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LETTEK I.

was or could ever be the author of Eltham, June 19, 1823.

such productions : and that he should

have entered into controversy with Dr. Sir,

Marshman, and have converted either I have perused with interest the him or any missionary of good talent several papers respecting Rammohun to Unitarianism or any other faith, is Roy, which have occasionally appear. still more wonderful and incredible to ed in the Monthly Repository, and him. being desirous to further the object of He regards the whole as either a their insertion therein, am induced to fabrication by persons whose zeal to trouble you with what follows. further their objects has carried them

A relation of mine, who for some to the length of imposing upon the years filled a high and important of- ignorance of people in this country ficial situation at Calcutta, was ac- their own productions, with the adquainted with Rammohun Roy, and I ditional weight which would be due to lately read to him the preface of “The them from the pen of_a native author Precepts of Jesus a [the] Guide to of them; or that if Rammohun Roy [Peace and] Happiness,” which bears have any hand in them, he must have his name as its author. My relation received assistance from Europeans, observed first, that it is not fact (as equivalent to their having written them asserted in pages 2 and 3 of the pre- almost entirely themselves. face), that “ the knowledge of San- As to the character of Rammohun, scrit is indispensable to the caste and my relation regards him as a man profession of a Brahmin,” and said who would not scruple for a suffithat thousands of Brahmins were alto- cient bribe, to lend his name to any gether ignorant of it.

publication whatever. “ The Dewan,” he said, “is not,” Now, Sir, the high estimation in (as described in page 3), “chief native which I hold the talents and integrity officer in the collection of the reve- of my relation obliges me to listen to nues, but a kind of steward to a pri- his testimony. Ač the same time, I vate gentleman.”

cannot in any inanner satisfactorily About the time when he is said to account for the Baptist Missionary Sohave become Dewan, i. e. in 1814 or ciety having acknowledged and coma little earlier, my relation knew him, plained of the conversion of their and says that he possessed but the missionary, (Dr. Marshman, I believe; merest smattering of the English lan- is it not?) by Rammohun Roy, on guage, and though he allows him to any other ground excepting that of have been perhaps the most intelli- his being really the author of the gent of all the natives with whom he works attributed to him. For the ever conversed or had any thing to missionary could not be deceived in do, considers his intellect as far below this. His own jealousy as well as the standard of a moderate European that of the Society of Baptists would intellect, and altogether decidedly un- have detected the above-mentioned imequal to the acquirement of our lan- position had it been attempted. “But guage in the degree of perfection who" (urges my friend) “are the perwhich is necessary for criticism, trans- sons that report these extraordinary lation, or controversy. His age too, facts, that I should yield my owa at the time, was beyond the period experience to their testimony? Why when people acquire languages with am I to believe an incredible story facility. And moreover, he did not upon the testimony of anonymous appear to him to have a remarkable writers in a periodical pamphlet ?” talent for their acquisition, but the If this testimony can be better escontrary; and, considering his advan- tablished than it has hitherto been ; tages, spoke our language much worse if any more particular proof that than he ought, or might reasonably Rammohun Roy is the real and not have been expected, to do. Consi- the fictitious author of the writings dering these circumstances, and how attributed to him ; that he is of resoon afterwards he is represented as spectable character; that he really did the author of several learned works, convert the missionary; and that a it is incredible to my relation that he missionary was in fact converted by a

1

Correspondence with the Editor relating to Rammohun Roy. 441 native, and that native was Rammohun ers, as the terin Charter by which Roy; and, lastly, if those who report they hold their monopoly of that these things to the people at large in country. this country, can, better than has I do not know what was the prohitherto been done, satisfy such as ficiency of Rammohun Roy in English my relation, who oppose their own in 1815; but I can declare that in experience to their report, that what June 1818, the month of my first they allege is true; and if you, can arrival in Calcutta, I was introduced do this or get it done, you will much to Rammohun Roy, at the house of oblige a constant reader, and perhaps Mr. Eneas Mackintosh, (now in Lonenable him to turn such interesting don,) and was surprised at the unfacts to some useful account.

paralleled accuracy of his language, T. L. never having before heard any foreign

er of Asiatic birth speak so well, and Letter II.

esteeming his fine choice of words as

worthy the imitation even of English68, Baker-St. Portman-Sqr. men. My first hour's conversation Sir, Aug. 4, 1823.

