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will be found, however, in the fine their ancient books." Precepts of spirit which they breathe, in the de. Jesus, &c., London Edition, p. 122. votion and benevolence, by which they “ The mysterious doctrine of three are manifestly dictated. This author Gods in one Godhead,” is stated by values the simple Christianity of the this Christian Hindoo to be “ the New Testament, for its moral genius origin of Mohummudanism, and the and excellence; and his compositions stumbling-block to the conversion of prove, as did his life, that he saw tlie nore enlightened amongst the nothing in the gospel, which should Hindoos.”-Ibid. p. 121.11.11 forbid it to enter into all our feelings, In reference to this topic, he proall our circụmstances, all our objects nounces a high eulogium upon Chrisof pursuit and care. We perceive tianity: him to be in earnest, ardent, yet gen. “ If Christianity inculcated a doctrine tle, the determined foe of vice, but which represents God as consisting of the friendly monitor of the vicious. three persons, and appearing sometimes To the religious body, of which he in the human form, at other times in a was an , ornament, his posthumous bodily shape like a dove, no Hindoo, in sermons must be eminently accepta- my humble opinion, who searches after ble: and we are encouraged, 'by the truth, cau couscientiously profess it in demand for them,t to hope, that preference to Hindouism; for that which they will be most extensively useful. renders the modern Hindoo system of By those of the young, at whose religion absurd and detestable, is, that
it represents the divine nature, though immediate desire they have been published, may they be read in the temper pable of assuming different forms for the with which they were written and de: discharge of different offices. livered! " There is not a stronger however, most firmly couriaced, thal bond of union between the youthful Christianity is entirely free from every heart, and those to whom the forma trace of Polytheism, whether gross or tion of the mind is,” in any shape or refined.”-Ibid. pp. 317, 318, 0618 degree, “intrusted, than that which :
Rammohun Roy's books are renis established by the communication dered the more interesting by his and reception of knowledge. In the blending with his arguments and critipresent instance, may the knowledge cisms occasional appeals to his own which has been so impressively, re experience. For instance, he says,
corded, make numbers of the rising . race wise unto salvation !
“ For my conviction, and for the sa*-19)
tisfaction of those who cousider the Precepts of Jesus as a guide to peace and
happiness, his word, They may be one Unitarian Controversy at Calcutta.. as we are, John, ch. xvii. rer. li, in All
)to Art. II. III. IV. Concluded from God and Jesus, fully sullices. Disgusted
defining the nature of the unity between 11: p. 479, 6 ai 101 a IF 3Pi*with the puerile and unsuciable system N the subject of the principles'- of Hindoo idolatry, and dissatisfied at is de 1 doos, Rammohun Roy is the best of against Nonmoosšulupaus, , on my is all witnesses. He says that 3-5ths searching after the truth of Christianity, of the inhabitants of Hindoestan complexed with the difference of sentiments
me felt for a length of time very much per3450 sist of this people atheisremaining - found among the followers of Christ, (! v. 2-5ths being chiefly Moosulmans, The rimean Trinitaitians and Unitarians, the
latter are,as all the world knows', grand divisions of them,) unul I met firmly devoted to the belief of one-i with the explanation of the unity given God; the former, (says our author,) by the divine Teacher himself
as a guide are, with a few exceptions, immersed to peace and happiness."-Ibid. p. 167. in gross idolatry, and in belief of the most extravagant deseription respecto sionary's "Did Mohummud, arrogant
In answer to a question of the Mising futurity, antiquity, and the miradeles of their deities and saints, as tion as Jesus did, namely that I am
Lue was, ever make such a declarahanded down to them and recorded in
9,1, with you always, even to the end of port
the world ?! our author says, * A second edition will soon appear. " I only entreat the attention of the
- نار بناتا 11( II مرد فيه با و در 11ر - 14 و 14 11
Review.-Unitarian Controversy at Calcutta.
