Imatges de pÓgina

months. Mr. Anstis, who for many years laboured as a most approved Instructor of youth, and then resident at Bridport, kindly engaged to supply Colyton, where he had for a short time been pastor. Mr. Humphries, an attorney, was married to the eldest daughter of the great Dr. Doddridge, and was the leading supporter of the Dissenting cause at Tewksbury, and at his house J. Cornish was most hospitably entertained during his stay. Dr. Doddridge's widow, with her two daughters, and Mr. Philip Doddridge, her son, then resided also in the town, and with other worthy hearers, three months were most happily spent.


"In 1792, in consequence of repeated applications, J. Cornish preached two Lord's days at Banbury, in Oxfordshire, Mr. Hampton, a worthy minister, wanting assistance, and not likely to continue his useful services much longer. Mr. Hampton's senti ments well accorded with his, and the principal hearers were desirous of his settling there. Many of the common people, however, were inclined to Methodism, and as nothing would have inclined J. Cornish to remove but a very unanimous invitation from some larger society, with a fair prospect of greater usefulness, he declined the offer made. The large church at Banbury bad fallen down, and for some years the ministers of the Establishment were accommodated with Mr. Hampton's spacious place of worship, marriages and every service being carried on there, authorized by an Act of Parliament. The hours for worship were so ordered that the different congregations had both morning and afternoon services, and occasionally an evening lecture. On one of the sabbaths J. Cornish preached three times, ,and besides the usual services, the sacrament was administered to the members of the Establish ment. The same, as J. Cornish has been informed, was soon after done at Buckingham, an Act of Parliament consecrating these Dissenting places sufficiently for the temporal uses of the adherents to the Church of England.

* See Mon. Repos. XV. 631-633.

"After this, J. Cornish regarded himself as fixed at Colyton for life, and no situation was so well adapted to the comfort of his declining age.

"The Monthly Repository for November, 1816, (XI. 649-652,) gives an account of a most extraordinary attempt made by some over-zealous Calvinistical ministers to deprive his society of their place of worship, and to set himself aside as unfit for attempting any farther service as a minister. This proposal was considered by many of their own party as a very presumptuous one, but from the ministers who signed, no apology ever came.

"When a boarder at Mr. Slade's, he took the grandson of that gentleman under his care for classical instruction. In 1782, several boys were taught by him as day-scholars, and many friends wishing to place their sons with him as boarders, he left Mr. Slade's family at Midsummer, 1783, to reside in a house of Mrs. Stokes, who had boarded forty boys, some of whom were J. Cornish's pupils. Twelve, and afterwards fifteen, had separate apartments under J. Cornish's particular care, several more attending during schoolhours. This continued till Christinas, 1796, when he bought a house, and accommodated pupils with board and instruction till Christmas, 1800. His charge for board and every part of instruction was, with one guinea entrance, £18 per annum, which after some years was raised to twenty guineas. The expenses of housekeeping greatly increasing, and the prejudices against the friends of liberty operating to his disadvantage, he declined taking domestic pupils. Dayscholars he continued instructing till Christmas, 1819, when, entering on his 70th year, and wishing to be quite master of his time, he wholly declined the employment. A school-master, especially one who takes boarders, must expect various disappointments, but J. Cornish never repented engaging in the business. Numbers of his pupils, as well as their relatives, appeared thoroughly satisfied with the endeavours used to fulfil his trust. His old age is rendered also much happier than it would otherwise have been, from the kind and respectful attention shewn him by those whom he

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ples, persons solemnly declaring that they subscribed, ex animo, to what they inwardly disapproved. Much at that time had been written on the subject, and the pamphlet obtained an extensive sale. Life of that excellent citizen Mr. T. "In 1780, J. Cornish published a 70teng hood Std Firmin. His venerable friend Mr. attempt, as tending to revive the SoTowgood wished him to decline the cinian controversy, but on reading it, expressed his approbation of the temper and spirit with which it was written. J. Cornish neither at that time nor since has ever adopted the Socinian scheme, but thinking, with that very competent judge Dr. Kippis, that Mr. Firmin was one of the best account of his Life might be useful, men that ever lived, he thought a new and has some ground to hope its having proved so. soften the prejudices of zealous TriniThe perusal may persuasion to activity in doing good. mgebiltarians, and excite Christians of every Mr. Lindsey, whose integrity and disinterestedness entitle him to his praise, opposed the circulation of this Life amongst Unitarian Tracts, because it contained some apology for Mr. Firpeculiar circumstances might justify min's continuing in the Church. His what J. Cornish endeavoured to shew could form no rational pretence now. Yet on that account a former Life of Mr. Firmin was circulated, which, whether or no it was so well adapted for general reading and usefulness, those who have perused both are the proper judges. The ingenious Mr. Christie, in a volume of interesting Essays, recommended the book, as did the Monthly Review. The whole edition has long since been dispersed.

