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ciple, instructs him in Sungskrit, whether pure or corrupt, in the current language of the country, or by any other means.'

gazine.

"Amongst foreigners, those Euro- Rammohun Roy and Edinburgh Mapeans who believe God to be in every sense ONE, and worship HIM ALONE in spirit, and who extend their benevolence to man as the highest service to God, should be regarded by us with affection, on the ground of the object of their worship being the same as ours. We should feel no reluctance to co-operate with them in religious matters, merely because they consider Jesus Christ as the Messenger of God and their Spiritual Teacher; for oneness in the object of worship and sameness of religious practice should produce attachment between the worshipers.

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Amongst Europeans, those who believe Jesus Christ to be God himself, and conceive him to be possessed of a particular form, and maintain Father, Son, and Holy Ghost to be one God, should not be treated in an unfriendly manner. On the contrary, we should act towards them in the same manner as we act towards those of our countrymen who, without forming any external image, meditate upon Ram and other supposed incarnations, and believe in their unity.

possessed of wealth and power, to perceive their own defects."

"Again, those amongst Europeans who believing Jesus Christ to be the Supreme Being, moreover construct various images of him, should not be hated. On the contrary, it becomes us to act towards those Europeans in the same manner as we act towards such as believe Ram, &c., to be inearnations of God, and form external images of them. For, the religious principles of the two last-mentioned sects of foreigners are one and the same with those of the two similar sects among Hindoos, although they are clothed in a different garb.

"When any belonging to the second and third classes of Europeans endeavour to make converts of us, the believers in the only living and true God, even then we should feel no resentment towards them, but rather compassion, on account of their blindness to the errors into which they themselves have fallen. Since it is almost impossible, as every day's experience teaches us, for men when

[As every thing relating to Rammohun Roy is interesting to our readers, we extract from the Edinburgh Magazine (Constable's) for September, the following account of him, drawn up apparently by a personal friend. Some parts of this communication contain only what has been already before the public in our pages, but as it bears an authentic shape, we judge it best to preserve it entire. The letter is followed in the Edinburgh Magazine by some remarks which we cannot but regard as discreditable to the editors of that work. So much inconsistency and unacquaintedness with the subject is rarely to be met with in any one paper in any magazine of the present day. The writer first states his opinion that such persons as Rammohun Roy "are the most appropriate, if not the only instruments," by which Christianity can be introduced into India; and then he expresses his deep regret that the reformer "in his eagerness to fly to the greatest possible distance from idolatry, should have passed into the opposite extreme, and embraced Unitarianism." Would then the Editor have had the convert stop somewhere within the confines of idolatry? He says, indeed, that Unitarianism "strips Christianity of all its distinctive doctrines, and is, in fact, nothing else but natural religion masked," &c.; not knowing, we dare say, that Unitarians believe in the divine mission of Christ, in the resurrection of the dead and in a future state of righteous recompence. But, he adds, that "Unitarianism has invariably gravitated to scepticism," and therefore concludes, in opposition to his previous judgment of the sole fitness of such persons as Rammohun Roy to introduce Christianity into India, that "it would be better that Christianity should never find its way in the world at all, thun that a form of it should predominate, which dispenses with the miraculous evidence of its divine origin," &c. Yet this very "form" of Christian doctrine,

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thus strangely misrepresented, he pro-
ceeds to exhibit to his readers in an
extract of three pages from Ramino-
hun Roy's "Second Appeal," de-
signed to prove the natural inferi-
ority of the Son to the Father." To
save his consistency, he premises that
his object in selecting the passage is
merely to exemplify the manner in
which the learned Bengalee handles
his subject;" and to re-assure any
Scotsmen who may be afflicted with
doubts in consequence of reading
Rammohun Roy's argument, he says
with marvellous simplicity, "with
regard to the doctrine it proposes to
establish, Bishop Horsley, and, sub-
sequently, Professor Porson," (yes,
reader, Professor Porson!) "have al-
ready taken from under it every prop
by which it was, or can be upholden."
Orthodoxy" in
Is it possible that "
Scotland can depend upon such learn-
ing and such logic for its preservation?
ED.]

judges living, to be stronger and clearer
than any thing yet produced on the
side of the question which he has
espoused.

