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sure and pain, become indispensably that increase of knowledge would take necessary; and these effects can only place, the same rule would, I doubt arise from contending or opposite not, shew us the exact increase of causes, one of which necessarily iden. our happiness; and which inay there. tities itself with what we call evil. fore be so far beyond our present Mr. E. asks, “ How can we be sure conceptions, as to appear absolutely of enjoying (upalloyed) happiness or infinite, inasmuch as it defies our utperfection in heaven itself? For when most calculation ; but infinite it never there, we shall still be created beings, can be for the reasons before asand as finite then as we are now, con- signed. sequently as liable to miscalculation, With respect to “ unmixed happi. failure and error.” Now, so far from ness being promised to the righteous being sure of unchangeable happiness in the gospel,” I would only observe, in a future state, my hypothesis proves that it is impossible that any word in that it is only on the ground of our any language can be of such extensive being sure that no such inactive stag- and unlimited meaning, as to .comnant happiness can exist, that we can prise the promise of infinite happiness, expect any, happiness there at all; either in degree or duration, (and since the happiness of all created unmixed happiness can be no less beings necessarily supposes change, than infinite, since as language cantransition, fluctuation, pursuit, hope not exceed idea, and seldom, indeed, and fear, grounded of course upon comes up to it; and as we have no contending or opposite causes, one of idea whatever of infinity, all expreswhich must be evil, as two opposite sions in allusion to future bliss, as and contending causes cannot both well as to future punishment, must be of the same nature or principle. have a relative or "limited meaning ;
Mr. E. overstrains the conclusion and can really mean no more than to be drawn froin my lypothesis, in this a longer time or higher degree supposing that it implies, that we than we can calculate : and that this shall remain as finite then'as now, is the case in the original languages and as liable to miscalculation, failure of the Scriptures, I have often noticed ; and error,” as we are at present; for and, hence, have frequently found an though in heaven we shall assuredly advantage in argument with the as
“created beings and finite, sertors of endless torment, when they and still “ liable to miscalculation, have urged that the Greek aiwyos failure and error,” since both our ex- implies endless duration, because it istence and our happiness will be then, is used in reference to future happias they are now, inseparably and ne- ness; and particularly that, in Matt. cessarily connected with these facts xxv, 46, awnicy is used even in the and liabilities ; but the hypothesis by same verse, in reference to happiness no incans implies, that we shall be so as well as to punishment; and, thereliable to these things as now, nor so fore, must have a like meaning in finite theu as now, but the very con- both cases, supposing, of course, that trary, inasmuch as it shews, that I should readily admit its endless our mental powers will be astonish- meaning as to future happiness : but ingly enlarged beyond what "eye hath I have replied that this word in neiseen or ear heard, or hath entered ther case signifies endless or infinite, into the heart of man to conceive;" either in duration, degree or nature, and in the measure in which they are but only what its primitive significaso enlarged, and in proportion as we tion imports, age-lasting or limited, are enabled to perceive the conse- or an indefinitely long period : and quences of our own conduct, and to this is in perfect unison with the third secure the intended effects of our own as well as fourth inferences I have designs, in that very proportion our drawn from the hypothesis ; the happiness must increase.' We have, former of which denies the capacity of indeed, a full example and illustra- any creature to possess the attribute tion of this fact in the present life, of immortality, and requires renewals since the wise and calculating avoid of existence in a future state, to proinuch more evil than the ignorant and long it to an infinite period ; and unthinking: and could we now ascer- which faith in the goodness of the tain the exact proportion in which Almighty teaches us to rely upon. No
Dr. John Jones on his Greek Lexicon.
531 argument therefore can, I apprehend, The paper on the Greek Accents be derived from the Scriptures, at (pp. 442—450) is evidently the proall opposed to the inferences I have duction of an elegant scholar. The drawn.
lovers of Greek literature must feel I have endeavoured to procure a obliged to the author for bringing sight of Dr. Williams's Sermon, in the subject before the readers of the which Mr. E. says there is something Repository in so tangible a form. I siinilar to my hypothesis, but in vain. will pay due attention to it; and It has just occurred to me, that there T. F. B. may expect from me, through is, perhaps, something like it, in the the same channel, a respectful reply eld' Heathen philosophy, which sup- to his positions. posed that there was some intracta- I feel very grateful to the learned bility in nature, which God could not Gellius (pp. 457, 458) for the notice overcome; and, therefore, in creation which he has taken of my Lexicon. could not dispense with evil, but His remarks are well calculated to made the best he could of his intrac- draw to it the attention of the learned table materials. This, however, im- readers of the Repository, which was piously supposed the Deity not to evidently his intention. I beg to make have been the Creator of the mate- few remarks on his notes, The rials, out of which he fashioned the article c05c, in my Lexicon, is careuniverse; and is, therefore, very dif- lessly done. The general term “ apferent from that hypothesis, which pearance,” which implies merely points out certain effects ne- semblance," the sense it bears, as cessarily attendant upon every crea- Gellius observes in Orestes, 235, ought ture, and which mark his inferiority to have been inserted. Lexicographers to the Creator, by exhibiting the lis and critics have not sufficiently obmited nature of his attributes.
