Imatges de pàgina
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prayer is evidently implied. Thus the Is- | foot a journey of perhaps eight days. The harámys or raelites knew, from the book of Genesis, robbers are never mounted. When they arrive, about that their father Abraham was more than

evening, near the camp which is the intended object

of their enterprise, three of the most daring are deexpressly commanded to pray, or allowed spatched towards the tents, where they are to arrive at to pray, even for others by the Almighty midnight, a time when most Arabs sleep: the others bimself. And their great lawgiver had often,

are to await their return within a short distance of the and with success, lifted up his prayers to God camp. of the three principal actors, each has his

allotted business. One of them (styled el mostamben) in their behalf. Perhaps also the book of stations himself behind the tent that is to be robbed, Job might teach them, that men might "pray and endeavours to excite the attention of the nearest unto God, and he would be favourable unto watch-dogs. These immediately attack him, and they them” (xxxiii. 26, xxi. 15, xlii. 8). . If, then, thus cleared of those dangerous guardians. Another

pursue him to a great distance from the camp, which is we put all these things together, it will be

of the three, called emphatically el harámy, or "the clear, both that the practice of the Israelites robber," now advances towards the camels, that are to offer up their prayers to almighty God upon their knees before the tent; he cuts the strings existed at a very early period, -earlier, for

that confine their legs, and makes as many rise as he

wishes. He then leads one of the she-camels out of instance, than the birth of Samuel—a period the camp; the others follow as usual. The third antecedent to those great improvements in adventurous companion (styled käyde) places himself the law which the prophets by degrees in- meanwhile near the tent-pole, called the hand," troduced, and also that the Israelites could holding a long and heavy stick over the entrance of

the tent, ready to knock down any person who might not have been ignorant of the propriety and come forth, and thus give time for the harámy's escape. efficacy of prayer even in the time of Moses If the robbery succeeds, the harámy and käyde drive himself.

the camels to a little distance; each then seizes by the But we should observe further, that it was

tail one of the strongest camels, which they pull with

all their might : this causes the beasts to gallop; and the very genius of the Mosaic law to teach by the men thus dragged, and followed by the other actions as well as by words; and it is by no camels, arrive at the place of rendezvous, from which means to be supposed, even if the Israelites they hasten to join the mostambeh, who has in the were not expressly enjoined to pray, that they meantime been engaged in defending himself from were therefore not enjoined such religious camels are stolen in this manner.

It often happens that as many as fifty

The robbers, traservices as would carry with them the spirit velling only at night, return home by forced marches. of prayer, the feelings and dispositions suit- To the chief of the party, and the three principal able to devotion, if not the form and words of actors, an extra share of the booty is allowed. prayer. Thus (Deut. viii. 10) it is enjoined project. if any neighbour of the tent attacked per

But very different effects attend a failure of their them, “ When thou hast eaten and art full, ceives the harámy and käyde, he awakens his friends ; then thou shalt bless the Lord thy God for they surround the robbers, and he who first seizes one the good land which he hath given thee."

In

of them makes him his prisoner, or rabiet. The

Bedouin laws concerning the rabiet are very curious, this passage no express form of words for a

and shew the influence which custom, handed down blessing and thanksgiving is prescribed, pos- through many generations, (although not connected sibly none was intended to be used ; but still with religion,) may exercise over the fiercest characthe devout feelings of praise and thankfulness ters amongst the wildest sons of liberty. The rabát are evidently required of them ; and wishes

(or he who seizes the rabiet) asks his captive on what

business he had come; and this question is generally suitable to prayer may be made known to accompanied by some blows on the head. “I came God by a devout worshipper, without their to rob; God has overthrown me," is the answer most being actually embodied in express language. commonly given. The prisoner is then led into the

tent, where the capture of a harámy occasions great rejoicing. The next act of the rabát is to clear the

tent of all witnesses; then, still holding his knife, he THE ROBBERS OF ARABIA..

