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He comes to heal the broken heart
To light the darken'd eye;
The deaf shall hear his blessed name
MOSLEM EGYPTIANS.-The Moslem Egyptians are descended from various Arab tribes and families which have settled in Egypt at different periods; mostly soon after the conquest of this country by Amrou, its first Arab governor; but by intermarriages with the Copts and others who have become proselytes to the Islam faith, as well as by the change from a life of wandering to that of citizens or of agriculturalists, their personal characteristics have by degrees become so much altered, that there is a strongly marked difference between them and the natives of Arabia. Yet they are to be regarded as not less genuine Arabs than the townspeople of Arabia itself, among whom has long and very generally prevailed a custom of keeping Abyssinian female slaves, instead of marrying their own country-women, or (as is commonly the case with the opulent) in addition to their Arab wives; so that they bear almost as strong a resemblance to the Abyssinians as to the Bedouins, or Arabs of the desert. In general, the Moslem Egyptians attain the height of about five feet eight or five feet nine inches. Most of the children under nine or ten years of age have spare limbs and a distended abdomen; but as they grow up, their forms rapidly improve. In mature age most of them are remarkably well-proportioned: the men muscular and robust; the women very beautifully formed and plump, and neither sex is too fat. In Cairo, and throughout the northern provinces, those who have not been much exposed to the sun have a yellowish but very clear complexion, and soft skin; the rest are of a considerably darker and coarser complexion. The people of Middle Egypt are of a more tawny colour, and those of the more southern provinces are of a deep bronze or brown complexion-darkest towards Nubia, where the climate is hottest. In general, the countenance of the Moslem Egyptians (I here speak of the men) is of a fine oval form; the forehead of moderate size, seldom high, but generally prominent; the eyes are deep sunk, black, and brilliant; the nose is straight, but rather thick; the mouth wellformed; the lips are rather full than otherwise; the teeth particularly beautiful; the beard is commonly black and curly, but scanty. I have seen very few individuals of this race with grey eyes, or rather, few persons supposed to be of this race-for I am inclined to think them the offspring of Arab women by Turks or other foreigners. The Fellahs, from constant exposure to the sun, have a habit of half-shutting their eyes; this is also characteristic of the Bedouins. Great numbers of the Egyptians are blind in one or both eyes. The costume of the men of the lower orders is very simple. These, if not of the very poorest class, wear a pair of drawers, and a long and full shirt or gown of blue linen or cotton, or of brown woollen stuff (the former called 'er'ee, and the latter zaaboo't), open from the neck nearly to the waist, and having wide sleeves. Over this, some wear a white or red woollen girdle. Their turban is generally composed of a white, red, or yellow woollen shawl, or of a piece of coarse cotton or muslin, wound round a turboo'sh, under which is a white or brown felt cap, called lib'deh; but many are so poor as to have no other cap than the lib'deh-no turban, nor even drawers or shoes, but only the blue or brown shirt, or merely a few rags; while many, on the other hand, wear a soodey'ree under the blue shirt; and some,
particularly servants in the houses of great men, wear a white shirt, a soodey'ree, and a ckoofta'n or gib’beh, or both, and the blue shirt over all. The full sleeves of this shirt are sometimes drawn up by means of cords, which pass round each shoulder and cross behind, where they are tied in a knot. This custom is adopted by servants (particularly grooms), who have cords of crimson or dark-blue silk for this purpose. In cold weather, many persons of the lower classes wear an 'abba'yeh, like that before described, but coarser; and sometimes, instead of being black, having broad stripes brown and white, or blue and white, but the latter rarely. Another kind of cloak, more full than the 'abba'yeh, of black or deep-blue woollen stuff, is also very commonly worn; it is called diffee'yeh. The shoes are of red or yellow morocco, or of sheep-skin. -Lane's Modern Egyptians.
RIO DE JANEIRO.-Passing one day by the convent of Santo Domingo, my attention was attracted to one of the domes of it, on which I saw conspicuously painted a great number of cannon-shot of all sizes. "Is it possible," I remarked to Mrs. Torrents, with whom I was walking, " that so many shots could have struck that devoted turret, and yet left it standing?" "No, no," she replied, "two or three did strike it, but the friars have painted all these to superinduce the belief that the balls of you heretics could make no impression on catholic towers. And the common people believe it. But we ladies, though not soldiers, know better than that; for look at what your balls did at Montevideo. For my part, I believe that no right religion can have any thing to do with powder and ball."-Robertson's Letters on Paraguay.