"From what period we are to date
his renunciation of the Brahmnunical
Holy Mysteries, or Secular Privileges
and Honours, is not ascertained; but
he has for many years been observed
to take an active solicitude in spread-
ing through small tracts in the native
languages, portions of the Vedas and
Shastrus, which oppose Idolatry, and
the cruel and unauthorised devotion
of widows to death on the funeral
piles of their husbands. The Bible,
however, has been his favourite study;
and there are few, perhaps, who re-
tain more accurately, or comprehend
more clearly, its important contents.
He is conversant, too, with the works
of most of our celebrated divines;
and, by his Lordship's own invitation,
had some particular conferences with
the late learned Bishop of Calcutta,
on the subject of the Christian reli-
gion; and though he was not con-
of
vinced by the Bishop's opinions and
the Right Reverend Prelate's erudi-
tion, piety and urbanity, in terms of
respect and admiration. It is a well
known fact, that the Rev. Mr. Adams,
[Adam,] sent out by the London Bap-
tist Missionary Society to Calcutta,
for the express purpose of converting
Rammohun Roy to the tenets of his
sect, was himself converted, and still
continues a disciple of Christian Uni-
tarianism, through the arguments ein-
ployed, and the perusal of the authors
recommended by the redoubted Ex-
Brahmun; being at present the off-
ciating minister in a Unitarian chapel
in Calcutta, built by a subscription
raised by Rammohun Roy and his
friends. Yet such is the humility and
generosity of Rammohun Roy's senti-
ments, that he never makes mention,
much less a boast of this triumph,
ardently supplicating God to render
religion destructive of differences and
dislike between man and man, and
conducive to the peace and union of
mankind.' (Vide Appeal to the Chris-
tian Public, p. 32.) To the diffusion

"MR. EDITOR, "HE attention of theologians,

been called to this extraordinary and enlightened Bengalee, in consequence of the extensive reading, intelligence, and zeal he has displayed in combatting the attacks made by the Serampore Missionaries upon his religious writings in favour of Christian Unitarianism, the doctrine which he has himself adopted, it may very probably prove acceptable to your readers, to receive some authentic particulars of this singular character, with a list of his writings.

"Rammohun Roy was by birth a Brahmun, the highest dignity in Indian society; but being, from an early age, accustomed to be near Europeans, he saw the advantage, and availed himself of the opportunity, of becoming master of the English language, to which he afterwards added Latin and Hebrew. With the Arabic, Persic and Sungscrit tongues, together with the several vernacular dialects of Hindoostan, he is perfectly familiar.

"His proficiency in English is best shewn by the style of his composition, as the powers of his mind are by the force of his reasonings, which have been declared, by one of the ablest

*The epithet London is not used by this Society as any part of its denomination. ED. M. R.

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of useful knowledge and science, the freedom of the press, and civil and religious liberty, he is a firm, but rational friend. Of this, a note which he addressed to the author of the present outline, without the slightest aid or preparation, bears decisive evi

dence.

"The note in question, which we shall here insert, was a reply to a gentleman who lately saw him in Calcutta, and relates to the institution of a Native Subscription School which that gentleman had originated high up the country, but which, after a promising commencement, was blighted, though not destroyed, by the ingenious subtleties and engrossing selfishness of priestcraft, conscious of its own unrighteous usurpations, and which, in India, as elsewhere, is eager to denounce and resist every step towards intellectual improvement, or the correction of superstition.

A

"Rammohun Roy presents his compliments to, and begs to return the Persian prospectus which kindly sent him two days ago. R. R. is sorry 's humane attempt

to learn that

as for the present failed to meet with success; but he hopes that friends of literature and liberty will not be disheartened by this unhappy circumstance: justly observes, 'Rome was not built in a day. R. R. feels obliged by -'s kind offer of hospitality, and he

as

16"

"Referring to his design to visit Europe."

↑ "List of Rammohun Roy's publications, referred to in his note of February 15, 1822. 1 Translation of the Ishopanishad, one of the Chapters of the Jajur Veda, establishing the Unity and Incomprehensibility of the Supreme Being; and that his worship alone can lead to Eternal Beatitude.

VOL. XVIII.

in India.

-'s Moonshee favoured

shall not fail to avail himself of it, should Providence enable him to visit that land in which, and which alone, he places his hope for either civil or religious liberty R. R. with a visit; he is a nice young has the pleasure of sending a few copies man, possessed of good abilities. R. R. of his publications, and three numbers of the Brahmunical Magazine, the production of a friend, of which he begsacceptance.†

"R. R. fervently wishes - a speedy and agreeable voyage, and the enjoyment of the company of his friends in England. "February 15, 1823."

