear that if the ceresolemn prayers are currently desig- mony be admitted to have had in each nated by the single word Xespoleria kind of sacrifice the signification suit(“ the laying on of hands,”) where no ed to its peculiar nature and intention, mention is made of any prayers in ex- it necessarily follows, that when used press words. (Deut. xxxiv. 9; 1 Tim. in piacular sacrifices it implies a reV. 22.) So that the same law which ference to and acknowledgment of prescribes imposition of hands on the sin.” Or, as he explains himself a head of the victim, may be judged to few sentences after,

that this cerehave tacitly prescribed that the pre- mony was intended symbolically to senting of prayers should be part of the transfer the sins of the offerer on the sacrifice. Hence the saying of Aaron head of the victim." Ben Chajim,

Why, if there were piacular sacri.

, “ Ubi non est [peccatorum] confes. were symbolically transferred to the sin,* ibi non est impositio manuum, victim, then this ceremony might exquia manuum impositio ad confesó press such transfer, but this is the sionem pertinet." 'Where there is no very thing to be proved; and the confession there is no imposition of question is, not having other proof hands, because the imposition of hands of the vicarious import of sacrifices, appertains to confession.

does the use of this ceremony afford such proof? We say, clearly not,

for it is introduced into the ceremonial * Dr. Outranı here inserts “ peccato. of the eucharistic sacrifices, which had rum; but it does not appear that the no reference to sin, and could not, word '171, requires this insertion, as therefore, receive such reference from from the Lexicons, and various passages this ceremony; the imposition of of Scripture, it is evident that the word is hands, therefore, on the head of the often used for confessions or ascriptions, victim was not calculated to confer a of praise.

vicarious import on sacrifices; and in

deféct of other proof, itself furnishes were emblematical of the bearing away none of the existence of any such im- of sin. port.

But since in peace-offerings, there Dr. Magee takes for granted the is no evidence of there being a similar thing to be proved. It is obvious that confession of sins, over the head of this ceremony of the laying on of the victim, and the animal was not hands was used on occasions of various sent away into the wilderness, but and widely different import.“ Thus sacrificed upon the altar, the cerein the case of the blasphemer, thosemony of the scape-goat can prove who had borne witness against him, laid nothing with respect to the vicarious their hands upon his head, (Lev. xxiv. import of sacrifices; and it is not 14,) and were wont (as Maimonides more reasonable to argue for it from informs us) to devote him to death, in this instance, than it would be to argue these words, &c. InkW 7*R72 787, that the laying on of hands bestows a * Sanguis tuus in caput tuum re- vicarious import upon the punishment cidat, tuo enim merito periisti. On of the blasphemer; or that the patrithe contrary, the patriarch Jacob, arch Jacob did, in a vicarious sense, laying his hands on the heads of lay his hands upon the heads of Ephraim and Manasseh, at the same Ephraim and Manasseh. time commended thens in his prayers It admits of question whether this to God. And Moses, by the same Jewish rite of the scape-goat, (whicle ceremony, committing the govern. was no sacrifice since it was sent away ment to Joshua, would doubtless pray alive into the wilderness,) does in any for the increase of divine graces, that degree favour the doctrine of the vicahe might be competent to so great an rious import of sin. For the animal office. Again, the high-priest, in a is not treated as if there was any religious ceremony, laying hands even guilt (symbolically) inhering in it; it upon a brute animal void of reason, is merely a mechanical, unconscious viz. the goat that was to be led into instrument in the business of bearing the desert, at the same time confessed away sin ; and one cannot well regard upon his head the sins of the people!" the ceremony in any other light than Now the only rational method of de- as a palpable way of representing to termining the signification which this a rude people of gross understanding, ceremony must necessarily have in all an assurance of the forgiveness and cases, (for this is the least question,) removal of sin. is to fix upon something common to How this pardon was granted reall the instances in which it is found mains as much as ever a question to to occur.

be determined by other evidence. Proceeding' according to this obvi- But the ceremony of the scape-goat ous maxim, it appears that the laying is applied in another way to prove the on of hands was always accompanied vicarious import of several of the by a solemn address to the Supreme Jewish sacrifices. That the argument Being, and that it was a method of may have full justice done to it, we desiguating such things as were either will state it in the words of Dr. Outdevoted to death or commended to ram. (De Sacr. lib. i. cap. xxi. $ 3.) divine favour, or, in short; designated He premises “ that the sacred writers to any important office or sacred use. wont to speak of unexpiated

To apply this to the case of the crimes, as of a foul stain polluting the scape-goat. It is expressly said, that guilty. And so it arises that the exthe high-priest laying both his hands piation of sins is often expressed by on the head of the goat, was to con- words equivalent to cleansing. Such fess over him all the iniquities of the as in Greek, καθαρισμος and καθαριζειν, children of Israel, putting their sins and in Hebrew, 103 and 770, words upon its head. The laying on of which the Greek interpreters somehands was merely to designate the ob- times translate by katapiselv. Next, ject of the ceremony, and to express let it be considered that on the appoins a solemn religious address; it was the ted day of expiation the sins of the verbal confession of prayers, and the people of Israel were transferred in a' giving away the goat in charge to be symbolical manner to the goat, which carried away into the wilderness, that was to be led into the wilderness.

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