Imatges de pÓgina

of him. I cannot refrain from intro ducing one or two documents on the subject to which I have adverted.", (Mr. Gurney here referred to the phrase "Son of God," and to the manner in which it was understood by the Jews, maintaining the opinion that with them it implied divinity.) He proceeded: "I would call your


August 6, 1823.


attention to a remarkable passage in a





book Zohar, a cabalistic ac
count of the transactions recorded in
Genesis, a great part of which is
very old, of about the third century,
a book of great importance among
Jews. I quote it on the authority of
the German critic Schotgen. In it,
Messiah is denominated in his pre-
existing character by the titles
hovah, Angel of God, Angel of the
Covenant, the Word of God, the Image
of God, the Lord of Hosts, the Son
of God, the Son of the Highest, the
faithful Shepherd, Lord over things.
below, Lord of all ministering An
gels. In this book it is likewise said,
that the spirit of God moxed upon
the world in the beginning, and was
the spirit of King Messial. The same
doctrine is plainly recognized in the,
Jewish Targums, which are transla-
tions of the Hebrew Scriptures in the
Chaldaic, for the use of the Jews
after their return from Babylon, when
they had forgotten their vernacular
tongue. These recognize the same
character in the word of God, who is
by them repeatedly identified with
Jehovah as being that personal exist
ence who is one with Jehovah, and
by whom the wonderful works of God
are carried into effect. By this word
of God was the world created, by him,
were the children of Israel led into
the wilderness. He it was who ap-
peared to Isaiah in the temple; and
where the salvation of Israel is spoken
of, it is particularly attributed to the
word of God. Thus when Hosca says,
And Jehovah shall save his people
by Jehovah, their God,' the Targum,
paraphrases it, Jehovah shall save,
his people by the word of Jehovah,
their God." The speaker concluded,
by observing that he believed the
Jews never would be converted till
brought to recognize their degeneracy
in this point. On this opinion, so of the Apostle's argument may be
different from that entertained by,, illustrated by the following similar
Unitarians, it is not my design to one. Suppose Lwas desirous to press

MR. BELSHAM, in Vol. II. of
his Commentary on
Epistles," feels a difficulty in seeing
the force of the reasoning of the
Apostle in 1 Cor. vi. 2.
Do ye not
know that the saints will judge the
world? And if the world shall be judged
by you, are ye unworthy?" &c. May
I be permitted to say, that I am rather
surprised that he should feel this diffi
culty? Whatever be the meaning of
the Apostle in the former clause of
the verse, viz." Do ye not know that
the saints will judge the world?" he
alludes to an office superior in dignity
to that of the determination of civil
cases amongst the brethren, and rea-
soning à fortiori, he urges upon them
the consideration, that if worthy of
the superior, they cannot be unworthy
of the inferior office. Now, this ar-
gument seems perfectly clear. If a
man be thought worthy of a higher
oflice, he cannot be thought unworthy
of the lower. The lower office, it is
true, may be unworthy of him, though
he be not unworthy of the office. But
it does not seem to have been insinu-
ated by the Corinthians, that the office
of the determination of civil cases.
amongst the brethren was an office
unworthy of them, and therefore the
Apostle docs not combat that idea.
It will not signify whether the Apostle
reasons in the above passage from his
own principles, or the principles of
the Corinthians only. The argument
is equally conclusive on either suppo
sition. If the Corinthians thought,
themselves worthy of the higher office,
the Apostle might well ask them,
though he did not himself think them
worthy of the higher, how they could
be unworthy of the lower. Again, it
will not signify whether the higher
office alluded to is one in possession
or one only in reserve. Suppose it
one only in reserve, the conclusiveness


offer any comment; I have merely wished to record some observations which appear to me worthy of a few remarks from some intelligent. Christian critic.