with him was in Arabic, that being I have read the letter addressed to the oriental language most familiar to the Editor of the Monthly Repository, me, and not knowing at first that he signed T. L. dated from Elthain, re- spoke English with ease and fluency; lating to Rammohun Roy, and I have but accident changing our discourse great pleasure in offering you the fol. to English, I was delighted and surlowing brief remarks on the several prised at his perfection in this tongue. points alluded to, giving you entire I know, moreover, that he is a proliberty to use my information or au- found scholar in Sunskrit, Bengalleethority in any way that may seem to Arabic, Persian, and Hinduee, all of you inost likely to be productive of which he writes and speaks with fa. benefit.

cility. In English, he is competent It certainly is not fact that the to converse freely on the most abstruse knowledge of Sanscrit is necessary to subjects, and to argue more closely the custe of a Brahmin; because that and coherently than most men that Í is a distinction which lie derives from know. His attention has also been his birth, and is neither dependent on lately turned to Hebrew and Greek, knowledge nor virtue, since idiots and for literary purposes, and to French villains may be as pure Brahmins as for colloquial intercourse. To reprethe most learned or the most upright. sent a man with such acquirements at But it is fact that a knowledge of the age of thirty-five (for he cannot Sanscrit is indispensable to the pro- be much more) as deficient in intelfession of a Brahmin, because all his lect, must either be the work of expriestly offices are performed and treme ignorance, or malice, or both. uttered in that tongue; and although For myself, I have no hesitation in there are thousands of Brahmins born declaring that I could not naine twenty that are ignorant of Sanscrit, there Englishmen in India, whose intelleccan be none of these in the profession lectual endowments I thought even as officiating Brahmins,- for they equal to his own, although I have would be unable to discharge the come in contact with most of the commonest portions of their duty. distinguished men in the country. He

The Dewan is the chief native is in short one of the wonders of the officer in the collection of the revenue, present age, and requires only to be although that title is also sometimes, known, to excite admiration and esbut not always, given to the stewards teem. of private gentlemen—the titles for It is barely possible that some of these last, being more frequently his earlier works might have been Banian and Sircar. I can scarcely revised by an English pen; but I am imagine any one long resident in India convinced that if ever such revisions to be so ignorant as to dispute this; were made, they must have been for the great act of the Mogul, by merely literal. The subject was all which the Dewannee, or collection of his own. And as to his later writings, the revenue, was granted to the Com- his controversies with the Missionpany, is as familiar to all India read. aries of Serampore, I do not believe

VOL. XVIII.

31

a Unitarian Clapel and an Unitarian W Tengerenreceived Dr. Jones"

that they have one word in them which the Unitarian Chapel-the Unitarian is not wholly his own. The Mission- Press and the expense of his own ary converted by Rammohun Roy publications, besides other charitable from Trinitarianism to Unitarianism, acts, out of a private fortnne, of is a Mr. Adam, and not Dr. Marsh- which he devotes more than one-third man : which Mr. Adam was originally to acts of the purest philanthropy and deputed, it is understood, from the benevolence. mission at Serampore, to discuss per- I am ready to meet any man living sonally with Rammohun Roy the se- and confirm verbally what I here comveral points of difference between their mit to writing for your use; for nocreeds, and being honestly bent on thing will delight me more than to do the search of truth, had the frankness justice to one whom I honour and to confess the arguments of his oppo- esteem as I do this excellent Indian nent to be convincing. Mr. Adam Christian and Philosopher. accordingly separated from the Bap

J. S. BUCKINGHAM. tist Mission at Serampore, and in conjunction with Rammohun Roy, and others of the same faith, established

SIR,

Pencance.

WITH great pleasure I at Press in Calcutta. The late Bishop length received of Calcutta, on bearing of Mr. Adam's long-promised Greek and English embracing Unitarianism, applied to Lexicon, and 1 may be allowed to the Advocate-General, Mr. Spankie, congratulate the lovers of sound learnto know if it would not be possible to ing on this valuable accession to their have Mr. Adam banished for preaching treasures, and to express my sense this heresy, in a land where idolaters, of the obligation we are all under to widow-burners, and slayers of human the anthor for his excellent and imsacrifices, are allowed to preach their portant work. It is not, however, the degrading doctrines and practise their object of this paper to enter into abominable rites with impunity! Mr. any general review of the merits of . Spankie then replied that by the law this Lexicon, but only to offer a few as it applied to India, ang man might observations on one particular part be banished for any thing which the of the plan which the learned author Governor-General might deem suf- has deemed it best to adopt. This is ficient cause : but he thought the day thus stated by himself, in the preface: was past when it would be safe to “ The accents I have entirely omitted, banish a man for his opinions on re- as defacing the native simplicity of ligion, and there the matter ended. the language, and as requiring much