ties the prisoner's hands and feet, and afterwards calls

in the people of his tribe. Some one of them, or the The Arabian robber, (and they may well be styled rabát himself, then addresses the harámy, saying, a nation of robbers,) considers his profession as Neffa, or “renounce ;” and the harámy, dreading a honourable; and the term harúmy (robber) is one of continuation of the beating, is induced to answer, the most flattering titles that could be conferred on a Beneffa, " I renounce." This ceremony is founded on youthful hero.

a custom of the Dakheil, which is as follows:The Arab robs his enemies, his friends, and his It is established as a law among the Arabs, that so neighbours, provided that they are not actually in his soon as a person is in actual danger from another, and own tent, where their property is sacred. But the can touch a third Arab, (be the last whoever he may, Arab chiefly prides himself on robbing his enemies, even the aggressor's brother,) or if he touch an inaniand on bringing away by stealth what he could not mate thing which the other has in his hands, or with have taken by open force. The Bedouins have which any part of his body is in contact, or if he can reduced robbery, in all its branches, to a complete and hit him in spitting or throwing a stone at him, and at regular system. If an Arab intends to go on a pre

the same time exclaims, Ana dakheilak, “ I am thy prodatory excursion, he takes with him a dozen friends. tected," he is no longer exposed to any danger, and They all clothe themselves in rags. Each takes a very the third is obliged to defend him: this, however, is moderate stock of flour and salt, and a small water- seldom necessary, as the aggressor from that moment skin; and thus slenderly provided, they commeyce on desists. In like manner, the harámy would be entitled

to the same privilege, could he find an opportunity of From "Scripture Elucidations.” Edinburgh, Whyte and Co. demanding it. On this account the persons entering

the tent desire him to “renounce" the privilege of He then awakens the rabát, shews him the thread still dakheil ; and his reply, “I do renounce," makes it held by the captive, and declares that the latter is his impossible for him to claim any further the protection dakheil. The harámy is then released from his fetdue to a dakheil. But this renunciation is only valid ters; the rabát entertains him as a guest newly during the present day; for if the same persons on the arrived, and he is suffered to depart in safety. next day should enter the tent, the same form of If, however, no means can be devised for effecting renunciation would be necessary, and in general it is the prisoner's escape, he must at length conclude repeated whenever any person enters the tent. That some terms of ransom. A sum being fixed, it genethe harámy may not easily escape, or become the dak- rally happens that among the rabát's tribe some setheil of any one, a hole is formed in the ground of the tlers of hi own tribe are found who become responsible tent, about two feet deep, and as long as the man ; in for the amount. He is then consigned to those friends, this hole he is laid, his feet chained to the earth, his one of whom accompanies him to his own home, and hands tied, and his twisted hair fastened to two stakes receives from him the stipulated ransom, camels, or on both sides of his head. Some tent-poles are laid other articles, which he delivers punctually to the across this grave, and corn-stacks and other heavy rabát. If the liberated robber cannot collect among articles heaped upon them, so as to leave only a small his friends the full amount of the ransom, he is bound opening over the prisoner's face, through which he in honour to resign himself up into the hands of his may breathe.

rabát, and thus again become a captive. There are If the camp is to be removed, a piece of leather is but few instances of the rabiet's refusing to pay, or to thrown over the harámy's head; he is then placed on a return: if his friendly bail cannot enforce the paycamel, his legs and hands always tied; wherever the ment, he must satisfy the rabát from his own procamp is pitched, a hole or grave is prepared (as above perty; but he can inflict a severe punishment on his described) for his prison. Thus buried alive, the pri- | false friend, a punishment so dreaded, that the Arabs soner does not yet resign all hopes of escaping; this very seldom incur it.