request, a Thanksgiving Sermon, on "In 1784, J. Cornish printed, by the Happy Restoration of Peace with America.


to display the Importance of Classical "It was in 1783 (1785?) his Attempt Learning, addressed to the Parents and Guardians of Youth,' appeared. Of this Dr. Knox took very polite notice in a subsequent edition of his valuable Treatise on Education, and it was mentioned with approbation in the Monthly Review. The Messrs. Robinsons took on themselves the risque, and J. Cornish was to have half the profits.

faithfully endeavoured to improve in
knowledge and goodness.x

"With the members of the Estab-
lishment he always lived on the most
friendly terms, and was also treated
with great civility by several respecta-
ble vicars and curates who succeeded
each other in Colyton, during his long
abode there. In three families he had
seen the fifth generation.

"Before his leaving the Academy, J. Cornish published A Serious and Earnest Address to Protestant Dissenters. The first edition of 750 copies was speedily sold, and a second of 2000 went off quickly, as did a large number of the third edition, and they have long been out of print. The low price of 4d. inclined many to distribute them.


"In 1775, Mr. Johnson, in St. Paul's
Church-yard, who was always ready
to encourage publications in favour of
liberty, gave J. Cornish five guineas
for the copy of a pamphlet entitled,
A Blow at the Root of all Priestly
Claims. Repoutros T
"A Letter to the venerable Bishop
of Carlisle,' who ardently wished for
alterations in the Establishment, both
as to the Liturgy and Articles, was par-
ticularly noticed in the Monthly and
Critical Reviews, in 1777. The good
Bishop wished for Reform, but thought
Conformity justifiable in those who
could not approve all they subscribed
to, and yet wished like him for al-
terations. J. Cornish endeavoured to
prove that the most likely way to
bring about a Reform would be for
all who disliked the terms required,
to imitate Mr. Lindsey, Jebb and
other worthies, in withdrawing from
the Church. No public notice was
taken of this letter, but the Bishop,
through Mr. Corpe, the Vicar of Sea-
ton, near Colyton, who thought much
as Bishop Law did, thanked J. Cornish
for the manner in which he had ad-
dressed him, but said, private reasons
justified his conduct in a way satisfac-
tory to his own mind. To this J.
Cornish only replied, that all he tried
to prove was, that the reasons pre-
sented to the public did not appear
to him to justify, on scriptural princi-

"A Brief Treatise on Divine Manifestations to Mankind in general, and to some in particular,' was printed at Taunton in 1787. Soon after, "The Pre-existence of Christ, considered in a Practical View, endeavouring to prove that the Doctrine did not lessen, but gave great additional force to his Example.' This was followed by a short Treatise on Evangelical Holiness.' None of these short treatises are now to be procured.


"J. Cornish's beloved friend, Dr. Toulmin, who was candour itself, kindly superintended the publication of these little tracts, though the leading sentiments of them did not quite accord with, and in some particulars materially differed from his manner of expressing himself on these topics.

"A Brief History of Nonconformity, being an enlarged edition of the History of the Puritans, was published in London, in 1797, under the inspection of his valuable friend, Mr. Palmer, of Hackney, so deservedly esteemed for his important services to the cause of religious liberty and Christian piety. This has also been long out of print. A new edition has been proposed, which any one is welcome to set forth who may think it any way calculated to serve the noble cause of religious truth and liberty.

"An intended Life of that real patriot and genuine Christian, Mr. John Lilburne, was announced, but the times became so unfavourable to all publications in defence of civil and religious liberty, that the design was not executed, and by J. Cornish never can. A very just account of this upright man is contained in Vol. VI. of the British Biography, in 10 volumes, 8vo., printed for Mr. Goadby, of Sherborne, and sold by R. Baldwin, in London. This Life might be republished in any periodical work with out any prejudice to the proprietors of that valuable work, which may yet he procured for £2. 13s. 6d., a price far below its value. Mr. Toogood,* a clergyman of eminent worth, and a particular friend of Dr. Toulmin's, materially assisted in recording many of the Lives contained in Mr. Goadby's Biography. "On the Lord's-day, Aug. 31, 1823,

J. Cornish, after a comfortable night,
arose at six, grateful for the fine ap-
pearance of a change in the weather.
A violent attack of asthma came on;
his faithful domestic was alarmed.
His apothecary and many kind friends
were soon with him, who thought he
was expiring, but in about two hours
the violence abated, and in the course
of the day Dr. Barnes, the vicar, Mr.
Peppin, the curate, and
"On Tuesday, September 2, before
J. Cornish arose, a second violent
attack brought him apparently to
death's door, and on Thursday, Sep-
tember 4, a third attack so weakened
him, that his apothecary and himself,
as well as those about him, thought
that night must be his last. Blessed
be God, he felt little pain, and though
weak yet lives, and on the whole is
comfortable. October 2."