If Rammohun Roy had been the sacrifice of expense and labour, withwretch which the friend of T. L. sup- out bringing in return the smallest poses, he might have had abundant advantage to the learner.”. Believing opportunities of receiving rewards from as

as I do that there can be no reasonthe Indian Government, in the shape able doubt that the Greek accents, of offices and appointments, for his as now appearing in our books, remere neutrality; but being as remark- present the genuine and ancient proable for his integrity as he is for his nunciation of the language, and knowattainments, he has, during the five ing from experience their great utility years that I have known him, and in giving a ready clue to the sense that too most intimately and confiden- of numberless passages, I may say, tially, pursued his arduous task of without affectation, that I felt grieved endeavouring to improve his country to see this author's respectable name men, to beat down superstition, and going to increase the prejudice which to hasten as much as possible those many entertain against them. I have reforms in the religion and govern- been long used, in reading Greek, to ment of his native land, of which place the accent of every word where both stand in almost equal need. He it is marked in our printed copies; has done all this, to the great detri- and know that this practice not only ment of his private interests, being does not corrupt the quantity, but rewarded by the coldness and jealousy favours the euphony of the language of all the great functionaries of Church in every respect, as many of my and State in India, and supporting friends have often acknowledged to

Argument in favour of the Greek Accents.

443

me. But not to insist on my own he says, “is not spoken with the same instance, I will quote the words of tone, (Táois) but one with an acute, the celebrated Greek Professor Cheke, (oferc.,) another with a grave, (Bapžian) of Cambridge. He says, “I can as- a third with both. And of those sert, not indeed of myself, for that which have both tones, there are some might seem arrogant, but of many which have the grave blended into who at this day are studious of the the acute, on the same syllable, and Greek tongue, that they have so well these we call circumflexed (TEPICTWattaiued this method of pronunciation, Hévas); and others which have each that they can express both the true tone in separate places, by itself, presound of the letters, and the quantity, serving its own nature. And in diand the accent, with the greatest syllables there is no middle space sweetness and ease." Such being the between the acute and the grave; but case, I request, Mr. Editor, that you in polysyllables, of what sort soever, will allow me to occupy a few of your there is one syllable with the acute columns in an attempt to vindicate tone in the midst of many grave.” and explain these monuments of an- Dionys. Tepi Eur@es. Sect. 11." Both cient literature, which appear to me these circumstances of quantity and the beauty and perfection of a lan- accent are inseparable from the nature guage which is in other respects also of human speech, and are therefore the most beautiful and perfect that common to all languages. Yet all we have known.

languages have not made exactly the The syllables of words, as uttered same use of thein, nor distinguished in connected speech, receive in ad- them with equal elearness. In some dition to the articulate sounds con- languages, as in English, the differveyed by their letters, two distinct ence of the time or quantity of difproperties or accidents, viz. time and ferent syllables is not so considerable tone, or in other words, quantity and as in others, such as the Latin and accent. From these arise what the Greek. In these tongues we well ancients called hoywdés mi méros, a cer- know that all the syllables were ditain music of speech, which is also vided into long and short, and that the foundation of all metrical compo- the long one was equivalent in time șition. Every syllable occupies a to two short. Our ears are certainly longer or shorter time in being pro- not accustomed to such accuracy, and nounced, and every syllable is pro- consequently the time of our sylla, nounced in a higher or lower note on bles is undetermined and inconstant. the musical scale. In a word of many On the contrary, the English accents syllables every one has therefore a are marked very strongly, the accertain tone; but at the same time, cented syllable in every word being there is in every word one syllable much elevated above the others, as which is pronounced with a marked well as uttered more forcibly. In the elevation above all the rest, and this languages of antiquity, we have reason characteristic elevation not only dis- to believe, the accent was not so tinguishes the word from others, but, prominent. being variously modified in different Now it is in the nature of the cases, is of the greatest use in giving human ear, in relation to speech, to the word its due significancy in the count the syllables as they pass, and sentence. Although, therefore, every to desire a recurrence, at intervals syllable of a word is uttered with more or less regular, of syllables some tone, yet there is one which presenting some one certain distincbears a inore eminent tone than the tion. When this recurrence of marked rest, and this tone is called, the tone syllables is contrived in a or accent of the word; this syllable more regular than prevails in coinmon is called the accented syllable: its speech, it constitutes metre or versifitone is also called acute to distinguish cation. Now we find by observing it from those of the other syllables, different languages, that there are two which being lower are therefore called characters by which the ear is pleased grave. This is no new doctrine. to distinguish the recurring syllables, Dionysios of Halicarnassos, an emi- time and tone. They are either long nent Greek critic of the Augustan age, syllables, or accented syllables, or explains it at length. “ Every word,” both at once. In general they appear