MEDICAL PROFESSION.-Some years ago, it happened to me, before I had connected in my mind the study of medicine with its practical benefits, to express with the inadvertency of youth, to one whose talents have since raised him to well-earned eminence, my surprise that he should make choice of a profession which entailed upon him the necessity of visiting so many sick chambers. You do not take into the account, he replied, the satisfaction we experience from relieving the sufferings which you describe. You do not know what we feel at seeing our patients rise from their sick beds, with recruited strength, and spirits again made buoyant by our means, under Providence. If we do witness, as indeed we do, scenes of misery, do we not also notice the brightening eye of returning health turned towards us with all the animation of gratitude? A parent thanks us for his restored child; a child for his parent; a husband for his wife. We can often say, "There is joy in that house," the result of our skill, the reward of our care; and our heart throbs with a satisfaction which is in alliance with the purest aspirations of noble feeling. When I mention, that these were the sentiments of Sir Benjamin Brodie early in life, I rest assured that I need say no more to give them their full weight in your eyes, from the estimation in which the character of that individual is held. But observe, I do not bring this forward as a solitary or unusual instance of correct and generous feeling; being persuaded that Sir Benjamin Brodie is only one among many who would return the same answer, in a profession which abounds with gentlemen of the most Christian-like tone and temper, and of singular humanity; remarkable alike for the strength, the correctness, the richness of their highly cultivated and Christian minds. -Chancellor Law's Address at Birmingham School of Medicine and Surgery.
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VOL. VII. No. 189.
OCTOBER 19, 1839.
THE BELIEVER'S PEACE. I.
THE marks which distinguish the righteous from the wicked are not limited merely to outward circumstances or actions. This is no where more clearly to be seen than in the contrast which the Scriptures exhibit as to their respective states of mind; comparing the one to "the troubled sea when it cannot rest, whose waves cast up mire and dirt;" and portraying the "peace" of the other by the emblem of a "river," which " goes softly" onward through the many windings of its course. How is it that there should be such a striking difference in men enjoying the same advantages, partakers of the same outward privileges, situated in parallel circumstances as regards this life, and alike destined in the next for eternity? Would we have the question solved? let us ask the world. The inequality of men's dispositions and tempers; the sorrows and pleasures which checker this fleeting scene; or the effects of station, as high or low, as rich or poor, will probably be adduced as the causes which contribute to the misery of the one, or to the happiness of the other.
OF THE UNITED
These shallow reasons may, however, be soon confuted by experience; for we shall find, that it is not wealth that bestows peace, neither is it poverty that necessarily takes it away. We may go, for instance, to the mansion, and visit those who have even more than heart could wish; "the harp and the viol, the tabret and pipe, may be in their feasts;" and yet in the midst of such mirth there is often heaviness; and the poor possessors of such seeming advantages may be
VOL. VII.-NO. CLXXXIX.
CHURCH OF ENGLAND
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strangers to happiness and ease. On the contrary, we may enter the hovel, and we may behold in the wretched inmates objects struggling against the sad combination of poverty and sickness; or we may go to those institutions, the receptacles of affliction and suffering, and we may see there cases of our fellow-creatures writhing under acute agony, lingering from day to day under the cruel effects of disease; and yet we shall be able to find many a one, notwithstanding the aggravated circumstances and accumulated misery of the individual, in possession of an inward comfort, a support and a solace under his afflictions. And why? even because "the Lord God" hath " spoken peace unto them." If, however, we ask the Christian for an answer to the question proposed, he will at once take us to that blessed volume, which is alone infallible, to which we should always refer in doubts and difficulties, and make it "the touchstone" of our faith and conduct.
The Christian will shew that the condition of every one that cometh into the world is one of sin and alienation from God; that, consequently, we are deservedly under his displeasure and just judgment; but that God has provided a Lamb, which has made a sufficient sacrifice to atone for our sins, to remove God's displeasure, and to obtain the Holy Spirit, whereby we may overcome the inclinations of the flesh, and serve God acceptably. But, alas, men "will not come unto Christ, that they may have life;" they will not embrace the offers of free pardon and salvation through the blood of the Lamb; they still persist in "minding earth," and loving the things of the flesh; their minds are carnal, and " enmity against God!" And
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here "the conclusion of the whole matter" is shewn; the secret is revealed, that "to be carnally minded is death;" while, on the contrary, to those "that know" and rejoice in "the joyful sound" of the Gospel, who walk not after the flesh, but are "spiritually minded, is life and peace."
