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which makes him to differ from unconscious
clay on which he gazes, once endued with By The Rev. EDWARD YOUNG, M.A.
sensation and impulse, now motionless and WHATEVER be the mysteriousness of the sub- senseless as the dust beneath his feet; and ject of spiritual influences, and the utter unless he tell me (he cannot) what the prinhopelessness of all attempts of the mere phi- ciple is, I will leave him the alternative of losopher to comprehend it, there is a prac- absurdly denying his own existence, or of tical sense in which it is intelligible to the believing what he cannot understand, and humble believer. The God whom we adore depending upon and exercising what he canis “ a God of order, and not of confusion;" not . and the religion he has been pleased so gra- But the analogy is instructive, as well as ciously to reveal is stamped with his image. convincing. Of spiritual life, no less than of The religion of the Bible is not, as natural, it may be affirmed that, though it is have misconceived it, a system of blind and a mystery, it manifests itself by its effects. unintelligible impulses - a sort of frenzy, Our blessed Lord affirmed to Nicodemus, unconnected with any rational cause, and " The wind bloweth where it listeth, and unproductive of any rational end. Myste- thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst rious indeed it is, and unsearchable by man's not tell whence it cometh, or whither it wisdom; yet in this respect it differs not goeth ; so is every one that is born of the from a vast variety of things, about which, Spirit."
Spirit.” “ Thou hearest the sound thereof." though they may seem at first sight less re- There are sensible effects, though the cause mote from our grasp, the most indefatigable be mysterious ; and even so it is with regard serutiny has left us utterly ignorant. Of the to the work of the Spirit. It is a mystery real essence and proper nature, for instance, that will bear examination. It will stand the of our natural no less than of our spiritual test of proper investigation. It is set before life, it may be truly said, that man, in all his us as a subject of reverent observation and of wisdom, is absolutely ignorant; and all we can blessed experience. affirm of the one, as well as all we know of Again : what says St. John ? the other, is wrapped up in what the apostle which was from the beginning, which we told the Athenians long ago, " in Hin we have heard,” (and what is
more, live, and move, and have our being."
have seen with our eyes,” (further yet,) I will send the scoffer, who makes miser- “ and our hands have handled of the Word able mockery of the things of the Spirit, of life, declare we unto you” (1 John, i. 1). and charges us with believing what we can- It was a practical acquaintance with the incarnot understand, and depending upon a some- nate Word, from which the apostle spoke and thing which we cannot explain to the in- wrote; and he did this, be it observed, for a quirer — I will send him to the school of practical end, “ that ye also may have felanatomy for correction, and bid him define lowship with us, and truly our fellowship is the nature of that mysterious principle, with the Father and his Son Jesus Christ;” VOL. VII.-NO, CLXXVI.
(London: Robson, Levey, and Franklyn, 46 St. Martin's Lane.]
66 which we
and (which is also of further moment to ob- | animals are enabled to live in particular spots. As I serve) “ he that saith he abideth in him have shewn, in my letter on the adaptation of animals ought himself to walk even as he walked.”
to their various stations, there can be little doubt that Here, then, is the answer to foolish men, who particular regions have been set apart for their habiknow nothing of true religion, and who de
tations, to which they are attached, not only by the ride it in consequence.
We are not, as such circumstances of climate, food, &c., but also by thie unhappy persons may suppose, mad in our propensity we are at present considering, which in profession of this great doctrine, or deceived
many cases operates so as to impel them, at certain as to the great mystery of godliness which periods, to quit one country and resort to another far
distant land, in alternate succession. In proof of the we rejoice in. We neither utter the dream
influence of this propensity, I may mention, that of a distempered fancy, nor follow a cun
turtlers affirm, that if a turtle be transported many ningly devised fable; but speak forth in our
hundred miles from its usual abode, and again liberated profession the words of truth and soberness.
in the ocean, it will return to its former place of habitaWe declare truths which may be felt as well
tion. Pigeons conveyed to great distances in close as heard, and which lead to consequences cages, so as to be unable to observe the distinguishing distinctly cognisable. Spiritual life has its features of the country through which they pass, are proper instincts and its proper actings. Its capable of finding their way back to the spot from experience has an established standard by which they were taken. By this power animals in the which it will be identified, and its workings earliest stages of their existence are impelled to seek are in accordance with established rules. their natural element. Thus, turtles and ducks, for Its model, as well as source, has been in- example, need no monitor to direct them to the water scribed, under God's bidding and God's as soon as they are hatched. And it is this power guidance, by those who declare what they also which causes the various tribes of birds to choose bad “ heard and seen” and “ handled of the different elevations and localities for building their Word of life;" and the objects with which it nests; some in rocks, some in the tops of trees, some is conversant, and after which it aspires, are
in their trunks, some in their roots.