541 Editor to the following assertions of to a God any being who rose in their esMohummud, kuuwu to almost all Moos. timation above the level of mankind." sulmans who have the least knowledge Ibid. p. 218. of their own religion : "Truly the great
Rammohun Roy finds a reason for the and glorious God raised me as mercy and guidance to rcorlds." I was the first of prevailing belief of the Deity of Christ all Prophets in creation,' and the last in
in the application of the term “God,” appearance. I was a Prophet when though figuratively, to Christ; but, Adam was in earth and water. 'I am he says, and the remark is worthy of the Lord of those that were sent by the serious consideration of TrinitaGod. This is no boast to me, rians, whose whole system falls to the shadow is on the head only of my fol. ground if each of the three persons in Jowers.' • He who has scen me has seen the Triuity cannot be proved to be God.' He who has obeyed me, has truly and" by himself perfect God, obeyed God: and he who has singed it against me, has siuned against God.'
with respect to the Holy Ghost, Í
must confess my inability to find a “ It is, however, fortunate for Moos. sulmans, that from want of familiarity in which the Spirit is addressed as
single passage in the whole Scriptures, and intimate conuexion between the primitire Mohummuddans and their con
God, or as a person of God, so as to temporary Heathens, the doctrities of afford to believers of the Trinity an Monotheism taught by Mohummud, and excuse for their profession of the Godentertained by his followers, have not head of the Holy Ghost."-Ibid. p. been corrupted by polytheistical notions 239. of Pagans, nor have leathen modes of Of the Atonement, Rammohun Roy worship or festivals been introduced writes with peculiar cearness and among Moossulnians of Arabia and Tur force. He contends that the sacrifice key as a part of their religion. Besides, of Christ was not literal but spiritual, metaphorical expressions having been very common among Oriental nations, and uses the following argument, ad Mohummuddans could not fail to under
hominem : stand them' in their proper sense, al- Moreover iy explaining such phrases though these expressions may throw as “I am the living bread, If any man great difficulty in the way of an Euro, eat of this bread he shall live for ever,'pean Commentator eren of profound
The bread that I will give is my flesh,' learning."— Ibid. pp. 199, 200,
Except ye eat the flesh of the son of
man,' and · Unless ye eat his flesh and The following observations on the drink his blood, ye have no life in you,'success of Trinitarianism are sensible,
My flesh is meat indeed, and my blood and appear to us perfectly just":
is drink indeed, Protestant commenta
tors take upon themselves to interpret With respect to the final success of that *hese phrases are in allusion to the - the Trinitarian párty, it appears to me manner of sacrifice, and that the eating "! the event naturally to have been expected. of the flesh of Jesus and driuking his
Por, to the people of those ages, dock blood must be understood ipra 'spiritual,
trines that resembled the polytheistical not in a carnal sense. If these writers ** belief that till then prevailed, must have make so direct an encroachment upon *' heen more acceptable than those which the literal sense of those phrases in order 1" were diametrically opposed to such no
to aroid the idea of cannibalism being a tions. The idea of a God in human tenet of Christianity, why should I not
form was easy and familiar : Emperors be justified upon the same principles and and Empresses had altars raised to theni on the authority of the apostle in under1 even during their lives, and after death 'standing by sacrifice in the language of " were enrolled as divinities. Perhaps too, the apostle a virtualoblation; that Chris
something anày justlyi bé attributed to a tianity may not be represented as a re
certain degree of pride and satisfaction ligion founded upou the horrible system the . Appeal, (Çal
" begun to profess' was dictated immedi.cutta Edition,) pp. 44, 45., op! ately by the Deity himself, rather than by any subordinate agency. There had the case of the “scape.goat” into an
The obvious absurdity of pressing inch pot been among the Heathens any class argument for the common doctrine of stonied to look up with that devotion atonement, is well exposed by the
familiarly entertained by the Jews to Hindoo Reformer: 11
