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politics. The candid, equitable and independent spirit which pervades the whole, renders them extremely valuable, not only as materials for thought and rules of moral conduct, but as examples of the temper with which subjects of such high importance ought to be treated. In 1796, he accepted an offer made to him by Mr. Phillips, of undertaking the editorship of a periodical work at that time projected by him. This work, the "Monthly Magazine," was accordingly superintended by Dr. Aikin from its commencement; and the numerous papers furnished by the Editor and his friends, as well as the general spirit in which the Magazine was conducted, contributed greatly to establish it in the public favour. The connexion of Dr. A. with this work was, in May 1806, abruptly and unceremoniously dissolved by the proprietor, from dissatisfaction with an award in a dispute in which he was one of the parties and Dr. Aikin one of the arbitrators.
In the same year in which the Monthly Magazine was commenced, Dr. Aikin, in conjunction with his dear friend, Dr. Enfield, agreed with Messrs. Kearsley and Hamilton to undertake a general biographical dictionary, to be comprised in about ten quarto volumes. He did not engage rashly in so serious an occupation. From his long unreserved intimacy with Dr. Enfield, he felt assured that he possessed a co-adjutor of similar views with himself and of indefatigable industry, and he anticipated great satisfaction in the execution of the work. His own health, however, began to be impaired in 1797 by residence in London, and his indisposition rapidly increasing and assuming a very serious aspect, obliged him in the ensuing year to quit the Metropolis. He retired for some months to Dorking, in Surrey, and in the pure air of that delightful valley, aided by gentle horse-exercise and an unusually fiue summer, made some progress to wards recovery. In the winter he took a house at Stoke Newington, in which henceforth he continued to reside. In the mean time, he had lost by death his friend and co-adjutor in this great work, the first volume of which was published in the Spring of 1799. Some time elapsed before a successor to Dr. Enfield could be found, and theu commercial difficulties on the part of the bookseller interposed, materially impeding the success of the work by retarding its regular progress, so that the tenth and last volume was not published till 1815.
It is not necessary farther to detail the literary occupations in which Dr. Aikin
was engaged during his residence at Stoke Newington. While the infirmities of age pressed with only a light hand, the greater part of every day was devoted to writing or reading. Painful and trying was the period when the decay of the mind, in consequence of a paralytic attack, began to precede that of the bodily frame, when the memory became less and less capable of recalling the past, and the intellect of receiving the impress of the present. One ray, however, still enlightened the gloom, and, when all besides was dark, conjugal love still connected him with the external world. He died December 7, 1822, having nearly completed his 75th year.
Dr. Aikin was endowed by nature with a good constitution, and this original advantage he was always careful to preserve by strict temperance and abundant exercise: to this was added an intellect of great activity in acquiring and facility in communicating ideas, and a temper calm, well-regulated and cheerful, though far from sanguine. Hence he possessed in a very eminent degree the inestimable blessing of a sound mind in a sound body. The abstractions of mathematical investigation, and the minute dissection of almost evanescent ideas which characterizes the metaphysician, either were not adapted to his faculties, or did not agree with his taste, which was strongly attracted to the useful in morals, in politics, and in the general conduct of life, and to the agreeable, the harmonious, the elegant in objects of amusement. Hence his stores of knowledge were all producible in the intercourse of society, and thus gave him a wide range of subjects for conversation: these were communicated in simple and easy, though flowing, language, and regulated by a goodness of temper, a decorum and practical politeness, not often equalled, never exceeded. The ruling principle of his conduct in great as in small affairs, was equity; that equity, which is best expressed by the Christian maxim of doing to others as we would wish others to do to us. Kind, generous, compassionate to all with whom he was connected, either by ties of kindred and acquaintance, or in the exercise of his profession, he had no personal enemies; and the attachment of his friends was in proportion to their intimacy with him, for there was nothing in his moral character (using the expression in its widest extent,) which required to be managed, to be kept out of view, to be glossed over. Fare thee well, revered and beloved, till we meet in the eternal world! AR. AIKIN.