It is not genematters which cannot be thrown aside as
rally known that there are several species of rats, visionary; for “ whatsoever things are true,
each of which lives in a different locality; one species whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever
lives always in cellars and ditches, another in the things are just, whatsoever things are pure,
higher parts of houses and upon high ground.
The operation of this power is further exemplified whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever
in the choice of situation made by the chamois, the things are of good report; if there be any ptarmigan,* and many other animals
. When this virtue, or if there be any praise,” spiritual faculty predominates very much, it gives rise to life exercises itself in thinking on, and in
conduct almost surpassing belief. A dog was transfollowing after these things.
ported in a carriage from Vienna to Petersburg ; six months afterwards it returned to Vienna. Another
dog was transported from Vienna to London, and THE POWER OF LOCALITY IN ANIMALS.* found its way back by attaching itself to a travelLOCALITY, or the faculty of finding and recognising ler in the packet-boatt Jesse mentions the cirplaces, is a power inherent in animals, without the cumstance of a dog finding its way from London to assistance afforded them by which they could not Scotland, and another from America to England; even exist. They could neither find their dwellings, also of an ass that found its way from the Point de their offspring, nor their food, having once quitted Gat to Gibraltar, though it had been conveyed thither them, unless they were able to distinguish the places by ship. This faculty also explains the wonderful in which they were left. This would not fail to be the phenomenon of migration, which has puzzled so many case, were the objects quitted within even a short dis- learned naturalists. At different periods of the year, tance; and therefore the possession by animals of some directly after the summer solstice has passed, we such faculty is sufficiently proved by the well-authen- observe a variety of birds beginning to prepare for ticated accounts, which are so frequent in works on their departure from this to other countries, many natural history, of the return of many animals from thousand miles distant. It has been well ascertained, distant countries to the place whence they had been that in many instances they leave our country for a taken, surmounting difficulties which would seem to be more temperate and uniform climate. It is by no insuperable. The readiness with which dogs distin
“ The habits of this bird are well known; but they cannot guish their masters' houses from neighbouring ones, is fail to strike every one who observes them as an instance of the merely an inferior manifestation of this power, and adaptation of animal life to peculiar and unpromising localities. may be explained without supposing any exertion of Closely resembling as they do the grouse, they seem to abhor intelligence. This faculty is very active in some ani
the heather, in which the latter delights; and in no instance
did I find a single bird of the species within the verge of that mals; and, like other powers, it varies in individuals of
vegetation. It is only where the bare rock juts out of the earth the same species. Some possess it to an extraordinary that they are to be found; and no painter could imitate more degree, while others appear completely destitute of it. accurately the general hue of the rock than does the summer By it, appropriate organisation being superadded, plumage of its resident, which, as we all know, in winter, like
the mountain-hare, becomes as white as the snow it then in• From "The Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, as dis- habits.'-JESSE's Angler's Rambles, p. 261, played in the Animal Creation." By C. M. Burnet, Esq.
