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The Jewish Rabbins no Believers in a Trinity.
ception of a divinity in the Messiah lations, used this way of speaking independent and underived.
commonly; and by the Word, or the The assumption of Mr. Gurney, Word of God, understood not a spirit that the phrase “ Son of God” im- separate from God, but God himself,* plied, in the understanding of the Jews, as St. John does.”-History of the divinity, is too vague to be tangible: Apostles and Evangelists. if he mean, as he no doubt does, inde What then is proved by the statependent or absolute divinity, the as- ment, that “when Hosea says, “And sertion is confuted by the whole tenor Jehovah shall save his people by Jeof the Jewish Scriptures : and he might hovah their God;' the 'Targum paraas well contend that Ephraim was phrases it, Jehovah shall save his God, because Jehovah speaks of himn people by the Word of Jehovah'?" as his son.
They mean precisely the same thing: Justin Martyr, in his dialogue vith No Jew, with his eyes open, could the Jew Trypho, expressly ascribes to light on the passage of Isaiah, him the opinion, which he endeavours hold my servant whom I uphold, mine to refute, that the Messiah would be elect in whom my soul delighteth, simply, as to his nature, man. The I have put my spirit upon him,” and early Jewish converts, called Ebion- conceive that it was any other spirit ites, thought the same: and so did but that of God limself, or that the those among the later Christians, who elect, who had it put upon him, or are styled by their enemies heretics, was anointed with it, was himself that but who boldly appealed to antiquity spirit. But he would naturally, from against the confusion introduced into the metaphorical and figurative gechurch theology, by identifying the nius of his language, and the custom Word with the Son of God. The of speech familiarized to him in the Word, said they, is not the Son of writings of the prophets, consider the God; he is only an attribute, a fa- anointed servant of Jehovah as one culty, a property of the Divine nature. and the same with him, not in nature, It is the man Jesus Christ who became but in operation and authority. If the So of God by the comm
ion Moses was nade God to Pharaoh, the of the word. The appellation of Son Messiah, with far stricter propriety, of God agrees only to the man Jesus, as to him the spirit was given without mere man as to his nature, how great measure, would be regarded by the soever he was by his gifts.- Bearsobre, Jews as God to them: his Angel, his Hist. de Manichées, Tom. I. 539. Son, and bearing his name: but to
It is owing to this confusion that say that because Messiah is denomiinodern theologists, and such of the nated by the title Jehovah, that he is Jews as reason themselves out of the so denominated “ in his pre-existing Delief that Jehovah is a God, with character," unless it have a reference whom and beside whom there is no to his pre-existence in the Divine God, fancy they discover a Trinity in mind or counsels, is to beg the questhe writings of the old Rabbins. That tion. Christ should be called by the name The thing proved, therefore, by the of Jehovah, or that he should be called sentiments and phraseology of the old the Word of God, is so far from af- Rabbins, is simply the use of the idiom fording a proof that the Jews would Word of God, as identical with God's therefore consider him as Jehovah or power or spirit, or general attributes ; the Word, in the sense of personal and when the writer speaks of this existence or natural identity, that it opinion as so different from that “enjustifies the directly contrary infer- tertained by Unitarians,” his observa
tion can only apply to modern Unita“ It is well known that in the rians, nor to them, indeel, without Chaldee paraphrases,” says Lardner, many exceptions. He has only to “it is very common to put Mimra look into Lardner's Observations on Jehovah, the Word of the Lord, for Jehovah or God :” and he observes, “that the Jewish people, more especi Lardner refers to Numbers xxiii. 8, ally those of them who were most rendered in the Targum, " How shall I zealous for the law, and most exempt curse the house of Israel, when the world trom foreign and philosophical specu- of the Lord has blessed them ?”
John, or Priestley's Notes on Scrip-me o hoyos, In the beginning he vas ture, for the evidence that this opi- the Word. “ The personal pronoun nion, so far from differing, is identi- nominative," says Mathiæ, "is seldom cally the same with theirs.