served that a word, in a certain conI shall be most heartily sorry should nexion, may have a meaning, which my present communication hurt the yet is foreign to the word itself. Thus pious impressions, or wound the fu- anag%7, as Gellius remarks, may mean ture prospects of unchangeable happi- the clippings of hair. But the appropiness, of any who may be incapable priate sense of the terın is first-fruits of perceiving the genuine basis upon or offering; what the offering might which happiness, both here and here be depends on the context, and it' after, appears to me to be founded: may denote wine or honey, as well as none will regret it more than I shall; hair. Tlius, also, apimui, in general but called upon as I am to justify my means to dismiss or put away; but impressions, be assured no conse- its sense, in the context of Orestes, quences will ever frighten me from 115, coincides with the idea of “spilthe maintenance, or the legitimate ling or pouring out.” But even there conclusions of truth.
apes would more exactly be expressed G. P. HINTON. by “ drop," i. e. drop as an offering
on the grave.--Katarw is a nautical
term, signifying, to bring to land or Sir,
into harbour, which, to prevent injury, correspondent J. J. (pp. 465- The master of a steam-boat standing 467), for the indulgent manner in up and calling, while advancing among which he controverts my criticism on the shippings to the landing-place, Gen. iv. 26. When inquirers have no Gently, gently,” i. e. approach gen. other object but truth, they will agree tly, would, it appears to me, convey to differ; and there will be no ground the exact idea implied in the verb for any other feeling but candour and Katays, xataye, addressed by Electra mutual esteem. I will' revise this' to the chorus, who was afraid of disquestion on a future occasion : at turbing Orestes, now reposing from present I shall only say that the ver-' his madness. When Gellius says that sion, " Then men began to call them- avataraw means to soar, as in Orest. selves by the name of Jehovah,” is 316, he, with other critics, confounds printed in the margin of a copy of an" this verb with avetaw, (ava, ET1, old edition of the Bible in my posses- inaw,) which, in the active form, sigsion.
nifies to cause to spring up, or to
pounce upon. While in the passive Go by, pass, go about n person to its sense is to spring up. This verb, defend him, succour, II. .
510.-Go instead of avatanw, (axa up, and away, fly, depart, vanish, II. ... 229, Tachw to shake,) to brandish, to shake Mh. 16.-Go down, descend, B. 167up, should be restored to Bacch. Go through, cross, Il. J. 343. Imp. 149, 1179, and II. f, 692. This last Baivov for eßaivay, they mounted, emverb, au andad', (for avarannete,) is barked, Il. 2.511; part. Barwy, going the true reading in Orestes, 316, and near, approaehing, Isthm. 2, 16. ' means, in a transitive sepse, to shake, Baca, f. now, I go, aor. I, ence, or put in agitation. The address is he caused to mount or embark, Herod. made to the furies; and the poet paints 1, 80; Broe, he caused to come down, their intense thirst, of vengeance by brought down, I. £. 164. Hence it the effect of their sweeping pinious, appears that the first corist of this in agitating the whole expanse of the verb has a transitive sense. So has atmosphere. Porson's note shews aor, l, m. βησάτο for εβησατο, the that he mistook the meaning and con- mounted the chariot, Il. 262; fut. struction of the passage, and the I. Brow, Ion. Bess, by inserting, ), authority of that great critic seems to Barco, oppa Beww, while I shall go, Il. have misled Gellius. In column 112 5. 13, f. l, m.; -B4Cetat, will go, of my Lexicon, aunahaw is set down will become of, Il. B. 339 ; acivrai, in the sense of shaking, with a refer- Dor. for Brodytas, they will go, Theo. ence to the line in question ; but the 4, 26; MOET a neu verb, hence erroneous reading in Beck's edition, the imperfect Brotto, i for &BYTETO, he which I use, caused me inadvertently mounted, Il. 8. 745; Bequets, the lonic to put it in the passive voice.form, will go on in life, 11. 7. 431,
I smiled, not withont feelings of vill go by the will of another, obey, complacency and gratitude, at the shall be ruled by, It... 194; perf. adroit and delicate manner in which B&Brne, has gone, is accustomed to go, Gellius palliates my glaring omission Isthm. 471; pluper. BaByxel for aßeof Bairw, and its several branches. Bnxes, had gone, was gone, went, II. *. The cause of this omission was curious 856; perf. m. Bebaños, contr. Beßãos, enough, though it is not worth while have passed, are gone, Jl. ß. 134; to occupy a paragraph in the Reposi- inf. Bebaevas, BeBãrau, BeBaziv, to go tory to state it. I discovered it a few about, defend, protect him, il. Ø. days after the book was finished; but Bout, aor. 2, Brgy, inf: Bivas, part. not before some copies of the work Bas, existing generally in the comwere dispersed. And it seems that pounds, us in avaßas, having ascended; the one in Gellius's possession was of xarabas, having descended ; Bn, ssa, that number, which escaped before for eßn, he went to, Il. s, 152; Baño the omission was supplied in the Ad- pley for Br ievas, he went to go, hastdendu. I am sure that Gellius would ened to go, 'ɛ. 167; Bn 8 chany, he think it right in me here to insert the hastened to drive, he hastily drove, omitted article, in order to remedy 11. •. 