The bail has only to denounce constantly occupies his mind, while the rabát endea- the other as a traitor (yeboagah) among all the tribes vours to extract from him the highest possible ransom. of his (the bail's) nation : after this, if the denounced If the former belongs to rich family, he never tells person should come, in peace or war, to any tent of his real name, but declares himself a poor beggar. If ihat nation, he cannot claim the privilege of a guest he be recognised, which generally happens, he must or of a dakheil, but may be stripped even by his host pay as a ransom all his property in horses, camels,

of all his property. sheep, tents, provisions, and baggage. His perse

If the father of a family (or a son) resolves upon a verance in pleading poverty, and in concealing his real predatory expedition, however dangerous, he never name, sometimes protracts an imprisonment of this mentions it to his nearest friends, but orders his wife kind for six months : he is then allowed to purchase or sister to make a provision of flour and salt in a his liberty on moderate terms, or fortune may enable small bag. To any inquiry respecting the object of him to effect his escape. Customs long established his journey, he either replies, "That's not your busiamong the Bedouins contribute much to that effect. ness," or gives the favourite Bedouin reply, “I go If from the hole, which may be called his grave, he

where God leads me." can contrive to spit into the face of a man or child, A father whose son has been taken prisoner, (as a without the form of renunciation before mentioned, he rabiet,) often sacrifices his whole property for the ranis supposed to have touched a protector and liberator; som, because he considers it an honour that his son or if a child (the rabát's own child excepted) give hinn should be a harámy; and hopes he will soon repay a morsel of bread, the harámy claims the privilege of

him by the result of a more successful expedition. having eaten with his liberator; and although this per- Arabs never approach a hostile camp on foot, or in son may be the rabát's near relation, his right to free- small numbers, but for the sake of robbing. To make dom is allowed, the thongs which tied his hair are cut an open attack, they come mounted on horses or with a knife, his fetters are taken off, and he is set at camels; and though their attempt fail, they will be liberty.

treated like fair enemies, not as robbers ; stripped and Sometimes he finds means to disengage himself from plundered, but not detained. On the contrary, when his chains during the rabát's absence ; in this case he an Arab meets an unarmed enemy on foot, he knows escapes at night, and takes refuge in the nearest tent, him to be a harámy coming with the intention of robdeclaring himself dakheil to the first person he meets, bing; he is therefore authorised to make him his and thus regains his freedom. But this seldom hap rabiet, provided he can seize him in a place from pens; for the prisoner always receives so very scanty

which it is possible that he can return to his own camp an allowance of food, that his weakness generally pre- before sunset, or reach the tents of some friendly vents him from making any extraordinary effort; but

tribe. In this case, the presumprion is, that the enemy his friends usually liberate him either by open force, intended that very night to roh the camp ; but if the or by contrivance, in the following manner :

place where he meets the enemy be at a greater disA relation of the prisoner, most frequently his own tance than one day's journey, or as far as one can mother or sister, disguised as a beggar, is received in march during the remainder of the day, (counting the character of a poor guest by some Arab of the

from the time of meeting till sunset,) he is not justified camp in which the harámy is contined. Having ascer- in making him rabiet, but must treat him as a comtained the tent of his rabát, the disguised relation

mon enemy. introduces herself into it at night, with a ball of

Should a man be seized at the moment when he is thread in her hands, approaches the hole in which he endeavouring to release his captive friend or relation, lies, and throwing one end of the thread over the pri- he is himself made rabiet, provided that he arrived soner's face, contrives to guide it into his mouth, or directly from the desert; but if he has been received fastens it to his foot : thus he perceives that help is as a guest in any tent of the camp, or if he has even at hand. The woman retires, winding off the thread drunk some water, or sat down in one of the tents, and until she reaches some neighbouring tent; then pronounced the salutation, Salem aleyk (Peace be awakens the owner of it, and applying the thread to to you,'') he must be protected by the owner of the his bosom, addresses him in these words: “Look on tent, and not molested, although his generous design me, by the love thou bearest to God and thy ownself: has failed. this is under thy protection.” As soon as the Arab comprehends the object of this nocturnal visit, he rises, and winding up the thread in his hands, is guided by it to the tent which contains the harámy,

Biography.

which denotes that some sad spectacle is looked for,

or wonderful event has happened. GEORGE TANKERFIELD,

The greatest crowd, however, was assembled round Burnt at St. Albans, August 26, 1555.