† Spurzheim's Phrenology.
means certain, however, that all birds have this object it. And Christian parents cannot be too particular in migrating from one country to another. The in expressing their strong disapprobation at the apcuckoo visits us first in April, when our climate is
pearance of the first symptoms of a desire to gambie cold and unequal, and leaves us the first week in July.
in their children, though such a desire is too fre
quently countenanced and encouraged. Little, indeed, Judging from the various periods at which migratory
is the parent aware of the evils which may result from birds arrive and depart, it would seem certain of them his permitting his children to play at cards, or to bet on are appointed to change their habitations at fixed a horse-race, or even on the issue of a game at cricket seasons, in order to keep up the due equilibrium of
or marbles. It may be for a very small stake; but life in the different countries which they frequent.
the principle is bad, the spirit called forth is perFor this purpose they are endowed with the power of
nicious. A bias is given to the mind detrimental to
its proper culture; and many a wretched spendthrift transporting themselves from one region to another
may trace his headlong career of folly to indulgence widely distant.
of a spirit of gambling in boyish days. When the purpose for the attainment of wlrich they It is the writer's purpose to point out, in a few were conveyed to one country has been fulfilled, they
papers, some of the evils connected with the vice of instinctively seek another, regardless of all opposing
gambling; and in the present, to confine bis remarks
to horse-racing. difficulties. The chief object accomplished by the
Horse-racing is regarded by many, who take no migration of birds appears to be the destruction of great interest in it in a gambling point of view, as a innumerable myriads of insects and worms of all sorts,
very innocent and rational amusement. The time of which, but for this check to their multiplication,
the races is looked forward to as a joyous season; and would increase to so awful an extent as to threaten
many preparations are made in the way of dress and the earth with famine and desolation. He who can
family arrangements for their due celebration. A
large influx of company is expected into the town, not perceive the hand of God in this wise and merci
which as a consequence circulates money, and renders ful arrangement must be blind indeed. We need no the race-week profitable to many tradesmen as well longer marvel, then, to see the little swallow or the as publicans; and consequently the removal of the house-martin return to our land with such faithful
nuisance would meet with strong opposition on the
part of many who never attend the race. The races exactness; and not only to the same country, but to
are not unfrequently patronised by persons of distincthe same place—the same window or the same hole ; tion in the neighbourhood, whom it would be danfor we know that the power by which they are guided gerous to offend. The very representatives in paris given to them by their Creator, and that it is his
liament are expected, as a matter of course, to keep hand wlich directs their movements.
up the members' plate; while corporate bodies have
been known, in their official capacity, and attended It is well known that birds kept in a cage, though by the insignia of their city or borough, to sanction fed with an abundance of food, become restless at the
the race-course with their presence. It is maintained period in which they would, if at liberty, migrate-an that races liave a tendency to keep up a fine breed of indication that the propensity to transport their bodies
horses in the country; that they are a source of to some other clime is not attributable to external
emolument, and give employment to many persons ; causes alone — such as food, temperature, and the
and the respectable company which usually is to be
found on the course, with the large list of patrons, like; but is an innate feeling, given to them by their
some of whom move in the highest ranks, is esteemed Maker.
a sufficient guarantee that they cannot be of that immoral and licentious tendency which some affirm.
The writer would regard the subject, however, in a GAMBLING AND ITS CONCOMITANT VICES.
Christian spirit, and in a Christian point of view;
and he has no hesitation in affirming, that no real No. I.—Horse-Racing.
Christian will countenance, in the remotest degree, the vices of a race-course--nay, further, that every
true Christian will use his intuence, be it small or The vice of gambling, in the train of which a multi- great, to discourage them. Happy that neighbourtude of others invariably follow, prevails amongst all
bood which is free from this moral pest; unfortunate classes to a most pernicious extent; from the man the neighbourhood where races are periodically held. who squanders his thousands, forfeits his estates, and Every friend to humanity and morality will use his reduces himself to a condition little removed from exertions against their institution near the place of pauperism, to the pauper himself, who is willing to his residence. risk his few pence in hopes that he may add to them First, as concerns humanity confined to the brute by some lucky hit. Whether carried on in the