the head of a living goat, and confess limited capacity of the human underover him all the iniquities of the children standing to judge the unsearchable things of Israel, putting them on the head of of the wisdom of God, and therefore the goat, and by the hand of a tit person denies my right, as a worm of the dust, to send it away into the wilderness as to deduce any thing from human ideas an atonement for all their sins in erery inimical to his view of the Divine will, year. He then infers from this circum- I can only say that I have for my examstance that, commandments like these ple, that of a fellow-worm in his owa did more than merely foretel the atove. argument to shew the necessity that the ment of Christ.' Were we to consider Almighty laboured under to have his at all the annual scape-goat as an indi- justice satisfied."-Ibid. pp. 60, 61. cation of some other atonement for sin, we must esteem it as a sign of Aaron's
The accomplished Hindoo has been bearing the iniquities of Israel ; both the too long accustomed to look through scape-goat and Aaron having alike borne sophistry in the writings of Heathens, the sins of others without sacrificing their to be imposed upon by it in those of lives : but by no means can it be sup. Christians. By a single remark he posed a sign of the atonement of Christ, levels the whole fabric of Missionary who, according to the author, boie the theology: sins of men by the sacrifice of his own
"To this assertion of the Editor, the life, and had therefore no resemblance to
blood of no mere creature could take the scape-goat or Aaron. Exodus xxviii. 38:
. And it shall be upon Aaron's away sin,' I add the assertion also maiu. forehead that Aaron may bear the ini.
tained by the Editor, that 'the Creator quity of the holy things which the chil. is not composed of blood and flesh,' and dren of Israel shall hallow in all their
leave to him to say, if the blood of Jesus holy gifts; and it shall be always upon
was not that of a creature, whose blood his forehead that they may be accepted it was. It is evident from the circumbefore the Lord.' I wonder that the
stance of the blood of a creature being Rev. Editor himself notices here that unable to take away sin and the Creator the iviquities of Israel were forgiven by having no blood, that the taking away confession orer the scape.goat, without
of sin can have no connexion with blood animal or human victims, and yet repre
or a bloody sacrifice."-Ibid. p. 85. sevts the circumstance of the scape.goat as a prediction of the sacrificial death of Rammohun Roy can retort smartly Christ, and insists upon the forgiveness without ill-nature, e. g. ! of sins being founded upon the effusion of blood."-Ibid. pp. 50, 51,
“ In answer to one of the many in
sinuations made by the Editor in the The Indian convert shews continu
course of his arguments, to wit, If this ally that he has weighed orthodox be Christ, what must become of the epithets and exclamations, and that he precepts of Jesus ?" (Page 576.) I most will not accept them for arguments. reluctantly put the following query in The following is a case in point:
reply. If a slain lainb be God Almighty “ The Rev. Editor expresses his indig, worship, and what must become of his
or his true emblem, what must be his nation at the mode of reasoning adopted worshipers ?”-Ibid. p. 209. by me in the passages abore quoted ; saying, 'Should not a creature, a worm The Indian Unitarian well exposes of the dust who cannot fully comprehend the inconsistency of the system of the mysteries of his own being, pause “ Satisfaction" in imputing contrary before he arraign his Maker of gross attributes to the Father and the Son, injustice, and charge him with haring whom it yet supposes to be one and founded all religion on an act of palpa- the same being: ble iniquity ?" (P.529.) “ There appears here a most strange
“ The Editor in common with other mistake on the part of the Editor. It is Trinitarians conceives that God the Sou he who seems to me to be labouring to equally with God the Father (according prove the absurdity that God, the Al- to their mode of expression) is possessed mighty and all-merciful, is capable of a of the attributes of perfection, such as palpable iniquity-determined to have mercy, justice, righteousness, truth, &c., punishment, though he leave quite un- yet he represents them so differently as punished; ipflicting the marks of his to ascribe to the Father strict justice or wrath on the innocent for the purpose of rather vengeance, and to the Son uosparing those who justly deserve the limited mercy and forgiveuess, that is, weight of its terrors. If he mean to the Father, the first person of the God. object to the 'rashness of applying the head, having been in wrath at the sinful
Review.- Unitarian Controversy at Calcutta.