* See Mon. Repos. XVI. 63 and 77.

The above is the memorial which
Mr. Cornish drew up, and which was
closed only seven days before he died.
He directed that it should be sent
to Mr. Manning, of Exeter, and Mr.
Yeates, of Sidmouth, and inserted in
the Monthly Repository, with such
alterations as they should think fit.

Three days after this, October 5,
he found himself so much better that
he attended the public service at the
Meeting on both parts of the day, and
assisted a friend who preached for him,
in administering the Lord's Supper,
carrying round the bread and wine,
and addressing the communicants in
several appropriate passages of Scrip-
At the close of the services he
expressed to his friend the gratifica-
tion he felt from having been permitted
to attend the several services, and so
far was be from being exhausted by
the exertion he had used, that he
seemed more cheerful, and apparently
stronger, than he was in the morning,
and spoke of his intention of preach-
ing on one part of the following Sab-
bath. But the great Arbiter of life
had otherwise decreed, for on Thurs-
day, October 9, at five in the morning,
he was violently attacked by water in
his chest, and could only say to those
about him, "God bless you all," and
expired without a groan.

[The remains of this excellent man
were committed to the grave on Fri-
day, October the 17th, his valued

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ses disciples, pour mieux répandre sa doctrine, de la cacher sous le voile de la parabole.

A la mort de Jésus, la nécessité de taire le secret se fit sentir plus vivement que jamais; et plus la théocratie juive et les rois devinrent soupçonneux, plus la science des écritures dût se limitter à très peu d'individus.

friend Mr. Manning officiating on the occasion. The corpse was followed to the grave by the curate of the parish, and many of the most respectable parishioners.

Mr. Cornish's frugality and economy had enabled him to save a sum of money, which to those that should know his circumstances without knowing the simplicity of his habits, would appear incredibly large. The greater part of this (£400) he had some years before his death put into the hands of the managers of the Presbyterian Fund, on condition of receiving the interest during his life, that on his decease it might form part of the Fund so denominated, the income of which is distributed amongst Dissenting Ministers.]

Note relative aux manuscrits de feu
Pascal Alexandre Tissot sur le
Nouveau Testament, et addressée
au Reverend
à Londres.

[We have been not a little embarrassed by the following communica tion. It is, indeed, one of the most difficult and painful tasks that our office as Editors lays upon us, to determine in what manner to dispose of papers that contain hypotheses contrary to our own opinions and probably offensive to the majority of our readers. The matter and manner of some communications of this description render a decision easy; but there are others which we can hardly reject without seeming to withhold information on theological literature and to oppose religious inquiry and discussion. Of this latter kind, is the "Note" which we are about to insert. For various reasons, we give it in the language in which it is sent to us; and after this explanation may we hope disclaim all responsibility with regard to its contents, except as to the correctness of our copy. ED.]

Paris, le 19 Juillet, 1823.
A science des écritures, dont il

Les disciples de Jésus continuèrent dans le silence à répandre sa doctrine et à faire des prosélytes. Les initiés devenaient aussitôt de zêlés amis de l'humanité, de chauds défenseurs de ses droits, et l'on a vu de célèbres philosophes, après avoir reçu la précieuse science, abandonner leurs spéculations, déserter leurs écoles; ils possédaient le grand secret, ils avaient découvert la vérité, ils la propagèrent et la défendirent sans se laisser intimider par les persécutions, les tortures et la mort.

Cependant Paul, prêchant la doctrine de Jésus aux nations que les Juifs désignaient sous la dénomination de Gentils, ne crut pas devoir suivre le même systême que les autres apôtres. Il n'avait pas les mêmes motifs de respecter les préjugés civils et politiques des Hébreux; pour se faire entendre, il parle done sans détour, il donne l'essor à son génie, il agit séparément, sans se consulter avec les apôtres. Il arriva de là que bien des choses que Paul pouvait dire sans inconvéniens aux Gentils, venant à la connaissance des Juifs, qui se trouvaient dans une toute autre position, compromettaient les mystères du Seigneur et les exposaient à être pénétrés Dans cette conjoncture les apôtres ne virent pas par le vulgaire. d'autre parti à prendre que de publier fausse et qu'il était sans pouvoir pour Paul propageait une doctrine enseigner. L'un d'eux en même fut Pierre, visita successivement toutes tems, et tout porte à croire que ce les églises fondées par Paul, dans le but de donner à leur doctrine la forme Jérusa lem. Il était passé chez les Galates et avait réuissi à les détacher de Paul. Celui-ci qui était absent, et, à ce qu'il parait, retenu à Rome dans les fers, n'acquit pas une telle certitude sans éprouver une vive indignation: ce fut en ce moment qu'il écrivit son