1 Ditto of the Cena Upanishad, one of the Chapters of the same Veda.

1 Ditto of the Vedant, or Resolution of all the Veds, the most celebrated and revered work of Brahmunical Theology, establishing the Unity of the Supreme Being, and that he alone is the Object of Propitiation and Worship.

1 Translation of the Monduk-Opunishud of the Uthurvu-Ved.

1 Ditto of the Kuth-Opunishud of the Ujoor-Ved.

2 Defence of Hindoo Theism, in Reply to an Attack of an Advocate for Idolatry at Madras.

2 Translation of Two Conferences between an Advocate and an Opponent of the Practice of "Burning Widows alive.”

1 Brief Remarks regarding Modern Encroachments on the Ancient Rights of Females, according to the Hindoo Law of Inheritance.

1 The Precepts of Jesus, the Guide to Peace and Happiness, extracted from the Books of the New Testament, ascribed to the Four Evangelists. With Translations into Sungscrit and Bengalee.

2 Appeals to the Christian Public, in Defence of the Precepts of Jesus.

3 Bramunical Magazines. The Missionary and the Brahmun. By a Friend and Countryman of Rammohun Roy.

"But the lively interest he took in the progress of South American emancipation, eminently marks the greatness and benevolence of his mind, and of the detestable barbarities inflicted was created, he said, by the perusal by Spain to subjugate, and afterwards continued by the Inquisition, to retain in bondage that unhappy country. What I replied he, (upon being asked why he had celebrated by illuminations, by an elegant dinner to about sixty Europeans, and by a speech composed and delivered in English by himself, at his house in Calcutta, the arrival of important news of the success of [the] Spanish patriots,) 'What! ought I to be insensible to the sufferings of my fellow-creatures wherever they are, or howsoever un

4 E

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connected by interests, religion or Memoir of the late Rev. John Flemsiging, of Craigs, Minister of Colinton. language?'

(From the Edinburgh Magazine, for
September.)
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201

For the recent commencement of
the Bengalee and Persian newspapers
in Calcutta, much, if not all, is due
to Rammohun Roy's patronage and
exertions; and many of the best arti-
cles published in them are ascribed to
his
His
pen. argumentative talents
are of the first order, and are aided
by a remarkable memory, exceeding
patience, and the gentlest temper.
He cherishes a grateful sense of the
vast and various blessings Great Bri-
tain has communicated to his country,
formerly a ready prey to the lusts of
tyrants, the rapine of banditti, and the
desolations of civil war; whilst he is,
at the same time, fully yet candidly
alive to the imperfections in the Bri-"
tish Government of India, the negli-

la
[We borrow this memoir from the
work here named, not only because
the subject of it, as an enlightened
and liberal divine, is entitled to some
record in the Monthly Repository, but
also because we wish not that our re-
marks on the preceding extract should
leave an impression upon our readers
unfavourable to the Northern periodi-
cal, which is evidently a compilation
by very different hands, and which
reckons amongst its contributors some
of the most distinguished friends to
truth and freedom in Scotland. ED.]

more attri

butable, he conceives,
gence or incompetence of its servants,
than to the system itself. The en-
dearing private virtues and inappre-
ciable public qualifications of the
Marquis of Hastings, as a soldier, a
statesman and a citizen, he greatly
admires, and distinctly acknowledges;
for he considers his eventful and glo-
rious administration as having con-
ferred immediately, more benefits, and,
consequently, more happiness and
prosperity, on Hindoostan, than was
ever done before. He has long had
an intention of visiting Europe, solely
to enlarge his knowledge and experi-
ence, and gratify a laudable curiosity;
but it is at present unknown when he
will be able to carry his scheme into
execution. His age may be, perhaps,
forty-five; in person, he is tall and
stout, with a most intelligent, pleasing
and commanding countenance. He
possesses a very handsome private for-
tune, the greater portion of which is
devoted to useful or charitable pur-
poses; one-third of his income, it is
said, being assigned to his relations,
another third employed in works of
benevolence, and only the remaining
third reserved for his personal ex-
"8190mm 918 yedt doidw
penses."
quied you to goitibhu ers
wol bac, albbim ad mo bavor
"He is partial to the society and con-
versation of English gentlemen, counting
in the list of his particular and intimate
friends, many of the first wealth and re-
spectability in Bengal."2d1