It is impossible to prove that horsesplendid saloon, amidst all that can pamper the ap- racing is unattended with cruelty. The horses are, petite and madden the brain, or amidst the obscenity indeed, well fed and well attended to - it is the which too often disgraces the proceedings of the beer- owner's interest that they should be so: but is there shop, the effect is little different, as far as hardening no cruelty in urging the horse beyond its natural the beart is concerned. It is needless to say, that any strength-in goading and pushing it to the goal
-no legislative enactment, with the view effectually to cruelty in the lashes inflicted upon it? Let any one prevent gambling, would be a most important addi- observe the race-horse just arrived at the winningtion to the code of our country's laws; and that he post; and he surely, if not blinded by love of his would be indeed a true benefactor to his fellow-men, favourite amusement, will declare that the whole who could devise some such expedient as would pre- transaction, which he has witnessed with interest and vent or at least modify this crying evil. When it is delight, is replete with barbarity. A statement lately considered how much time is wasted, how much money appeared in the newspapers, of the fate of some of the is squandered, how many evil tempers are cherished, noblest race-horses in Englaud in their declining years how much poverty is caused, and not unfrequently It would appear that many of them had passed reason lost or life sacrificed, by gambling, it is assur- through every species of drudgery, until the knacker's edly the imperative duty of the Christian philanthro-yard relieved them from their woes; and the series of pist to endeavour to check, if he cannot wholly remove prints, “ The High-mettled Racer,” known to many
BY A CLERGYMAN OF THE CHURCH OF EXGLAND,
who read these remarks, is too lamentably descriptive attendants. The cases, indeed, do not entirely coinof his career. But even could it be proved, which cide; for in the latter he who witnesses the play must is utterly out of the question, that there was no cruelty have in all probability paid a sum for admission to the in horse-racing, its immoral tendency were sufficient theatre, which so far tends to its support; whereas to induce every right-thinking man to discountenance on the race-course, no pecuniary support may be it. Look at the roads from London to Ascot or given. Let it be recollected, however, that this very Epsom at the time of the races ; and is it possible to attendance is an indirect support to its vices and conceive a more lamentable picture of human nature,
enormities. a more depressing manifestation of the fearful preva- Perhaps there is nothing more disgusting to a cullence of vice? Examine the character of those who con- tivated mind, even unintluenced by Christian pringregate, not merely at Newmarket or Doncaster, but ciple, than the perusal of what is termed a sporting at the more private country races; and say if such a newspaper. Having occasion lately to call for refreshmass of moral pollution in every shape can elsewhere ment at a small country inn, the hostess brought a be congregated. Perhaps there is no situation more newspaper into the room, remarking, however, at the entirely adverse to the reception of religious impres- same time, with a confused look, “ Perhaps you would sions than that of a horse-jockey or a traininggroom ; not like to read it, sir. It is a Sunday sporting newsthey live in heathenism in a Christian land. It is paper; and we take in no other." "It might havė true there may be carriages filled with the families of been more consistent had I refused to receive it; the neighbourhood, with females ignorant of the pol- but I confess I was anxious to ascertain its contents luted atmosphere which has surrounded them, who with reference to those very remarks .I am drive off from the course as soon as the race is over, making. Glancing over its pages, I had little diffito prepare for the afternoon ordinary or the evening culty in arriving at the conclusion that such a publicaball; but if this sanctions the race-course in the eyes tion must have the worst effect on the minds of its of the worldling, who may have some little scruple as readers ; though it could not be ranked exactly with to its propriety, it cannot sanctify it in the eyes of those grossly licentious publications which are issuing a true Christian. The circumstance that races are almost daily from the press, and undermining the attended by families of respectability, is only the more principles of thousands of the rising generation.* to be deplored. The effect on the minds of their It testified to the full extent the evils of the racemembers cannot fail to be pernicious. The conse
It recorded Sabbaths spent in preparation quence is often ruinous in the last degree ; and the for the festivities of the coming week, t as well as in parent who countenances the attendance of his child- | betting on the probable results of the races. One ren, sons or daughters, at such a scene, may be lead single paper, containing the record of one week's sport, ing them into temptations which may embitter the was enough to convince every right-minded man of remainder of their lives, and cause himself inexpres- the irreligious tendency of such aniusements, and how sible remorse and self-condemnation. Surely it is much the subject bears on the desecration of the Lord's not too much to say, that the circumstance of a family day. I grieved to find that, at the village-inn referred countenancing horse-racing is a certain evidence that, to, the afternoon of the Sabbath was invariably spent, whatever its professions may be, it has not been by those who frequented the tap, in the perusal of the brought under the influence of vital and soul-saving publication referred to. Need I add, the effect was religion.