manner

to possess more or less of both these

The same thing is attested by Arisdistinctions combined together ; yet totle, where speaking of the letters, so combined that in any given lan- he observes, « Ταύτα διαφέρει, και guage the one of the other is found δασύτητι, και ψιλότητι, και μήκει, και to predominate and to regulate the βραχύτητι έτι δε και οξύτητι και βαρύτητα verse. And in this we may see ex- και τω μέσω περί ών καθ' έκαστον εν actly what the difference is between Tois HET piros a pornke Jewpz7v. Poetics, the ancient and the modern poetry. cap. 20. “They differ in being either It is this : in the former the time, in with or without aspiration, in being the latter the tone, is the essential long or short, in being acute or grave, distinction of the recurrent syllables. or between both : and to each of these In a Greek lambic verse, for instance, things it is proper to pay attention in the essential condition is, that long versification." "We see by this unsyllables shall follow short ones alter- questionable authority, that the rhythm nately, allowing certain exceptions. of ancient Greek verse depended both Such is the nature of the following on its quantities and on its accents, line,

though undoubtedly the former were Ω τέκνα, Κάδμου του πάλαι νέα τροφή. what was most essential to its consti

tution. In this line we may observe that the even places are all occupied by long will prepare us to understand the na

These preliminary considerations syllables: the odd places generally by short : but the fourth and fifth ture and origin of the great charge

which is brought against the Greek even places, though long, are not accented. In what is called an English the quantity. This case admits of a

accents, namely, that they corrupt lambic verse, we shall find that it is essential that the even places be in simple explanation. It depends on general accented, but not that they that in English the quantity of sylla

an abuse of terms. We have observed should be long : as in this line,

bles is very imperfectly distinguished; And made a widow happy for a whim.

it is a thing little regarded, and alGreek verse is therefore constituted the a good ear must always be chicfly by the time, and English by the sensible of it, in some degree, yet accent: but this must not be so unders were it not for our acquaintance with stood, as if either the English was ancient literature, quantity would wholly independent of the time, or probably hardly have been mentioned the Greek of the accent ; for as we among us. Accent alone almost enhave before observed, in either lan- grosses our attention, both in prose guage both must conspire to make and verse. Now we commonly read harmonious verse. The English line Latin and Greek just in the same just quoted, for want of quantity, manner as we do our own tongue, and sounds poor and meagre, as ive may in reality pay just as much attention judge by contrasting it with one to the quantity in pronouncing the where the times are more duly ob- one as the other. This assertion may served : such as this,

at first be thought somewhat paradoxAll are but parts of one stupendous whole. ical, but I am sure that if the matter

is duly considered, it will be found to In like manner it is probable, though be just. It is true that no point is not quite so easily proved, that those

more insisted upon in our schools Greek verses were, even by the an- than what is called minding the quancients, judged most pleasing, in which tity. But I ask, is the point which is a considerable proportion of the long really insisted upon, an observance of syllables were distinguished also by the proper time of the syllables? Is the accent. At any rate, there can be it that care be taken to give to each no doubt that the position of the long syllable twice the time that is accents was not at all a matter of given to a short one? By no means, indifference. The following Latin line, nor any thing like it. Nothing can is remarked for its awkward rbythm ;

be more foreign to the ideas both of and this it owes to malposition of the

masters and scholars. In one word, accents, for there is no fault in the the only thing that is attended to is scanning

to place the accent aright. If a poor Tali concidit impiger ictus vulnerc Cæsar. school-boy should read facies instead

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