543 conduct of his offending creatures, found as well as their authorities. From his his mercy so resisted by justice that he general mode of reasoning I am induced could not forgive them at all, through to think, that he will sometimes be mercy, unless he satisfied his justice by obliged, in explaining a single sentence indicting punishment upon these guilty in the Scriptures, to ascribe a part of it men ; but the Son, the second person to Jesus as a man, and another part to of the Godhead, though displeased at him in his divine pature. As for exthe sins of his offending creatures, suf- ample, Johu v, 22, 23, . For the Father fered his mercy to overcome justice, and judgeth no man, but hath comınitted all by offering his own blood as an atone- judgment unto the Son ; that all men ment for their sins, he has obtained for should hononr the Son, even as they them pardou without punishment; and honour the Father. He that honoureth by means of vicarious sacrifice, recon- not the Son, honoureth not the Father ciled them to the Father and satisfied who sent me.' The first part of this his justice and vengeance. If the jus- sentence“ hath committed all judgment tice of the Father did not permit his unto the Son, must have been (accordpardoving sinful creatures, and recon- ing to the Editor) spoken in the human ciling them to hiinself in compliance with nature of Jesus Christ, since the Al. his mercy, unless a vicarious sacrifice mighty in exercising his power does not was made to him for their sins; how was stau in need of another's vesting him the justice of the Son prevailed upon by with that power. The second part of his mercy to admit their pardon, and the same sentence, 'all men should hotheir reconciliation to himself, without nour the Son as they honour the Father,' any sacrifice, offered to him as an atone- must be ascribed by the Editor to Jesus ment for their sins? It is then evident, as God, he having been worthy to be that accordivg to the system of Trini- honoured as the Father is and the last tarians, the Son had a greater portion of part 'who hath sent me,' relates again mercy than the Father to oppose to his io Christ's human capacity, since it imjustice, in having his sinful creatures plies his subjection to the disposal of pardoned, without suffering them to ex- another. Is this the interual evidence perience individual punishment. Are of Christianity on which the orthodox these the doctrines on which genuine divines lay stress? Surely not."-Ibid. Christianity is founded ? God forbid !
pp. 289, 290. “ If the first person be acknowledged to be possessed of mercy equally with
We have room for only one further the second, and that be, through his extract from these able defences of infinite mercy towards his creatures, sent Christian Unitarianism : it relates to the second to offer his blood as the identity of Christian and Heathen atonement for their sins, we must then Polytheism : confess that the mode of the operation « The Editor denies positively the and manifestation of mercy by the first charge of admitting three Gods, though is strange and directly opposite to that he is in the practice of worshiping God adopted by the second, who manifested the Father, God the Soti, and God the his mercy even by the sacrifice of life, Holy Ghost. I could wish to know what while the first person displayed his mercy he would say when a Hindoo also would only at the deain of the second, without deny Polytheism on the same principle, subjecting himself to any humiliation or
that if three separate persons be achnitted pain.”-Ibid, pp. 240-242.'4.