Search as we may after peace, we shall never be able to find it here. "Tribulation" is the lot of earth's inhabitants; the unexpected and unhappy termination of events which seemed to promise fair, the shortlived pleasures, the frequent disappointments, plainly tell us that the world cannot bestow what it does not possess. "To whom, then, shall we go," but to Him who is "the Prince of peace?" "Peace" is the bequest which Christ has left to all his followers; an inexhaustible and an all-sufficient peace, to support and comfort in the darkest hour; and this is the cause why those trials, from which the Christian is not exempt, are borne by him with such patience and resignation. "He knows in whom he believes ;" and therefore when those great storms arise on this uncertain ocean of life, though "the floods lift up their waves," faith directs him to look to Him who condescends to accompany every believer to the end of his voyage, and who "sitteth above the water floods ;" and so, amid all the noise and confusion of the scene around, the Christian hears the voice of 66 peace" from the lips of Him who can alone" still the raging of the sea."
The truth, then, of salvation by Jesus Christ is the fountain whence springs the peace of the believer, and from whence flow all those comforts which in this changing and troublesome world he exclusively enjoys. God being reconciled, he no longer looks unto him with dread, but with the feelings of filial love, because he first loved him. He not only knows God's power, but he is convinced that he is also equally willing to help him; and this confidence produces a resignation to all his dispensations. The love of a father to his child is but a faint emblem of the love of God in Christ to his creatures; so that we may rest assured, that the Lord will give us such things as are good; that he will not give for bread a stone; for a fish, a serpent; for an egg, a scorpion. Such injurious substitutes for absolute necessaries are contrary even to the very actions of nature. If, then, a parent who is "evil," who carries about a body of infirmity and sin, "knows how to give good gifts unto his children,"-how much more shall He, who is our heavenly Father, who loves us more, and has done for us greater things than the fondest parent ever has done, or could do, for his offspring, and who is
perfectly just and holy, bestow those things which are necessary and "convenient," and "give his Holy Spirit to them that ask him!" What " strong consolation" and encouragement, then, have we to "ask," to "seek," to "knock;"" for every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened" (Luke, xi. 9, 10).
It is "faith" which obtains for us the victory over the world; it is also the same principle of " believing" that produces "peace," that leads us to put our whole trust in God, and to confide in him to give us those things which for our blindness we cannot, and for our ignorance we dare not, ask. It induces us to be content with such things as we have; it suggests to our minds the promises of God; "for he hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee" (Heb. xiii. 5, 6). It makes us "bold" in the season of danger and alarm; for "the Lord is the helper" of his people; and this trust in him takes away the fear of those evils to which we are liable, either by the craft and subtlety of the devil, or which man may work against us. this blessed truth we find exemplified in the actual experience of St. Paul; for he tells us, that he was deserted, and that all men forsook him: "notwithstanding," says he, "the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me;" and this knowledge of what the Lord had done, and was doing for him, inspired him with the belief, and afforded him the unspeakable peace of the assurance, that in every future trial, and from every evil work, the Lord would deliver him, and bring him finally to his heavenly kingdom (2 Tim. iv. 16, 17). Faith supports us under the difficulties that lie in our path to the heavenly Canaan; it affords comfort under temptation, knowing that God will not suffer us to be tempted above that we are able, but will, with the temptation, also make a way to escape, that we may be able to bear it (1 Cor. x. 13); and he places before us, as a pattern, He who was in all things tempted like as we are (Heb. iv. 15).
The consciousness of God's presence affords great peace to the Christian: he has promised, that when we pass through the waters, he will be with us; that he will be our guide; and that he will comfort us with his "rod and staff," the emblems of his kingly power and of his shepherd's care, even though we walk through the valley of the shadow of death" (Ps. xxv.).
CHURCH OF ENGLAND MAGAZINE.