expressed with the verb, except for the The triumph is not over the Uni- sake of emphasis ; that is, of clearly tarian doctrine itself, but over the marking the person as distinguished critical refinements of individual Uni- from others." Now, if this be got an tarian expositors ; as Simpson, Cappe, occasion for emphatical distinction, Kenrick and Mr. Belsham, who have supposing the application to Christ treated the first chapter of John's accurate, where can such ever occur? Gospel as if it had been newly dug up It seems obvious, that o hoyos is the in the isle of Patmos, and had never nominative throughout; which also exercised the sagacity of Christian accounts for the so-much-insistedantiquity. There must be a sort of upon omission of the article before basilisk fascination in the spell of Deos in the last clause: and that the verbal criticism, or writers of such sense is the same as if the words were general acuteness and knowledge, and arranged, ev apXn o Loyos nv, kai é lovos sucl undoubted singleness of intention ην προς τον Θεον και ο λογος ήν (5) Θεος. and zeal for the promotion of the The mere transposition of the words truth, could never, one might suppose, for the sake of elegancy has surely no have shut their eyes on the whole effect in obscuring the signification. body of Jewish philology and antiqui
EBION. ties, in order to bring down the spiritual and lofty language of the fourth Account of the Establishment of Pres evangelist to the level of the dry, mat
byterianism in Manchester. ter-of-fact, penurious apprehension of modern readers, by explaining away
No. VI. the Word into the Preacher!
Manchester, But it seems Mr. Lindsey has ren Sir, November 20, 1823. dered Loyos wisdom, and that is not
you a continuation of the the term by which wisdom is expressed extracts from the Register of the in the Old Testament. So because Presbyterian Classicall Meeting in the terın cannot here mean wisdom, Manchester, in the time of the Com. it can mean nothing connected with monwealth. the Divine attributes at all! Against
W. JOHNS. the reference to the original creation in this proem, it is urged that EYEYETO
“ The 42d Meeteingè at Manchester, is no where used in the sense of cre
March the 12th, 1649. ated. But if we say all things were, 4. Mr. Leake, preacher at Prestor all things became by the word, the wich, appeared, according to his sumwill, or the power, or the wisdom, or mons, and upon his request, hath all united of Jehovah, where is the tyme given him untill the next Classe difference? However, the allusion, to give in his answeare to the sum. whether to the material or the new creation, is unimportant, and cannot “ 6. Another summons drawn up affect the sense of the term the to require Mr. Rob'. Symonds, preachWord; the power of Jehovah, or Je er at Shawe Chappell
, to attend the hovah himself, which, in the strong Classis at their next Meeteinge, which metaphor of the Jewish Evangelist, will bee the second Tuesday in Aprill became flesh, and tabernacled ainong next.” us, when manifested in Jesus of Na. I judge no extract necessary from zareth.
the 43d Meeting I regret that the learned and excel
“The 44th Meeteinge at Manchester, lent Dr. Carpenter, a.
“ teacher in Israel,” should persist in this properly
May 14th, anno 1650. Socinian interpretation, which I can
** 5. Mr. John Leake promised to not but think impairs the value of his bring a testimoniall of the soundness improved edition of “ Unitarianism the Doctrine of the Gospel.” He has also carried verbal refinement still * For No. V. see p. 275 of the present farther, by the rendering of ey apxon volume.
Account of the Establishment of Presbyterianism in Manchester,
687 of his doctrine, and of his life and "fession-or both-before the Elderconversation, under the hands of se. shippe of this congregation, to stand verall Ministers, as also subscribed by guilty of_adultery-fornication-or several honest men, whereas hee hath the like, they havinge seriously consilived lately.
dered the haynousnes and scandalous“6. Delegates appointed to attend nesse of the sinne in itself: (here let the provinciall assemblie at Preston, the some fewe pertinent Scriptures bee first Tuesday in Juwe next.” [Names produced to prove the greatnesse of omitted.]
the saill sinne,) and the severall ag“7. A day of humiliation to be gravateinge circumstances thereof in upon Wednesday, the 29th of May A, B. (here let the aggravations bee instant, to seeke the Lord for the re- mentioned). And haveinge used all moval of the manifold distractions Christian and loveinge means to bringe that lye upon us.
him to the sight of, and godly sorrowe “ The 45th Meeteinge at Manchester, for his greeyouse sinne, (here the June Ilth, 1650.
means used by the Eldershippe may
bee speatified in case of his appearance “ 4. Mr. John Leake did not ap
or non-appearance,) by which God is peare to bringe in his testimoniall, greatly dishonoured, his soule endanwhich was then expected.
gered, the rest of the church grieved “ The 46th Meeteinge at Manchester, and offended, and occasion given to July 9th, 1650.
others to speake evill of the wayes of “ 4. Mr. John Leake did not ap
God; yet not perceiveinge that godly peare this Classe, as he was then ex- life, and a readinesse and willingenesse
sorrowe which worketh repentance to pected. “ 5. Mr. Harrison and Mr. Angier the naine and power of the Lord Jesus
to give suitable satisfaction, have in are desired to draw up a directory of Christ, accordinge to theire duty, and suspension from the Lord's Supper, in order to excommunication of such ye merrit of his sine and carriage, persons as have committed scandells, ordinance of the Lord's Supper, way
Juditiallie suspended him
from ye holy and refuse to give satisfaction.