27; oud ran xñoes Tavatola eBay the prejudice of the statement which φερουσαι, ΙΙ. β. 302, for θανατου εβηthrough inadvertence he lias made. car, whom the fates of death went In the Literary Gazette there lately taking away, whom the ministers of appeared an article on my Lexicon, death, i. e. fate, took away. which must have proceeded from one “ A few observations on the above who, if not a friend to me, is at least article will close our critique on this a friend to Greek literature, and I beg - Lexicons. Here we see that the auleave to state the words of that critic. thor refers his readers to the original “We will illustrate these observations authorities for the meanings of the by one example. This shall be the explained word, a laborious task, as common verb, Barva ; which, how- he himself justly remarks, but fully ever, the reader will not find in its compensated by its utility,
Froin proper place in Dr. Jones's Lexicon, the example of Baina, imp. eßzive but among the Addenda at the end. Baw, f. mom Bonpluaor. 2, søny, it Bursw, I go, march, proceed, 17. 1, 3 appears that Dr. Jones refers the se--go up, elimb, mount, ascend, a. 2, veral branches of the verb, each to 3.-Go after, follow, Il. x, 149.-Go its respective and appropriate stem. to an enemy, assail, attack, II. %. 21. Damın has set him an example for
Unitarianism in Unitea States of America.
533 this measure, though Sturze and is worthy of notice, that where Dr. Schleusner are chargeable with the Jones quotes a phrase differing in neglect of it. The practice affords genius from one in our own tongue, unspeakable advantages to the learn- he renders it literally first, and then er, as it enables him, by the most expresses it in a free version, conobvious and simple analogy, to retain formably to our own. This is not words in his mind which would other- the usual practice of lexicographers, wise be forgotten unless held by the but it is as it should be, since it ensole grasp of a powerful memory: ables the learner to perceive in his The above explanation of Baiw, and own tongue the peculiar features of its several branches, is in our opinion the Greek." Upon the whole, this deserving of attention, as being per- Lexicon is a work of great labour and haps the fairest specimen of lexico- research. We have much pleasure in graphy that can well be met with. adding, that we deem it also a work The learner is put in complete pos- of very great merit, which we consession of its several senses by the ceive cannot fail to meet the approbáaid of the context. The several tion and patronage of those, who, where branches of the verb are stated with the English language is used, study the anomalies caused by the dialects to acquire a knowledge of the Greek., and poetic licenceli Dr. Jones has, «Ipoash;
-1 J. JONES. indeed, largely profited by the labour's 1176 111 of Damm, but he has condensed his Unitarianism in the United States of mbatter into one tenth of the space o *, & America. which is, occupied by that mosti ad- COME very interesting letters have mirable ! and useful lexicographer. been lately received by Mr. BelNor has he servilely copied his model, shain from America, and put into but tacitly shews him to have been our hands by the venerable friend to mistaken in three or four points in whom they were addressed. We lay this very article. Damm makes Bt- before our readers a few extracts. Bãou to be the Ionic form of Beßen- The names of the writers are well xari; whereas Dr. Jones "represents known in this country, but we do not it as a contraction of the perfect mid- think it necessary to give them. The dle Bebaasi. Damm' again states Be- fact of Mr. Jefferson, the Ex-PresiBäper to be a poetic form of Bývas, dent, having avowed his belief in Uniwhile Dr. Jones takes it to be the tarian Christianity, is of great imporperfect middle infinitive, Beßasyai, by tance, and will be hailed with delight Syncope B&Bävas, Beßõuey. The for- by all that desire to see divine revemer writer seemingly, could not com- lation adorned by the intellectual enprehend how Begucci, if the lonic form dowinents and public virtue of its of Brgomal, could mean, 'I will love individual professors. or obey,' as St does in Il. e. 194. He The following is from a letter dated therefore classes it with Biow as its Baltimore, June 20, 1823. root. But Dr. Jones has happily hit " In this country the interests on the intermediate idea, for what is of religious truth are as prosperous to love or obey a person, but to go as could be expected. Important by his will ? And here it is obvious changes of opinions and habits must to remark, how similar the idioms of always be slow. Prejudices are stubthe Greek and of the English are to born things, and can be removed only each other on many occasions. This by degrees ; but in the United States is one among many reasons, why a I have reason to think, that they are Greek