to make one God, and those that adore The fanciful hypothesis of two na-"them be esteemed as worshipers of oue tures in Christ is laid bare in the fol God, what objectiou could be advanced lowing remarks of Rammohun Roy:
justly to the oneness of three hundred
and thirty-three million of persons in the “ The Editor says that the expression Deity, and to their worship in different of Jesus to Mary, John xx. 17, 'Go to emblems? For, oneness of three or of my brethren and say unto them, I as, thirty millions of separate persons is cend unto my Father and your Father, equally impossible, according to human and to my God and your God, was experience, and equally supportable by merely in his human nature. I wish the mystery alone."-Ibid. pp. 301, 302. Editor had furnished us with a list, enumerating those expressious that Jesus
In perusing these volumes we have Christ made in his human capacity, and experienced great pleasure at seeing another shewing such declarations as he this Hindoo scholar familiar with our made in his divine nature, with autho- best biblical critica. He frequently rities for the distinction. I might have quotes by name, Cappe, Neivcome, in that case attentively examined them Macknight, Doddridge, Whitby and
others. Citing the “ Improved Ver. already established from Scripture, in a sion,” he says, (Final Appeal, p. 297,) preceding part of this discourse. From “ for which the Christian world is in- this we must at once perceive the incon. debted to its eminently learned au- sistency of maintaining his supreme, nnthors.” And having occasion to refer derived and independent Deity, as well
as the propriety of those numerous scripto Locke, he characterizes hiin as
tural expressions which describe him as one of the greatest men that ever the only begotten Son of God, the firstlived."-Ibid. p. 80.
born of every creature, the beginning of Mr. Adam, the author of the Ser- the creation of God; and the just ground mon which stands third on our list, is of that superiority to every other order a native of North Britain, who was of beings which is uniformly claimed for sent out to India by the Baptist Mis- him in the New Testament. He is as sionary Society. Having become an far below the unoriginate Jehovah as the Unitarian through the instrumentality derivation of his nature can place himof Rammohun "Roy, whom he had and he is as far above erery other existhoped to bring over to Trinitarianism, ence as the immediateness of that derihe has seceded from his former con- Jesus : -the first and only being created
vation can raise him. Such, then, is nexion, and become the minister of originally by the immediate power of the first Unitarian congregation in God-the first and ouly being begotten Bengal. His abandonment of the sys, in the womb of a virgin by the imme. tem of his former patrons has exposed diate power of God-and ihe first and him to bitter reproach, but we are only being raised from death to life by authorized to say that his old, no less the immediate power of God."-Pp. 22, than his new, religious associates hold 23, his moral character and talents in high The reader of this passage will respect.
judge of the propriety of Mr. Ivimey's Some incidental expressions in Ram- denunciation of 'Mr. Adam in a newsmohun Roy's works lead us to con- paper as a Socinian, and his vindicaclude that he at first adopted, if he tion of the term as applied to this does not still hold, the Arian hypo- gentleman on the ground of his dethesis: of this hypothesis the “Claims claring " that Jesus Christ was a mere of Jesus” is an avowed defence. The man, and that he had no existence argument of the sermon is summed before he was born of the virgin."* up in the following observations on
We do not agree with Mr. Adam the nature of Christ, as the Son of in his Arianism, but we revere his God :
love of truth, admire his ingenuous« Thus we find that whether the title ness, respect his talents, and hope for is applied to Adam or to Jesus to the much good to India from his enlightformer in reference to his creation, or to
ened zeal. the latter in reference to his couception in the womb of Mary, and his resurrec.
Since we began this article we have tion from the dead, there is one idea Rammohun Roy to a friend at Liver.
received the copy of a letter from common to all those uses, and on account of which it seems in every instance pool, lately come to hand. The inteto have been applied--the idea of the resting writer expresses great satisfaccommunication of existence by the power tion in the marks of regard which have of God immediately exerted, without the been shewn him by the English Uniintervention, as far as we are told or tarians, whom he assures of his warmare able to perceive, of any inferior est esteem. He sends copies of the agent. It is necessary to take only one Final Appeal to several of the Unitastep further to apply this principle of rian ministers in this country. He interpretation in another single instance, acknowledges with gratitude the reand we shall then possess a consistent ceipt of several of our publications, scriptural and definite notion of the ori and especially of the “ Improved Versinal nature of the person of Christ. He sien;" the advantages that he has is directly and immediately derived from derived from these, he says, it is imGod his Father, without the intervention possible for hiin fully to estimate; of any other agent, whereas all other and he expresses the hope of being beings have been mediately and indirectly benefited by future favours of the derived from God, i. e. through the instrumentality of Jesus Christ, as has been * See Mon. Repos. XVII. 685.