the Cross-Keys Inn, where a man that had been sent The attention of the readers of this Magazine has

from London was sitting quietly with the host, who been repeatedly called to those devoted followers of

carefully attended to him, and supplied him with all the Lord, who, at the time of the Reformation, shed

that he asked for, and conversed with him as with a

friend. their blood for the Gospel's sake. But hitherto the

That man whom the crowd had collected to martyrdom of those only has been related who were

see was George Tankerfield, who was kept waiting in distinguished by their learning or their station, the the inn all the morning, till the sheriffs had returned captains of the noble army of the cross. The common

from the wedding-dinner ; after which he must be had soldiers, however, if I may so term them, were the

to Romeland, and there at the stake be burned to more numerous part of that body. For whereas five ashes, because he would not yield to the idolatrous bishops, twenty-one clergymen, and eight gentlemen, worship of the papists. were burned in the miserable reign of Mary, there

Tankerfield was a young man, aged about twentysuffered by fire, in the same period, eighty-four trades

seven or twenty-eight. He was born at York, but men, one hundred husbandmen, servants, and la

had settled in London. Through King Edward's days bourers, fifty-five women, and five children. The he was a stanch Romanist; but when, on the coming characteristic of the Gospel was then, as in every

in of Queen Mary, he saw the virulent persecution other age, that to the poor it was preached, and

with which the reformers were assailed, he began to of the poor it was received. The inferior classes,

think that that could not be the true religion which therefore, may well examine with especial interest the

needed to be maintained with so much cruelty. He annals of that persecution. It is this reflection which

began also to mislike the mass; and while doubting has induced me to gather a few particulars of the

in his mind which was the true faith, he betook himmartyrdom of George Tankerfield, a humble cook of self to prayer that it would please God graciously to the city of London.

resolve his difficulties. Then being directed to the It was a bright summer's day, when a goodly com

New Testament, he saw clearly, by what he read there, pany was assembled at the house of a gentleman of

the evil of the popish doctrines; which therefore he not Hertfordshire, close by the town of St. Albans. There only renounced himself, but earnestly endeavoured to was mirth and there was feasting there; and many

prevail also on his friends to renounce with him. young and joyous spirits were at the banquet. For

It is by trial and discipline that any one is armed that gentleman's son had that day received the hand

and prepared for conflict; and as God had intended of a fair bride ; and belted knights, and magistrates,

to use this man as a soldier in his cause, he thought and ladies, were collected to do honour to the house.

good to discipline him previously, that when the last Many a loving wish was breathed for the welfare of final onset came, he might boldly stand, and unflinchthe young couple—no more twain, but one flesh; and ingly maintain the quarrel he had espoused. Acthere were anticipations of their future happiness, cordingly, the chastening of sickness was laid upon and affectionate hopes that they might live in honour,

him, in which doubtless he communed with his own and see their children's children. But it seemed, amid

heart, and was strengthened in the faith he had that gay company, as if now and then thoughts of a

embraced, and was enabled in quiet retirement to look different kind from those suggested by the scene

forward to the death by which he must have seen it before them, were in the minds of some that were

likely he would be called to glorify God. As soon as sitting at the board. The high-sheriff of the county,

he came forth from this school, he was summoned to Mr. Brocket, and his under-sheriff, Pulter, were among

practise the lessons he had learned. For having, when the guests; and occasionally, with looks of meaning,

somewhat recovered, walked forth one day into the they exchanged a word or two; and then there was a sort

Temple-fields, a man named Beard, one of the yeomen of hush to the merriment of the assemblage, and a

of the guard, called to inquire for him at his house, pause ere the lively jest and the joyous laugh again cir

pretending that he was wanted to go and dress a dinculated. Thus rolled the hours on, till, whendinner was

ner at Lord Paget's. His wife, deceived by the tale, over, after the early fashion of the age at two o'clock, courteously invited the messenger to refresh himself; the sheriffs departed, as men who were hurried away

and with the eager hope that her husband would earn by some call of stern duty.

something for their support, ran to fetch him home, That forenoon the attention of the inhabitants of

telling him that he was sent for to dress a banquet. St. Albans had been directed to a spot near the west