1822, Nov. 27, Edward ALEXANDER, M.D., of Danett's Hall, near Leicester, after a series of intense and protracted sufferings, which were borne with exemplary fortitude and resignation. As the particulars of his distressing case cannot properly be detailed here, it will be sufficient to remark, that his disorder, which had long been making insidious approaches, first manifested itself in June 1810, and soon began to wear a formidable aspect. A state of peculiarly painful and complicated disease gradually ensued, clouded all the bright prospects which his successful medical career had opened to his view, and compelled him to relinquish the practical part of an occupation to which he was exceedingly devoted and admirably adapted. The few intervals Dr. A. was permitted to enjoy of comparative ease from agonizing pain, were usually passed in reading, meditation and domestic society. Theology and Medicine were the subjects to which he principally directed his attention. On these he had, for many years, read much, and thought still more. His purity of character from early life, his extraordinary moral worth, as well as knowledge and skill in his profession, have rarely been equalled. Nor was his ardent and vigorous mind satisfied with the exercise of his medical functions only. Rising above every selfish consideration, he carried into his practice the most exalted Christian virtues. He was not merely the able physician, but the sympathizing friend and comforter of his patients. He listened to their wants and sorrows, was prompt to aid them by his advice, to pour in the balm of consolation, or to relieve their necessities, as their respective situations and circumstances might require. In the performance of his professional duties he was strictly conscientious. No "respect of persous" did he shew; the rich and the poor partook impartially of his care and assiduity. To the latter his services were gratuitous, and likewise, in a considerable degree, to others, who could not, without difficulty, afford to make him a suitable remuneration. His bountiful hand was ever open to the claims of the indigent and the oppressed, and in all the relations of life, the same ardour, the same uprightness and integrity, the same unwearied activity distinguished his conduct. A remarkable sweetness of disposition, and strong intellectual powers, were, in him, combined with uncommon "singleness of heart." His ruling principle was love to God, displayed in a warm and disinterested love of man, wholly free from party spirit and narrow
distinctions. Devotion was his delight, studying the Scriptures his dearest employment, and his hope rested on the mercies of God in Christ. Perhaps, Dr. A. did not entirely agree with any denomination of Christians; but serious reflection and patient investigation led him to a full conviction of the truth of the leading tenets of Unitarianism, and from the time of his settling in the vicinity of Leicester, he joined the congregation assembling at the "Great Meeting" in that town. In politics, he embraced the liberal side of the question, and was always the firm and strenuous advocate of civil and religious freedom. "Every project for the benefit of his country, and the advancement of knowledge, liberty and truth obtained his zealous support." His judgment of those who differed from him was uniformly candid and generous, and never did he retain the slightest malevolent or unkind sentiment against persons from whom he had experienced undeserved or injurious treatment.-The subject of this brief, imperfect outline, was the younger son of the late John Alexander, M.D. of Halifax, was born Nov. 25th, 1767, and received his classical education at Hipperholm School, which then was, and still is under the superintendance of the Rev. Richard Hudson, who, for more than half a century, has officiated as afternoon lecturer at the parish church in Halifax. Dr. A. possessed the advantage of being well initiated in the various branches of his profession, during his early youth. At the usual period, he went to London to pursue his anatomical studies, and there became a pupil of the late Sir Wm. Blizard. Having accomplished his object in the Metropolis, he repaired to Edinburgh, and finally took his degree at Leyden, with the highest honour, in October 1791. In the year 1793, he married his first cousin, Ellen, the eldest daughter and co-heiress of the late Samuel Waterhouse, Esq., of Halifax, one of the Justices of the Peace for the West-Riding of the County of York, and a Deputy-Lieutenant for the same district. Dr. A. fixed at Stafford, and was directly appointed physician to the County Infirmary. He removed into the neighbourhood of Leicester, October 1797, where he continued to reside till his deeply-lamented death. All who knew him must regret him, and to his immediate friends his loss is irreparable.
*See Leicester Chronicle, Nov. 30.
Nov. 28, at York House, Bath, of dropsy, DON FRANCISCO ANTONIO ZEA, the Colombian Minister. He had the satisfaction in his last moments of having his family (from whom during many years of his life he had been necessarily separated) with him, Madame and Miss Zea having arrived a few weeks since from Paris to join M. Zea. M. Zea was between 50 and 60 years of age. He was a native of the province of Autioquia, in New Granada, now part of the Republic of Colombia. Great part of his life has been spent in Europe. Under the former GoFernment of Spain, and previous to the Revolution breaking out in South America, he held at different times several offices under the Spanish Government. The Revolution in his own country drew him to the side of Bolivar, whose constant companion and assistant in the great work of liberating his country he was for many years, until his mission to Europe in 1820. At the time of his quitting Colombia he was Vice-President of the Republic, and he had the satisfaction, before taking his departure, of presenting to the Congress the projet of the Constitation of his country, which was afterwards adopted in all its leading particu lars. M. Zea was a man of considerable talent, and of scientific and literary attainments of a very respectable class. He possessed great natural acuteness, and a countenance into which he could at times infuse a degree of penetration that few could escape. In his address to the Congress of Colombia, shortly before his leaving that country for England, he has left a memorial of eloquence of no ordinary cast. His manners were those of a gentleman, which, together with the personal consideration due to him on all accounts, procured for him the society
and the attentions of some of our most distinguished nobility. His government and his countrymen cannot but have been flattered with the distinguished mark of attention paid to M. Zea at the public dinner given to him on the 8th of July last, at the City of London Tavern, at which the most eminent men of all parties joined in shewing the cordial satisfaction with which the establishment of another temple of freedom, in a beautiful, a rich, and an interesting part of the universe, is viewed in this laud of constitutional liberty. M. Zea's address to the company on that occasion was marked by discretion, modesty and good sense. There were no bitter railings again Spain -no assumption of arrogant expectations from others. As to Spain, he said, his country was ready to forget and to forgire; and as to other nations, they merely
claimed to be treated with the common rights of civilized society.