et entr'autres par Clément d' Alexandrie, en ses Stromates, est perdue depuis longtems. Dans l'origine on n'initiait aux mystères du Christianisme qu'un très petit nombre d'élus, choisis parmi des personnes éprouvées, Jésus étant convenu avec

admirable lettre aux Galates, chefd'œuvre d'éloquence, d'art, de force de raisonnement et de génie ; dans laquelle il annonce qu'il ne parle pas d'après les hommes mais pour les hommes. Usant dès lors de représailles envers les apôtres, il ne les épargne point, sans cependant les nommer, feignant ainsi d'ignorer quels sont ses adversaires, et se débarassant de toutes les entraves qui pouvaient retenir sa plume et sa parole. Il attaque leur systême hyperbolique et insinue très adroitement que les apôtres ne pensent pas différemment de lui, et que la doctrine dont ils font profession ostensible, n'est qu'un moyen d'éviter l'œil de la ténébreuse politique et de multiplier le nombre des initiés sans les exposer à une persécution certaine.


Les deux textes que Alexandre Pascal Tissot parait avoir découvert, les divers passages des écritures et des Pères qu'il a rassemblés et rapprochés contradictoirement prouvent l'existence de la double doctrine. Les apôtres conservèrent pour l' usage des parfaits l'original de la lettre de Paul aux Galates, mais pour l'usage du vulgaire, ils en firent une édition dans laquelle Paul, n'exposant plus la véritable doctrine, et ne combattant plus la doctrine ostensible, ne parle que dans le sens de celle-ci. Christ partout y cède la place à Jésus Christ, en d'autres termes Dieu à l'homme et l'esprit à la loi. C'est ce dernier texte que Tissot appelle apostolique, non qu'il le regardât comme contenant la doctrine réelle des apôtres, mais parce qu'ils en furent les auteurs, et qu'il renferme leur doctrine ostensible ou apparente.

Le centre d'action du Christianisme resta chez les Juifs à Jérusalem jusqu'à la destruction de cette ville par Titus; de là il fut transferé à Rome. Cette époque fut celle d'une révolution mémorable. La double doctrine fut publiquement abandonnée. Le véritable texte de Paul prit la place du texte falsifié, sauf le retranchement d'un petit nombre de passages qui pouvaient donner à connaître que c'étaient les apôtres que Paul combattait. On accrédita en même temps l'opinion qu'il n'avait eu en vue que de faux apôtres; ce qui, au fond, était véritable, puisque en effet les disciples de Jésus n'avaient agi dans

le sens condamné de Paul que par une dissimulation obligée.

La substitution du véritable texte de Paul au texte falsifié fit faire à cette époque des progrès prodigieux au Christianisme. Le changement subit des écritures n'eût pas cependant lieu sans opposition et on devait s'y attendre. Aussi cette époque est elle marquée par une foule d'hérésiarques qui, le texte apostolique à la main, arguaient de fausseté le texte véritable dont ils n'avaient jamais entendu parler. On peut s'assurer par les citations des Pères, que Marcion, le plus redoutable de tous, avait le texte apostolique.

Chaque jour, comme je viens de le dire, on voyait le nombre des Chrétiens augmenter et l'on pouvait alors espérer que bientôt luirait le moment où les desseins du Seigneur devaient recevoir leur entier accomplissement.

Mais, Constantin, tyran non moins rusé que féroce, eût l'adresse de détourner le coup qui menaçait le trône et devait en lui frapper peut-être le dernier des oppresseurs du genre humain. Ayant sondé les chefs, il les combla de richesses et d'honneurs, et une horrible trahison fut consommée. Le trône se fit un appui de l'autel, et l'autel trouva dans le trône un appui nécessaire. Pour consolider cette union fatale, le texte apostolique fut mêlé au texte véritable, afin de ne plus laisser, par ce mélange bizarre, pénétrer le sens des écritures. En effet le texte qui en résulta et qui est aujourd'hui le texte reçu, présente le pour et le contre, souvent dans une même phrase.

En Orient, les patriarches et les conciles placés sous l'influence des empereurs, altérèrent en consequence le texte grec, tandis que Chrysostôme ajoutait à sa confusion en glissant dans le texte nouvellement reçu un plus grand nombre de leçons qu'il puisait dans le texte apostolique, et qu'il réformait la lithurgie pour mieux les corrompre et pour mieux détourner les esprits du véritable sens de la doctrine de Jésus prêchée par Paul.

En Occident, Jérôme, par l'ordre des Papes, opéra de semblables changemens sur le texte latin; il dénatura la version du véritable texte qui s'était conservé pur chez les

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