But Tankerfield knew well what that message meant. end of the noble Abbey-Church. It was a green and

“ A banquet!" said he ; “indeed it is such a banquet pleasant place, called Romeland, where it is likely

as will not be very pleasant to the flesh; but God's children had often sported in gleeful play ; but now

will be done.” When he came into the house, he no sport, as it seemed, was to be acted there. For recognised the officer, who made him immediately his there was a large dark post set up, and there were

prisoner ; while the afflicted wife, in a paroxysm of bundles of brushwood lying about, and reeds, and

grief at the fate she saw prepared for her husband, sturdy constables were keeping a strict watch, and

was with difficulty restrained from a violent attack little knots of people were gathered here and there,

upon the guardsman. He was committed to Newgate talking to each other in that low and earnest tone

about the end of February 1555.

Tankerfield underwent examination before Bonner; See Fox, vol. iii. I

and so well did he witness his confession before

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round the Cross- Keys Inn, there were various opi

bloody man, that in derision he called him Mr. | sins to God, and offered up an earnest prayer ; theti Speaker. The articles objected to him respected having read over the account, as narrated by the evanauricular confession, the real presence, and the mass. gelists and by St. Paul, of the institution of the sacraTo these he replied, that he did not allow the necessity ment, he said, “O Lord, thou knowest it, I do not this of confession to a priest, or the body and blood of to derogate authority from any man, or in contempt Christ to be corporally present in the sacrament; and of those which are thy ministers; but only because I that the mass was full of idolatry and abomination, cannot have it ministered according to thy word.” And and against the word of God. And when the bishop then he received the bread and the wine with giving began to read his sentence, and was endeavouring to of thanks. But of mere bodily food he would take persuade him to recant, “ I will not forsake mine none ; for when some of his friends advised him to opinions," said he, “ except you, my lord, can refell eat meat, No, he replied, he would not eat that which them by Scriptures : and I care not for your divinity; should do others good, that had more need, and had for you condemn all men, and prove nothing against longer time to live than he. them.” Neither would he lose the opportunity of And now the bridal feast was over, and the joyous warning the people that stood by. For " the Church,” wedding guests were separating; and then came the said he, “whereof the pope is supreme head, is no sherifls with their guard to carry George Tankerfield to part of Christ's catholic Church ;” and pointing to the stake. It was his bridal ; and shortly he knew Bonner, "good people," he added, " beware of him, that he should sit down at the marriage- banquet of the and such as he is; for these be the people that deceive Lamb. With a cheerful spirit he went to his death ; you." Then he was delivered over to the secular and when he had kneeled down and prayed, he said, power, and afterwards conveyed to St. Albans. that although he might have a sharp dinner, yet he

As he was on his road to that place, a certain school- hoped to have a joyful supper in heaven. While the master came to him, urging him with the authority of faggots were putting about him, a priest came to urge the doctors in favour of popery; but he was answered

him to believe the mass. But the martyr cried veheout of the Scriptures: and as he would not allow | mently from the stake, “ Fie on that abominable idol ! Tankerfield's allegations from the Bible unless inter- good people, do not believe him-good people, do not preted by the opinions of the fathers, so neither would

believe him.” On this, the mayor of the town comTankerfield credit any position of his, except he could

manded fire to be immediately put to the heretic; and confirm it by the Scriptures. In the end, they parted

said that if he had but one load of faggots in the whole in amity, the schoolmaster protesting that he meant

world, he would give them to burn him. But there the martyr no more hurt than his own soul.

were some there who breathed a different spirit. A Among the crowd which I described as gathered

certain knight took him by the hand, and said softly,

Good brother, be strong in Christ.” And Tankerfield nions uttered. Some grieved to see such a godly man

replied, “ O sir, I thank you ; I am so, I thank God.” brought thither to die a painful death, and others