1823, Jan. 1, at his house in Clapton, in his 58th year, SAMUEL Pett, Esq., M.D. Known, esteemed, respected and beloved throughout a very wide circle, his death has produced an impression of grief and distress rarely witnessed. It came upon his friends wholly unprepared for it. He had latterly enjoyed a better state of health than usual: his spirits were lively, and he appeared to feel the pleasure which he was in the habit of imparting. On Saturday, the 28th of December, he received a slight and, at the time, imperceptible wound, in performing one of the painful duties of his profession. Gangrene rapidly followed, with its usual consequences. Medical skill and assiduity were in vain. After a few changes, alternately exciting hope and fear, Dr. Pett departed this life on the evening of Wednesday, new-year's day. His mental faculties were entire to the last. His end was calm. And his surviving friends have the consolation of reflecting that after the first few hours of the attack, he endured no positive pain. The shock produced at Hackney, and indeed in the metropolis, by the news of his death, which was carried to numbers of his friends without their being apprized of his illuess, can be conceived by those alone that knew his worth. He was interred on Friday, Jan. 10th, in a family vault, in the churchyard of Hackney, amidst a concourse of spectators, including very many poor persons, whose tears attested their sense of their loss. On the following Sunday morning, a funeral sermon was preached at the New Gravel Pit Meeting-House, in which Dr. Pett had been a sincere worshiper, by Mr. Aspland, the minister, to an exceedingly crowded, highly respectable and deeply-sorrowing audience. The subject was "The Blessing pronounced by Christ on the Merciful," Matt. xxv. 34-40. At the request of the family of the deceased, and of the congregation, the sermon is given to the public. We reserve for our next number a memoir of this excellent and much-lamented man.
-17, SAMUEL LEWIN, Esq. of Mare Street, Hackney. He was distinguished for his steady uprightness of characterfor his generous virtues-for his ardent and unswerving attachment to the cause of freedom and human happiness. His mind was stored with a variety of knowledge, and was as remarkable for its
strength as for its susceptibility. While he sat in stern judgment on his own conduct-he obtained the affection-the reverential affection of those who surrounded him. He was a fine specimen of the unbending and ennobling spirit of the older time, and dignified all his opinions by consistency and the habitual exercise of benevolence. As a son, he was a model of attentive and solicitous obedience-as a husband, almost unexampled in courtesy and kindness-as a father, commanding the respect and the veneration of his children. All these links are broken. The virtues which brightened around a pilgrimage of three and seventy years, fight the pilgrim's path no longer :-but we will cherish their memory-and patiently look onward to their reward.
Jan. 17, in Loudon, in the 72d year of his age, GEORGE EDWARDS, Esq., M. D., late of Barnard Castle, in the County of Durham. He was an eminently patriotic and benevolent man, and devoted his time and fortune to the publication of works on the science of Government, which were less read than from the purity of the writer's motives they deserved. As early as 1788, appeared his "Aggrandizement of Great Britain," in which
Meetings of the Protestant Dissenting Deputies.
among other important plans, that of a Property Tax was first suggested. This plan was submitted to the Government, and the author had many interviews upon the subject with the late Mr. Rose. Mr. Pitt and Mr. Addington afterwards acted upon the suggestion, but, contrary to the author's intention, adopted a tax upon income, instead of property.
DURING the past year, several efforts have been made to stimulate the Deputies and their Committee to more active exertions in the great object for which they were originally established, The Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts. After so long an existence for a specific purpose, it seemed to many members high time that the real business of the Society should be undertaken in good earnest; that public attention should be repeatedly drawn to the subject, so as to make its partizans know the justice and strength of their cause; and that the advocates for Religious Liberty should not wait as they have hitherto done, for the lucky chance of some favourable opportunities occurring, but should endeavour to create such opportunities, or at least place themselves in a situation which may enable them to turn a favourable concurrence of circumstances to profitable account. The progress which the Marriage
CHARLES HUTTON, LL.D., F.R.S., in the Jan. 27, at his house in Bedford Row, 86th year of his age; eminent as a writer on mathematics for upwards of 60 years, during 40 of whielt he discharged
the arduous office of Professor of Mathe
matics at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, with the highest honour to himself and advantage to his country.
choly task of revising this Obituary sheet, While we are engaged in the melanwe see announced in the newspapers the death of Dr. JENNER, the discoverer of Vaccination, who expired on the 26th inst. after a very short illness, at his house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, in the 74th year of his age.