teinge and prayinge, that God would “ The 47th Meeteinge at Manchester, open his eyes, touche his heart, mighAugust 13th, 1650.
tily convince and bumble him, and “ 4. Mr. Angier, Mr. Hollinworth, renew repentance in him, and earnestly Mr. Walker, Mr. Meeke, Ministers, desire you, in the bowells of the Lord and Robert Hyde, Esq., Thomas Jesus Christ, to help forward the Strangewayes, Ésq., Thomas Smith worke of God, to pitie him, and pray and Samuel Birche, Elders, are de- for him, that (if it bee possible) there sired to meete upon Tuesday next, at may be no necessitie of proceedinge to tenn o'clocke in ye forenoone, to con
a further and heavier censure against sider of a directorie for suspension him. from the Lord's Supper.
“ The 50th Meeteinge at Manchester, “A case of conscience to be re
November the 12th, 1650. solved. That is : How farre a man may keepe communion with one that “ 4. Mr. Warden did give an acis notoriously knowne to hold heresie. count of the Provinciall Assemblie at
Preston. “ The 48th Meeteinge at Manchester,
“ 5. A note to bee sent to the seSeptember Tóth, 1650.
verall Ministers and Elders within this * 5. Mr. Hollinworth is desired to Classe, to the end it may appeare, revise the directory for suspension wherefore they do not acte so freely froin the Lord's Supper.
in the government as formerly. “ The 49th Meeteinge at Manchester, “ The 51st Meeteinge at Manchester, October the 8th, 1650.
December 10th, 1650. “ A DIRECTORIE for suspension from the Lord's Supper.
“ 5. It is ordered that a day of hu
niliation shall be upon Thursday, the “Whereas, A. B. hath been con- 26th of December instant, in severall vinced by witnesses-or his own con. congregations within this Classe, in
reference to the cryeinge sines of the of six Ministers and seven Elders sub. tymes, and people's generall unaffect- joined, omitted.] ednes therewith, notwithstandinge the “5. Mr. Clayton, Minister at Dids. judgements of God hangeing over our bury, did withdraw from the Classis, heade and upon us, and particularly and departed out of the Classis, withthe fever that is rife and mortall in out any order from the Classis. severall places, and the unseasonable “6. Mr. Hollinworth and Mr. Jobnnesse of the weather.
son are desired to goe to Flixton to “ The 52d Meeteinge at Manchester, there, to demand theire reason of with
speak to Mr. Woolmer and the Elders January 14th, 1651.
drawing from theire offices, and ab“4. The particular Eldershipps are senting themselves from the Classis. desired to” [give notice to]
“ The 55th Meeteinge at Manchester, respective members, that they are
Aprill 8th, 1651. required to slew cause why they doe
“ 4. It is ordered that whosoerer fall off from theire offices.
from henceforth absente himself from “ The 53d Meeteinge at Manchester, the Classis, that is depnted thereunto, February 11th, 1651. without giveinge a sufficient excuse,
shall be adınonished. “4. Agreed that the names of all such Elders as are appointed to attend Edge are further desired to goc to
“ 5. Mr. Hollinworth and Thomas the Classe shall be recorded in write. Flixton 10 speake' to Master Woolmer inge. day be observed at Manchester the theire offices, and absentinge them" 5. Agreed that a publicke fast- and the Elders there, to demand the
reason of their withdrawinge from last Wednesday of February instant.
“6. Agreed likewise that another fast selves from the Classe. be observed at Prestwich upon Wed Lake, in reference to his forbeareinge
“6. A letter sent to Mr. John nesday the 12th day of March next. The grounds of both these fasts are, y administration of y Lord's Supp the great and cryeinge sins of the per.” (Interlined.) « Mr. Lake dia tymes, the heavie judgments of God appeare this Classis. upon us, and hangeinge over
“7. A COPPIE OF THE LETTER sent heads, and the generall sencelesness unto Mr. John Lake. of people under both sin and judg Sir, ment.