most pernicious ? But let the advocate for, or at least the palliator of, The object of these remarks is to dissuade, if pos. horse-racing witness the angry passions which are sible, any before whom they may be brought from atcalled forth on the stands, or on the course-let him tending the races, or countenancing them in any way ; enter the booths for refreshment, resounding with the and to impress upon parents and masters, who have drunken roar of licentious revelry-let him extend his the responsibility of the conduct of others committed walk to the outskirts of the course, and witness the to their care, the absolute duty of forbidding their gambling, in a humbler degree, going on among the being present. Need I remind my clerical brethren, humbler classes-let him linger till night draws on, that they should make the evils of such places of and then assuredly, unless the eyes of his understand- amusement a frequent subject of exhortation and ing are darkened, he will be led to the acknowledge remark, and that they should use their influence to ment, that the tendency of such scenes as he has remove, if possible, these moral pests? Obloquy will witnessed, must be to demoralise the minds of those probably be heaped upon them, as many have expewho take a part in them. It were impossible to soil rienced; and they will be abused as the enemies of these pages with an account of the obscenities, in rational recreation : be it so; still they have a Master various shapes, which are almost the invariable accom- to serve, whose will is to be their law; they have paniments of the race; or to portray the total want of souls to labour to be instrumental in saving; and principle in those who resort to such scenes for the these souls may receive unspeakable injury from the purpose of swindling, and to wliose wiles many a moral pestilence with which they are surrounded. thoughtless man becomes a dupe. Can any character Incalculable indeed is the mischief that may arise be more awful than that of a black-leg? and
on the race-ground. To that dangerous spot may be such, not a few of the great and wealthy of the land traced the ruin of many of the young of both sexes. are not ashamed to associate. Too much praise cannot There the wicked heart may find inuch to nourish the be bestowed on the excellent “ Society for the Sup-rank, obnoxious weeds which luxuriate in its soil; pression of Vice,” for the energetic endeavours of its there the first decisive step may be taken from the managing committee to stem the tide of moral pollu- | paths of rectitude, which will lead to the chambers of tion. It is impossible to urge its claims too strongly never-ending woe. Surely, then, no effort should be on the support of the public. It has done much spared, no caution should be lost, to remove from unalready, and, if its funds will allow it, may do much hallowed ground those who, in the thoughtlessness and
gaiety of youth, may perceive no harm at all as likely But it will be said, that though this may be no to result from their attendance. exaggerated description of the vice abounding on the
• We shall very speedily bring this subject, an exceedingly course, yet a person may simply go and see the races,
delicate one, before our readers.--ED. and return home when they are over. But may not + See our Mag. No. XXXV. p. 34, containing an extract from indirect evil arise from this ? Such a mode of argu
the Bp. of London's (Blomfield) Letter on the present Nego ing is very much like that adopted by those who think
lect of the Lord's day. there is no barm in attending a theatre, provided there be no intercourse with its usually licentious
SUNDAY REFLECTIONS.-No. XIV. crucified Nazarene" we trusted that it had been he BY MRS. RILEY.
that should have redeemed Israel.” That stumblingTHE JOURNEY TO EMMAUS,
block of the Jews yet lay in their way; the vail yet Luke, xxiv. 13, &c.
remained upon their hearts : but he was come to roll EMMAUS, though only an insignificant village in a away the rock of offence, and lay a precious cornerdistant land, yet seems stamped by affection upon
stone for their faith; to rend the vail of unbelief, and our imagination, as a place we should delight to visit, shew the spiritual nature of that salvation they looked and while traversing its rocky road, recall the narra- for as temporal ; and while they beheld in his suffertive of a journey thither, begun in sorrow, but ended ings and death the overthrow of their liope, he was
about to prove those very sufferings its only sure When Cleopas and his companion, with burdened foundation : "for without shedding of blood there is hearts and saddened countenances, began their pil
no remission of sin." grimage, perhaps to convey to some fellow-disciple Referring to the Scriptures as the ground of their the strange tidings they almost feared to credit, how belief, he began at the books of Moses, tracing the little did they imagine they should so soon retrace current of prophecy from its rise in paradise, the their steps, all doubt and fear dispelled, and hope gleam of hope vouchsafed to our fallen parents in a confirmed by certainty! And even yet, how frequently future seed who should bruise the serpent's head ; do those who set out upon some toilsome path of duty, the promise to Abraham, " in thy seed shall all the find, ere they have journeyed long, that there is still families of the earth be blessed," confirmed to Isaac, a companion on the way, whose cheering influence and rendered more definite to Jacob; the testimony dispels its danger or its difficulty, while their hearts of Moses, “ The Lord thy God will raise up unto are warmed by the gracious encouragement of his thee a Prophet, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, words, though their eyes may be withholden from like unto me, unto him shall ye hearken;" and the knowing him in all his fulness!