When the fire was set to him, he desired the sheriffs praised God for his constancy in the faith. Some, and people to pray for him ; and many of them did again, said it was a pity he should hold such heretical Then embracing the flame, he bathed himself, as opinions; and others reviled him, and declared he was

it were, in it; and, calling on the name of the Lord unworthy to live. But he spoke kindly and convin- Jesus, was quickly out of pain. So patiently indeed cingly to them all, and sent away several with even

did he endure, that some superstitious papists said, weeping eyes.

that it was the devil, who was so strong in him as to As the host of the inn seemed inclined to shew him keep him, and such heretics as he was, from feeling good-will, Tankerfield requested that he might have a

pain. fire in the chamber. This was granted him; and then

Tankerfield was, I believe, the only one who died in sitting on a form before it, he took off his shoes and the Marian persecution at that place, celebrated as the hose, and stretched his leg into the flame. But when scene, many hundred years before, of the death of he felt the pain, he quickly drew it back, thus

Alban, the proto-martyr of England.

S. evidencing the conflict betwixt the flesh and spirit, which the martyrologist has described with graphic effect. “The flesh said, I thou fool, wilt thou burn,

EMIGRATION. and needest not? The spirit said, Be not afraid ; for

At present labourers are suffering from a too great this is nothing in respect of fire eternal. The flesh depreciation in the price of labour. The supply of said, Do not leave the company of thy friends and labour is greater than its demand. How can this evil acquaintance, which love thee and will let thee lack be rectified? It may be alleviated in many ways by nothing. The spirit said, The company of Jesus Christ,

the kind consideration of the rich. But it rests in a and his glorious presence, doth exceed all feshly

great measure with the labourers themselves to remove

the evil. Provident habits, and a proper independfriends. The flesh said, Do not shorten thy time ; for ence of spirit, will lead them to prefer any act of thou mayest live, if thou wilt, much longer. The spirit self-denial or hard labour lo an abject and degraded said, This life is nothing unto the life in heaven, which dependence on others. lasteth for ever." By and by, as the time drew on

Improvident habits are the ruin of the labouring when he should suffer, Tankerfield, with that simple

classes. Idleness, drunkenness, and waste, bring woful

“Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty; heartedness which seems to have been so peculiarly open thine eyes, and thou shalt be satisfied with characteristic of him, asked for a pint of malmsey wine and a loaf of bread. And then, when these were

• From “ A Letter to the Labouring Classes, in their own

behalf." By Herbert Smith, B.A., chaplain to the New Forest brought, he kneeled down, and humbly confessed his Union-Workhouse. Rivington,

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bread" (Prov. xx. 13). Again, “ the drunkard and a deficiency of funds. Then when it is further conthe glutton shall come to poverty; and drowsiness sidered, that this large sum would come in weekly, shall clothe a man with rags" (Prov. xxiii. 21). | how large a number of emigrants would it send out Every kind of vice is ruinous, and many young per- with a comfortable independence, to enter on their sons by leaving the path of virtue are brought into a work and toil, which they must expect in their new melancholy state of degradation and dependence. On abode! Were this plan carried on with spirit, and the other hand, provident and virtuous habits are the the contributions became general, the labourer at greatest safeguard to the independence and respect- home might calculate that for every penny he so conability of the labouring classes. Make them provident tributed, he would have a return of a shilling by a and virtuous, and you will make them independent proportionate increase of wages. And when it is and respectable.