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upon the rich members of a Christian congregation the propriety of condescension and courtesy to their poorer Christian brethren, I might reason in this manner, "Know ye not that your poor brethren will sit with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and Jesus, in heaven, and if this be their destination, are they unworthy of your fellowship?" Here would be an argument similar to that of the Apostle. Here a claim to an inferior would be deduced from destination to a superior honour.

likely that he who shed such a profusion of communications upon the pri mitive Christians, as we see somewhat exemplified in the first Epistle to the Corinthians, would refuse to guard an apostle from error in an useful argument?" Surely in an age in which inspiration was communicated so copiously-an age in which the words of the prophet Joel, as quoted by Peter in Acts ii., were applicable, an apostle might expect, and would expect, a communication on every occa sion in which it would be useful.

Our Lord promised to his disciples that the spirit of truth would abide with them, eis ton aiona, From this spirit of truth, then, the apostles would expect every assistance that would be beneficial to them and their cause. They would never believe that that spirit would desert them at a time when they were in danger of making mistakes in their reasonings.

It is true that the apostles do not say that they are divinely inspired, or divinely guarded in their reasonings, But it was not necessary to say this in an age in which divine assistance was so common, and in which divine assistance on every suitable occasion would be taken for granted. Those whom they addressed would take this for granted, without any special declaration respecting it.

+ V


A distinction has been made between the reasonings of the apostles and the doctrines on which they are founded; and it has been contended, that the doctrines may be divine though the reasoning should be inconclusive. Now I admit that the divinity of doctrines is independent of the conclusiveness of reasonings. At the same time, however, it appears to me that there was a necessity for guarding the apostles from error in reasoning as well as from error in doctrine, and that, therefore, as whatever was necessary for the perfection of the Chris. tian dispensation would not be withholden from it, we may believe that the apostles were guarded from error in their reasonings as well as in their doctrines. If reasoning was necessary, the conclusiveness of reasoning must have been necessary. A necessity for reasoning is just the same thing as a necessity for conclusiveness of reasoning, and, therefore, if it was necessary for the apostles to reason, it was ne- HE following morceau is from cessary for them to reason concluD'Israeli's Second Series of Cusively. Now, if reasoning had not riosities of Literature. (Vol. I. pp. been necessary, it would never have 65, 66.) Should you be able to give been used. It could be only a neces- the protest of Sir Isaac Newton's, to sity for it that could suggest the adopers, it would, no doubt, be generally , entire to your read




tion of it.




Perhaps, however, it will be said, that the mere statement of the doctrines upon the authority of God was sufficient that reasoning was no further necessary than as suitable to illustrate them that reasoning was advantageous rather than necessary, and that independently of it the bare word of God would have been enough to establish the respective doctrines of Christianity. Well, let the premises be narrowed, and let it be allowed that reasonings were only useful, not necessary in the strict sense of the word, it may still be asked, "Is it

ICA PURVEYOR. "When the fury of the civil wars had exhaused all parties, and a breathing time from the passions and madness of the age allowed ingenious men to return once more to their forsaken studies, Bacon's vision of a philosophical society appears to have occupied their reveries. It charmed the fancy of Cowley and Milton; but the politics and religion of the times were still possessed by the same phrenzy, and divinity and politics were unanimously agreed to be utterly proscribed



from their inquiries. On the subject
of religion they were more particularly
alarmed, not only at the time of the
foundation of the society, but at a
much later period, when under the
direction of Newton himself. Even
Bishop Sprat, their first historian, ob
served, that they have freely ad-
mitted men of different religions,
countries and professions of life; not
to lay the foundation of an English,
Scotch, Irish, Popish or Protestant
philosophy, but a philosophy of man
kind. A curious protest, of the most
illustrious of philosophers, may be
found: when the Society for pro-
moting Christian Knowledge' were de- GLEANINGS; OR, SELECTIONS AND
sirous of holding their meetings at the
house of the Royal Society, Newton
drew up a number of arguments
against their admission. One of them
is, that It is a fundamental rule of
the Society not to meddle with reli-
gion; and the reason is, that we may
give no occasion to religious bodies to
meddle with us.' Newton would not
even comply with their wishes, lest by
this compliance the Royal Society
might dissatisfy those of other reli-
gions.' The wisdom of the protest by
Newton is as admirable as it is re-
markable, to preserve the Royal So-
ciety from the passions of the age."



the majority probably wished to pos sess the Exposition itself; some few I know, who already had the original work, subscribed for the sake of the notes. Every subscriber will consider himself as perfectly at liberty to withdraw his name if he pleases: it will not however, be necessary for him to send me any intimation on this subject. When the new edition appears, those who wish for it will be able to obtain it, in the regular way, through the medium of their respective booksellers.