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however limited the sphere of their actions, whose lives may not be

come an object of interest, when they are fairly and truly delineated. If a man has been gifted by nature with talents or abilities which have been obscured by indolence, we may learn from it the duty of exertion; if he has been actively and usefully benevolent, the good may profit by his example.wigsoleisda bebing

The Rev. John Fleming, the subject of the present memoir, was born on the 31st of August, 1750, at the farm-house of Craigs, in the parish of Bathgate, West Lothian. His father was an industrious farmer, who, to his paternal property of Craigs, added another farm in the same parish, called Torbane: he died while Mr. Fleming was a boy, and left him the owner of these two farms, which, at that period, though now very much increased in value, produced a yearly rent of little more than fifty pounds sterling. The mother of Mr. Fleming, who appears to have been a person of great merit, was left a widow, with another son and daughter; and on this limited income, she not only educated her family respectably, but added to the commonstock by her own industry

Mr. Fleming commenced his education at the parish-school at Bathgate. In his fourteenth year, he entered the University of Edinburgh, Here he gave early promise of becoming an excellent Latin scholar; he also made considerable progress in the Greek language, which he continued

was well qualified for the discharge of this duty.

to cultivate during the rest of his life, by the reading of Homer and the Greek Testament; but the Latin classics, and the philosophy of ancient Rome, were the favourite objects of his study.

"Having been originally destined for the clerical office, on the completion of the prescribed course of study at the University, he was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Linlith

gow.

"By the early decease of his father, the management of the small property to which he succeeded devolved upon him; and not having any immediate view to preferment in the Church, he turned his attention, in a great degree, to the improvement of his paternal estate. His natural sagacity, and superior education, soon led him to perceive that the state of agriculture in his native parish was capable of great improvement; and he lost no time in making himself acquainted with the best modes of draining and enclosing, and the other farming operations, which of late years have added so much to the wealth and resources of the country. At this period, he often guided the plough, worked with his own hand in the labours of agriculture, and devoted himself with great enthusiasm to the cultivation of this primitive science and at a later period of life, it was his constant maxim, that to make two blades of grass, or corn, spring up, where one only had formerly grown, was conferring a solid benefit on the community.

"The success of his farming operations soon induced his neighbours, in defiance of their peculiar prejudices, to adopt his improvements, and attracted also the attention of the great landholders of the county. At this time, and in the midst of these occupations, he was the friend and patron of merit, so far as his limited opportunities permitted, and was looked up to as a sound adviser, in those cases of difficulty or distress which occurred among the poor around him, or within the sphere of his influence. He was also frequently referred to as an arbiter in the disputes which occurred among his neighbours, in their domestic as well as their agricultural concerns; and from the solid judgment and benevolence of his character, with his knowledge of rural affairs, he

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"Ten or twelve years of Mr. Fleming's life were passed in this obscure, though useful manner; and this interval afforded him, also, that leisure for reading and reflection, which were afterwards so conspicuous in the acquirements of his mind. Now, however, a new occupation opened to him, which promised more lucrative employment than that of the mere cultivator of his paternal acres. About the year 1786, he became factor for Neil, Earl of Roseberry, and his residence was transferred to that nobleman's estate of Barnbougle, near Queensferry. There he spent some years, and had the opportunity, under his Lordship's tuition, of acquiring much knowledge of the world and of actual business, being employed alternately as farmer, merchant, accountant or lawyer, as the case, required. This trust he executed with great judgment and fidelity, and in the course of it, he had many opportunities of bringing forward deserving men as farmers or overseers, greatly to the benefit both of the proprietors and the country.

"His situation in life was now, however, to be more permanently fixed; for in the year 1789 he was presented by the Earl of Roseberry to the Church of Primrose, or Cairnton, in the Presbytery of Dalkeith, situated about ten miles south of Edinburgh, where he officiated as pastor for a period of fifteen years.

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"In the discharge of his ministerial duties, Mr. Fleming was distinguished by exemplary diligence; and his interest for the welfare of his parishioners was not exclusively confined to their spiritual concerns, but extended also to their worldly comfort and prosperity. In this respect the Scottish Clergy are pre-eminent, and cannot be too much commended. They have the advantage of holding a rank highly respectable in the society of which they are members, with the rare addition of not being too far removed from the middle and lower ranks, to prevent their being useful to both, by their advice or assistance, in the common affairs of life. Mr. Fleming, therefore, did not hesitate to apply his extensive knowledge to the discharge of every duty which he

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