Lexicon should be written in yielding as rapidly as the nature of our native tongue. Damm renders things will admit. The advocates of Bir d'avai, II. B. 183, by cæpit cur- old systems are awake; the lovers of rere : but this version does not seem the dark things of the dark ages are so well to express the sense of the numerous and vigilant ; opposition to original, as he hastened to go,' or the progress of religious knowledge • he hastily went;' nor does Big & is perpetual and strong; the floodthaar, bear the precise sense of age- gates of obloquy are hoisted; and the bat equos, but is more adequately re- thunders of anathema and denunciapresented by he hastened to drive,' tion roar from one end of the Union or he hastily drove.' And here it to the other ; yet there is a spirit abroad, which winds its resistless way too late for me to witness it.' From in defiance of the arm of flesh, the, this extract you can judge with some bigotry of ignorance, and the terrors degree of accuracy concerning Mr. of a gloomy, perverted theology. Jefferson's opinions. The letter men. Truth has friends, and the number is tioned above is much more full, and increasing'; it will increase ; ten years contains a comprehensive outline of have produced a great change, and the purposes of the Christian disten more will witness a greater. pensation."
“You have once or twice inquired The same writer adds, of me respecting Mr. Jefferson. I “ What a wonderful man is that have lately seen a long and excellent Rammohun Roy of Calcutta! Few letter from him, in which he gives have so much learning and talent. bis vieivs of Christianity. This letter His books must produce an effect. amounts to an unequivocal declara- They are written with power and judgtion of his belief in the Christian ment. I had a letter from lim lately, religion. In high party times, lie was in which he says he thinks of visiting charged with being sceptical, and this country, and consequently Enperhaps he was so, for he had studied gland shortly. The venerable Mr. Christianity only in the garb in which: Eastin, of Kentucky, has just written mistaken orthodoxy had laboured to to me, that eight societies are forming clothe it. He has since examined in Missouri on Unitarian principles. the ground on rational principles, and In the south of Kentucky there are the result has been conviction. In a more than forty Unitarian preachers letter to me, written more than two among the Separate Baptists. The years ago, he touches on the subject Christians, a growing sect, call them= in a manner, which gives some hints selves Unitarians, but they are comof his opinions, and you will doubt. monly ignorant and fanatical. Time less: be gratified with the following and knowledge will correct them.” extract. "I hold the precepts of Another correspondent writes from Jesus,' says Mr. Jefferson; as de- Boston, May 3, 1823, as follows: livered by himself, to be the most “ I hope, my dear Sir, you will pure, benevolent and sublime, which live many years, if so it seem good to have ever been preached to man. I the Supreme Arbiter, to witness the adhere to the principles of the first spread of those views of Christianity age, and consider all subsequent in which you justly consider so consonovations as corruptions of his reli- nant to the doctrines of the New Tes.' gion, having no foundation in what tament, and so favourable to the hapcame from him. The metaphysical piness of mankind. In this country, insanities of Athanasius, of Loyola.. not only do they rapidly extend, but and of Calvin, are to my understand they seem also to approve themselves ing merc relapses into Polytheism, to men of intelligence and worth. differing from Paganism only by being Our ex-president Adams, now eightymore unintelligible. The religion of six, and in the full possession of his Jesus is founded on the unity of God, understanding, you know has been and this principle chiefly gave it a tri- for many years a decided and zealous umph over the rabble of heathen gods Unitarian. I saw lately a corresponthen acknowledged. Thinking mendence between our estimable fellowof all nationsrallied readily to the citizen Colonel Pickering (now eighty)' doctrine of one only God, and em- and Mr. Jefferson upon this subject, braced it with the pure morals which - and I assure you read it with no small Jesus inculcated. If the freedom of surprise. Pickering, of the genuine religion, guaranteed to us by law in race of the New Evangelical Puritans, theory, can ever rise in practice under and of a family for several generations the overbearing inquisition of public of the straitest of that sect; the most opinion, truth will prevail over fana- inflexible man since the days of Cato, ticisms and the genuine doctrines of the zealous supporter of WashingJesusy so long perverted by luis pseu-'ton's adıninistration, and after a disdo priests, will again be restored to tinguished career during the revolutheir original purity. This reforma- tionary war, appointed by W. Posttion will advance with the other im- master General, and then Secretary provements of the human mind, but of State-bred up by temperainent,