Of those who kindly gave me their names as subscribers to the enlarged edition which I once contemplated,

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Napoleon's Estimate of Value of

All men that have done great things have made much of time. The late Emperor Napoleon was celebrated for punctuality and celerity of movement, and his faithful friend the Count de las Cases has preserved some anecdotes illustrative of his rules of conduct in this particular.


"After having given any one an important mission, or traced out the plan of any great enterprise, the Einperor used frequently to say, ¶Come, Sir, be speedy, use despatch, and do


As created

S inquiries are occasionally made tion of the late Rev. T. Kenrick's Exposition of the Historical Writings of the New Testament, I have to request your insertion of the following statement. More than two years have now elapsed since the proposals for a new edition with additional notes were first circulated, and the number of names received has been so small that the plan has been renounced as far as concerns the publication of additional notes. It is still, however, the wish of the author's family that the original work should be reprinted. This will be done as speedily as possible, and I hope that the new edition will be ready for delivery in the spring. The price will be considerably less than that of the first edition.

in six days.*

"On an occasion of this kind, he concluded by observing to the individual whom he was addressing, * Ask me for whatever you please, except time; that's the only thing that is beyond my power."

On another occasion, Napoleon commissioned a person to execute some important business, which he expected would be finished in the course of the same day. It was not, however, completed until late on the following day. At this the Emperor manifested some degree of dissatisfaction; and the individual, in the hope of excusing himself, said that he had worked all day. But had you not the night also?' replied Napoleon."


Mémorial de Sainte Hélène, Vol. IV. Pt. 7, p. 242.

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13109 Still pleased to praise, yet not afraid to blame."-Pore.




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ART. L-A Course of Lectures, con- Now
we cannot
taining a Description and Syste- subscribe without reserve and expla-
matic Arrangement of the several nation. That arrangement" may be
Branches of Divinity: accompanied "the most satisfactory," or, in other
with an Account both of the princi- words, extremely commodious, to the
pal Authors, and of the Progress instructor, which is far from being so
made at different to the reader or the hearer. For our-
Periodical Learning. selves, and on such a theme, we shall
By Herbert Marsh, D. D. F. R. S. always prefer the order which best
and F. A. S., Lord Bishop of Peter- accords with the nature of the ques-
and Margaret Professor of tion, which is the fairest, the most
Divinity. Part. VII. On the Au- ingenuous and legitimate, and which
thority of the Old Testament. Cam- shall be least exposed to objections
bridge: printed by Smith; sold by from the impugners of Revelation.
Deightons, &c.; and in London by
C. . and J. Rivington. 1823. 8vo.
Pp. 69.

But, says the Margaret Professor, and he says justly, the records which contain the Mosaic and Christian religions, must not be confounded with the religions themselves." He further reminds us, that "the authority of the record which conveys the Christian covenant, may be examined without reference to the record which conveyed the former covenant:" and hence he would infer, that as the au

thenticity and credibility of the New Testament were established by arguments which are wholly independent of the Old Testament, so we may legitimately reason from the authority of the records of the Christian, to the authority of the records of the Jewish dispensation, (2, 3.)

We admit the mutual independence? of the two grand divisions of the Scriptures: yet in the practical application of the principle we differ

from this writer. The Professor's
observations prove no more than that
we may treat of the evidences of the
authority of the Old and of the evi-
dences of the authority of the New
Testament in an inverted order: but
he does not shew that this arrange-

the authority of different records, the
question, which of them shall be first
submitted to examination, may depend on
circumstances unconnected with priority
of composition: and that arrangement
must always be preferred, which enables
us to conduct our proofs in the most sa-
tisfactory manner."-P. 1.