“ • It being evident to us that you “ 7. It is agreed that there bee an doc officiate within this Classis without exercise kept in everie congregation approbation obtained or sought, and within this Classe successively as this you having declared that your resoluClasse shall appoint.
tion is to administer the Supper of the
Lord with the professed neglect of “ A Coppie of a Warrant.
the Eldershipe chosen and constituted “ By vertue of an order of the Pro- in that congregation, and by your sovinciali Assemblie at Preston, Novemb. litarie power, will admitt to, and sus5, 1650, Wee, the first Classis of the pend from the Supper; wee beinge Province of Lancaster, doe require very sensible of your irregular walkeyou the Minister and Elders of . .. inge herein, to the rule of the word, .. to demand of
and expresse command of the civill one of your Elders, the reason of his authoritie, do (in tender respect to the withdraweinge from the duty of his glory of God, the purity of the ordioffice, or of his absentinge from the dance, and good of the people), inEldershipe, that you may certifie us treate and require you to forbeare such thereof, and we may, give account administration of the Supper, and to thereof to the Provinciall Assemblie, entertaine a brotherly conference with as we are required.
us, accordinge to the motion we made “ The 54th Meeteinge at Manchester, you,) that we may, through the bles
to you, (though at present refused by March 11th, 1651.
singe of God, satisfie the scruples “4. The persons delegated to re that hinder your orderly and regular view the Register are.” [The names acting with us, both in the congrega
Account of the Establishment of Presbyterianism in Munchester. 689 tion and Classis. Thus perswadeinge children, and concerninge his life and ourselves of your Christian and bro- conversation. therly carriage in the particulars mentioued, wee coinmitt you to God and
“ The 57th Meeteinge at Manchester, rest: Yours,
June 10th, 1651. “ Subscribed in the name and by “ 3. Quldham, no Minister; Sa
the appointinent of the Classis, muel Crotield, Jolin Worrall, Elders. etc.
“ 3. Witnesses appeared concerne“By James Walton, inge Mr. John Lake administeringe
Moderator. ye Lorel's Supper. “A COPPIE OF THE LETTER of
“ 6. Caleb Broadhead, aged about summons sent to Mr. Valentyne.
34 yeares, examined upon oath sayth ;
That tove severall Sahoath dayes, Sir,
about ye second and third Saboath “ Forasmuch as this Classe take after Easter, which were the 13th and notice that you have officiated at El- 20th of Aprill
, 1651–heinge at Ouldlinbrooke a longe tyme, and yet are hain Church those twoe Saboath dayes, not ordaybed, they doe signifie to you, hee sawe the Communion Table that they cannot approve of your offi- spread, and flagous on the table, in ciateinge there any longer, except you preparation for the Lord's Supper, as tender yourselfe to ordination; and fee conceives; and that he heard Mr. therefore doe desire and expecte that Lake speake these words, or words to at theire next meetinge, you do come the like effect, the afternoon of the so prepared as is required by the rules first day; that forasmuch as he had in the ordinance for ordination, that given warneinge for persons to bee so they may forthwith proceed to the examined before they were admitted tryall and examination of you in refer to the sacrament, bis intent was onely ence thereunto,
of strangers which was not of his « The 56th Meeteinge at Manchester, such as kept away upon that ground
owne congregation, and hee desired May 13: Ano. 1651.
would come the next Saboath and “ 2. Ouldham, no Minister nor El, communicate with him, for he stood der.
not upon that formalitie of examina" 3. The Minister and Elders at tion. Flixton returned theire answears in . 7. John Wurrall, of Ouldham, in writing, but it was judged by the the Countie of Lancaster, aged about Ministers and Elders in this Classe 66, deposed and saith, that to the best not satisfactory, and therefore a con- of his now remembrance, the first ference is appointed to bee bad with Saboath day after Mr. Lake, Minister them ye 10th of June. [Here follows at Ouldham, had been before the the appointment of tico ministers and Classis at Manchester, hee beinge at trco elders.]
Ouldham in the afternoone of the “ 10. The Classe beinge informed said day, hee there saw the Commuthat Mr. John Lake had administered nion Table covered, and vessels therethe sacrament of the Lord's Supper, on, as hee conceived in preparation to notwithstandinge theire admonition to the Lord's Supper; and as hee, this him to the contrary, they therefore deponent, heard the number of thic desired the Elders of Ouldham lo coinmunicants were but few, and hee bringe in what witnesses they could, beinge there in the afternoone, he against there next meeteinge, to prove beard the said Mr. Lake publickly say that; that they might proceed against to the congregation, that he did conhim by censure.
ceive that the people were mistaken, "Il. Evan Clarke is appointed to touching the warneinge given by him goe to Mr. Odcroft, and to tell him for exainination, for his intent and that the Classe expect his attendance meaneinge was that yonge folks, that the second Tuesday in June next: as had not formerly received the sacraalso, to speake to Mr. Benson, to see ment, and strangers, should have come what he can say concerninge the to have been exainined, and not course Mr. Odcroft houlds in make- others. , inge clandestine wedings, baptizeinge “ 8. Evan Clarke brought Mr. Od