borne in mind how small a superabundance of laTo remove the evil of a too-great depreciation in bourers tends to lower the rate of wages, the number the price of labour, what more can be done by the of emigrants required to raise the rate of wages will labouring classes ? They suffer from the supply of not be so great as might be imagined. Some such labour being greater than its demand. How can this plan must be resorted to, if the labouring classes are evil be rectified ? Remove the labourers, and the to be raised to that respectable independence, which is supply of labour will be lessened; consequently its so requisite for the promotion of the general welfare, value will be increased- wages will rise. But where prosperity, and happiness of the country. are the supernumerary labourers to be removed to ? The low rate of wages at which men, women, and Does not reason answer, To the place where their children in this country are positively slaving to services are wanted and their labour would be valued. obtain a scanty subsistence, and which enables the Emigration is nothing new; it is the means by which rich to live in an undue excess of luxury, is as prethe different parts of the world have been peopled. judicial to them and to the country as the excess of Every flourishing country of which we have any poverty is to the labouring classes. The state of account in history, has had its colonies, to which the society which the prayer of Agur would uphold ought inhabitants of the mother-country have emigrated. to be encouraged for the general good : "Give me The East and West Indies have long been resorted to neither poverty nor riches; feed me with food conby the youth of the nobility and gentry of our own venient for me ; lest I be full, and deny thee, and say, country. Why should not our colonies also be made Who is the Lord ? or lest I be poor, and steal, and in like manner advantageous to our labouring classes ? take the name of my God in vain" (Prov. xxx. 8, 9). Let emigration be regarded by labourers, not as a sort At present the rich enjoy more than their proper of unjust transportation from home to an inliospitable share of the produce of labour, and the labouring distant country, but as an enterprising expedition, classes less. Religion, morality, charity, wisdom, and which is to deliver them from the degradation of justice, demand that this state of things should be pauperism, and raise them to the exalted position of altered. The method pointed out in this letter has, it independent members of society.

is hoped, come claim to attention, as being that by The next questions for consideration are, how can which it may be done fairly and peaceably. The two the expenses of emigration be provided for ? and what scales of society ought to be kept as equally balanced inducements can be offered to the persons who emi. as possible-each in the state the good providence of grate, so that it may be advantageous to them as well God has appointed; for it is clear, it could never as to those who remain at home? The lessening the have been his intention, nor can it meet with his number of labourers at home, by emigration, would approval, that one class of society should be living in have the effect of raising their wages, improving their an undue excess of luxury, whilst many of the other circumstances, and placing them in a condition to class are almost destitute of the necessaries of life. assist the emigrants. And as the improvement of the In conclusion, my dear friends, I exhort you not condition of those who remain at home arises from the to despond; your present circumstances are most departure of those who go abroad, wisdom and justice distressing, but they are not beyond relief. Fear seem to dictate the formation of a plan by which the God, and honour the queen, and you will yet do well. emigrant may also be benefited. This may be done You have still many friends among the affluent, who, by ihe formation of a sort of mutual assurance or regarding this world's riches in the light they ought, benefit society, to which labourers generally should are ready to distribute, willing to communicate for the subscribe, and the fund so raised should be expended supply of your necessities, if they only knew how they for the benefit of those who leave their native country could effectually relieve you. . to earn their livelihood in a far-distant land.

I look to the influence of true Christian charity for The great objection of the poor to emigrate is, that accomplishing all that has been proposed : it is that they have to go to a country to which they are entire alone which will turn the heart of the rich to the strangers, without friends to receive them, or money poor, and the heart of the poor to the rich ; relieve to enable them to enter upon their new sphere of life the distresses of our country, and unite all classes in with advantage. To give the emigrant spirit and the closest bonds of affection. It is the Spirit of heart at landing on a foreign shore, he ought to be Christ which will lead his followers to bring forth secure of meeting with friends, and immediate employ- the first and most important fruit of the Spirit—love, ment on such terms as will compensate for the change or deeds of charity. “For ye know the grace of our he has made. This friendly provision should be made Lord Jesus Christ, that, though he was rich, yet for by those who stay at home, reaping the advantage of your sakes he became poor, that ye through his the emigration of others. And this might be done

poverty might be rich" (2 Cor. viii. 9). with ease, if a just and generous and contiding spirit one another's burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ" could be disseminated amongst the labouring classes (Gal. vi. 2). “ Look not every man on his own generally, so that every labourer would contribute things, but every man also on the things of others" regularly his weekly pence. This would raise a fund (Phil. ii. 4). amply sufficient to fit out a numerous band of emigrants on a liberal scale, because the labouring classes can number their thousands and tens of thousands ; and when it is considered that a thousand pence is above H., and ten thousand pence is above 401., and that this might easily be multiplied to an immense extent, proportionate to the large number who form the labouring classes of this country, we need not fear

" Bear ye

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