traditionary prophecy of Balaam, “ There shall come Cleopas, the husband of one of the Marys, who a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of had lingered by the cross of her Lord and visited his Israel.” Although the voice of prophecy slumbered tomb at sunrise, was a kinsman of the mother of for awhile, it awoke in Hannah's triumphant strain, Jesus; and being himself also a disciple, would feel “ The Lord shall give strength unto his King, and disposed to yield credence to the information of his exalt the horn of his Anointed” (or Messiah); and wife, that He whom they mourned was risen. St. David delighted to dwell upon the glory of Him who Luke does not tell us the name of his companion on was to be at once his Lord and his son. As the ful. the journey to Emmaus:-might it be the evangelist ness of time drew nigh, prophecy grew more distinct ; himself? By some commentators, St. Luke has been the circumstances of his miraculous birth, its time and supposed to have been one of the seventy disciples place, were minutely recorded; and the sacred canon selected by Christ himself to spread the glad tidings
was closed by the promise of a messenger, to announce of the Gospel. If this were the case, we can easily the coming of Him thus fully and clearly revealed. imagine that he would accompany his Master to Still, this recital would only recall the sorrow of Jerusalem at his last passover.
And there is a the dejected disciples. Alas! we delighted to trace minuteness with which the details of this little episode these glorious promises to our nation fulfilled in are related, that scems to betray the accuracy of an Jesus; we acknowledged him to be the Son of God, eye-witness; while the omission of the name of the the King of Israel ; and we vainly " trusted that it other disciple" wlio accompanied Cleopas, would only had been he which should have redeemed his people.” accord with the modesty apparent in the writings of Then again did the gracious Teacher retrace his another evangelist, who describes himself as him lesson, and opened to them the Scriptures; shewing "whom Jesus loved."
that not more clearly did they reveal his future " Then they who feared the Lord spake often one triumphs than they did his previous humiliation. to another, and the Lord hearkened and heard it" The bruised heel--the promised seed yielded a willing (Mal. iii. 16). And so engrossed were these tra- sacrifice -- the contradiction of sinners endured by vellers with the all-absorbing subject of their Master's Moses--the sorrowful strains from David's harp, when passion, that he had joined them unperceived, and the awful scenes of the crucifixion passed in their now condescended to mingle in their conversation, minuteness before his vision--the desponding comand inquire the cause of their anxiety. They felt plaint of Isaiah," Who hath believed our report ?" or that the recent transactions at Jerusalem were so im- in that marred visage and stricken form beheld either portant, that absence from the scene could alone beauty or comeliness, " that they should desire him"-excuse ignorance. “ Art thou a stranger ?” O no! the summons, " Awake, O sword, against the man their new companion was no stranger, either to their that is my fellow, saith the Lord of hosts"—the smitperplexity, or to their trembling faith ; he knew that ten shepherd -- the scattered Mock--the goodly price the desire of their hearts was, “ Lord, I believe ; for which he should be betrayed, -all these evidences help thou mine unbelief :" and now he was about to of his sufferings and rejection, previously passed over repeat his gracious declaration, “ according to your with wonder or repugnance, would now flash upon the faith be it unto you." Still, though regarding him as minds of the disciples with the light of conviction ; a stranger, or it might even prove a persecutor, they and when applied by such an Expounder, no wonderfeared not to bear testimony to the honour of the that their hearts burned within them, and that they despised Jesus, as " a prophet mighty in word and in wished for lengthened communion with so gentle yet deed," nor to confess the faith they had reposed in the powerful a Teacher. But it was finished; his errand