"When we undertake to establishment ought to be adopted. Since the
Jewish revelation was of far earlier
date than the gospel, its pretensions
seem to demand a prior examination:
the rather, as the evidence is, for the
most part, historical, and as the aid of
chronology must be extremely desira-
ble, if not, indeed, absolutely requi-
site. When a very young pupil is

Observations on Man, &c. Vol. II. introduced to an acquaintance with (1749,) 71, 347, 348. languages, or with science, there may


4 G


100T k


O believe the Christian reli-
gion," says Dr. Hartley,
to believe that Moses and the prophets,
Christ and his apostles, were endued
with divine authority, that they had
a commission from God to act and
teach as they did, and that he will
verify their declarations concerning
future things, and especially those
concerning a future life, by the event;
or, in other words, it is to receive
the Scriptures as our rule of life, and
the foundation of all our hopes and
fears. Cordially assenting to the
justness and importance of these re-
marks, we are happy that the subject
of the Seventh Part of Bishop Marsh's
Course of Lectures is "the Authority
of the Old Testament:" nor could we
have objected to its having been made
the topic of a foregoing set.

The Professor's thirty-first lecture,
begins with a statement of his reasons
for treating previously of the authen-
ticity and credibility of the Christian



be no
but even an advan-
tage, in pursuing a series of instruc-
tions perfectly unconnected with the
descent of those languages, or with
the periods of the several discoveries
and inventions of science. Yet in a
course of lectures, delivered to an
academical audience, and laying, claim
to the praise of systematical ar-
rangement," we might well expect
the strictest regard to the order of
the Divine dispensations. Here, if
any where, we might suppose, that
thestream which maketh glad the
city of our God," would be regularly
traced from its fountain head. We
can least of all overlook inattention
to this kind of method, when num-
bers of young men are listening to a
Professor of Divinity, with the ex-
press view of qualifying themselves to
instruct others. Bishop Marsh can
appeal, no doubt, to the example of
eminent men, who have preceded him,
as lecturers and writers on the evi-
dences of Judaism and of Christianity:
we, too, should make a counter ap-
peal, did we place the issue of the
question on authority, rather than on
principle. gor

Another reason for his beginning
with the New Testament (3), is, that
the proofs of authenticity and credi-
bility, in reference to individual books,
may be conducted more easily and
more intelligibly, than the similar
proofs in regard to the Old Testament."
In somewhat different language, wri-
tings of high antiquity, are involved in
greater darkness, with respect to the
composers and occasions of them,
than writings of a later date. This
may readily be allowed: but the fact
will not justify the deviation upon
which we have animadverted.
the books of the Old Testament be
examined on their own ground; and
we feel not the slightest apprehen-
sions for the result of the investiga-
tion: let them be considered in the
order in which they claim to have
been written; and we entertain not a
doubt of their authority being esta-
blished. Had that order been adopt-

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We cordially wish that he had judged it consistent with his undertaking to give, in this part of his course, a repetition, or, at least, an ample summary, of those arguments for the authenticity of the Pentateuch, which he delivered, from the pulpit of Great St. Mary's Church, more than thirty years ago, and the pamphlet containing which has deservedly reached a third edition. In the same compass, scarcely any topic has been better discussed. But we must follow in the path which the Professor himself selects. 90 5150 m Boites


To the greater part of the historical books of the Old Testament the term "authenticity" is inapplicable. We cannot say, that a book is authentic, or written by the author to whom it is ascribed, when the writer of that book is unknown. Now by whom the several books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles were composed, we, unquestionably, are ignorant. Nevertheless, the term "credibility" is applicable to them all. Even where we cannot argue from the known situation and character of the writer, we may have reason to believe, that the anonymous author wrote under circumstances which enabled him to acquire a perfect knowledge of the facts recorded. There is which more displays the accuracy of an historian, or excites greater confidence in the truthi of his narrative, than references to books of authority, as vouchers for his own history. And it is worthy of notice, that such references occur chiefly, though not solely, in the books of the Kings and of the Chronicles, where we are most at a loss to discover the authors.vibe The fidelity of the sacred historians T.


bus vibine od obrilant
some account of a Course of Theological
Instruction, in which this order is ob

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