Bill of the Unitarians made, through mere perseverance and frequent introduction of its claims on public attention, is one proof of the policy of such a course of proceeding. The Legislature is only to be operated upon beneficially by the expression of public opinion; but the best channel for exciting and directing that public opinion is a frequent introduction of the subject in Parliament, however unsuccessful the first efforts must be expected to be, by persons who form a correct estimate of the principles and motives of those with whom we have there to deal. On the General Meeting for receiving the Report of the Committee, two special adjournments took place, and after much discussion the following resolutions were adopted, and we trust that they betoken a steady and active attention to the important cause confided to this body, Resolved,-That it is desirable that much more of the active and vigilant attention of this Deputation should be directed to the promotion of
the great object for which it was institnted, and to which all the other subjects of its attention, however useful, ought to be considered subordinate;That this deputation is convinced, from parallel cases in religious and political history, that the end in view can be most effectually and honourably accomplished by active and unremitted efforts to enlighten the public mind and concentrate and direct the temperate exertions of those who ought to co-operate in the cause, and by earnest applications to the Legislature, renewed on every favourable opportunity, and urged on the broadest principles of truth and justice :-That every means should be adopted to give effect to such a course of proceeding, by Aunual Reports, by correspondence with the country, and by occasional appeals as well to the public as to the Dissenting body, which shall point out the actual state of religious toleration in this country, explain the relief to be sought, and esta hlish sympathy and confidence between this Deputation and its constituents :That these Resolutions be printed at the foot of the circular convening the first Meeting of the Deputation for the ensuing year.
Earthquake in Syria.
The following account of this awful calamity is distributed by the Committee for the relief of the sufferers, from the report of JOHN BARKER, Esq., the British Consul at Aleppo. We insert it, in hope of forwarding the work of humanity, "It has fallen to my lot to relate the particulars of an event that has thrown most of the families of this part of Syria into sorrow and mourning, and all into the greatest difficulties and distress.
"On the 13th of August, at half-past nine in the evening, Aleppo, Antioch, Idlib, Riha, Gisser, Shogr, Darcoush, Armenas, every village, and every de tached cottage, in this Pachalic, and some towns in the adjoining ones, were in ten or twelve seconds entirely ruined by an earthquake, and are become heaps of stones and rubbish, in which, at the lowest computation, Lucenty thousand human beings, about a tenth of the popula. tion, were destroyed, and an equal num. ber mained or wounded. The extreme points where this terrible phenomenon was violent enough to destroy the edifices, seem to be Diabekir and Merkab, (twelve leagues south of Latachia,) Aleppo and Scanderoon, Killis and Khan Shekoon. All within those points have suffered so nearly equally, that it is impossible to fix on a central point. The shock was sensibly felt at Damascus,
Adeno and Cyprus. To the east of Diabekir, and north of Killis, I am not well informed how far the effect extended in those radii of the circle. The shock was felt at sea so violently within two leagues of Cyprus, that it was thought the ship had grounded. Flashes of volcanic fire were perceived at various times throughout the night, resembling the light of the full moon; but at no place, to my knowledge, has it left a chasm of any extent; although in the low grounds slight crevices are every where to be seen, and out of many of them water issued, but soon after subsided.
"There was nothing remarkable in the weather or state of the atmosphere. Edifices on the summits of the highest mountains were not safer than buildings situated on the banks of the rivers, or on the beach of the sea.
"6 Although slight shocks of earthquakes had been from time to time felt fu this country, it is certain that for several centuries none had done any material damage, except one twenty-seven years ago, when a single town, Latachia, was partially thrown down. In 1755, an carthquake was felt at Aleppo and Antioch, which so alarmed the inhabitants, that they all abandoned their houses for forty days, but very little injury was sustained, and no lives lost.
"The appearance of some very ancient edifices renders it probable that this country has not suffered from earthquakes since the memorable one recorded by Gibbon, about twelve centuries ago, in which one-third of the inhabitants of Antioch perished, when that celebrated city was supposed to contain a population of seven hundred thousand to eight hundred thousand souls.
"It is impossible to convey an adequate idea of the scenes of horror which were simultaneously passing in the dreadful night of the 13th of August. Here, hundreds of decrepid parents, half-buried in the ruins, were imploring the succour of their sons, not always willing to risk their own lives by giving their assistance.
"There, distracted mothers were franticly lifting heavy stones from heaps that covered the bodies of their lifeless infants. The awful darkness of the night, the continuance of the most violent shocks, at short intervals, the crash of falling walls, the shrieks, the groans, the accents of agony and despair of that long night, cannot be described.
"When at length the morning dawned, and the return of light permitted the people to quit the spot on which they had been providentially saved, a most affecting scene ensued. You might have seen many, unaccustomed to pray, some prostrate,