MEMOIR OF THE RIGHT REV. PHILANDER beauty, and inhaled their sweets: but all had no
First Bishop of Ohio in 1819; and elected Bishop of
[Received from a Correspondent.]
HOWEVER unusual it may be to publish a memoir during the lifetime of an individual, the distance which separates the subject of the present biographical sketch from those into whose hands it is likely to fall, may allow of its making an exception to the general rule,-particularly as his cause is, in the present day, most remarkably connected with that of the Protestant faith, and with the prosperity and extension of the episcopal Church.
charms for me while your father was gone. I tried to banish my fears for his safety when I thought of his defenceless state, and the proximity of the ruthless savage; for there was then war between France and England, and no fort between us and Canada. I also endeavoured to seek refuge from my painful feelings in employment for myself and children; but our condition in the fort precluded the observance of regularity, and without that, little can be done. So much mingling of contending interests, especially among a crowd of little children, bade defiance to all efforts for order or peace. Days seemed weeks, and weeks seemed months; and scarcely did a sun rise without witnessing my wanderings on the banks of the flowing stream where I had parted from your father and his blithe company of Cornish woodmen."
The object of this publication is, to strengthen the hands of this indefatigable servant of God, by drawing the attention of the public mind to the peculiarity of his situation, and obtaining for him such aid as may support him in the arduous charge of the extensive diocese of Illinois, to which he was appointed, by the primary convention of that state, on the 10th of March, 1835, without any offer of remuneration. While the Romanists are making unusual and almost unheard-of exertions in Illinois, and our own emigrants are flocking into that country by thousands, we are forcibly called upon to give him substantial demonstrations of our love and sympathy, both as Britons and Protestants.
The following account of himself and his ancestors is chiefly selected from his own writings, casually scattered amongst his friends in England:
My ancestors were English, and originally from Cornwall; they settled first at Newbury Port, and then at Sutton, in the state of Massachusets; and afterwards procured from the colonial government of New Hampshire the grant of a township of land, and called it Cornish on that account. This happened previously to any settlements being made northward of Charleston, on Connecticut river, which divides two of the New England states, New Hampshire and Vermont, upon the banks of which our land was situated, and to which my grandfather and his sons migrated from a town near Boston, the chief of the New England states, about the year of our Lord 1763.
My father and his family, consisting of my mother and seven children, were the first to take possession of the soil, which was then covered by an entire forest of the largest and tallest trees.
When the family, in their painful journey through the woods, arrived at No. 4 Fort, as Charleston was then called, it was thought advisable that my mother and children should remain there for shelter, and for their greater security from the Indians. To this arrangement my mother consented, although, as she told me, it was with great reluctance. "I shuddered," she said, "at the thought of being penned up with my precious bairns within the precincts of a narrow fort, rudely built for defence against savages, for a period of time I knew not how long; for it was sixteen miles up the river whither your father and his company of workmen were going, where the land was to be cleared, and the crop for the approaching season to be planted. But necessity is an imperious dictate, and submission was my duty: it was nevertheless a hard parting when your father pressed his babes to his bosom, and mine to his manly cheek, as he stepped into his canoe, and took command of his little fleet of stout and cheerful men, both able and willing to subdue the forest and plant the virgin soil.
"It was some time in the early spring that this parting scene took place on the fertile banks of the Connecticut river. The bud was then bursting from its wintry fetters; the birds were commencing their wooing songs, and the wild herbage sprang up all around me. Among these I wandered, admired their
"It was in one of these walks, that, with my children by my side, I saw, as the day drew to its close, a canoe coming round a point of the river-bank above me. I thought first of the approach of savages; but before I had time to flee, I recognised the well-known canoe of your father, and in it our trusty neighbour Diah Spalding. My heart leaped with joy; and no sooner did the canoe reach the shore than the children were in it and on his knees; nor did they suffer him to stir till they had told him I was resolved that we should all return with him to their father in the woods. Do you know, are you apprised, dear madam,' said he, respectfully approaching me- are you aware, that such has been our anxiety to put in a crop and plant the ground for the coming summer, that we have found no time to erect the semblance of a house? I am come to tell you your husband is well and all his men are well, and to obtain information of your health and safety, and to carry back with me a recruit of provisions for their comfort; but we have all slept upon the uncovered ground, and as yet have no place to shelter ourselves— much less you and your little ones-from the pelting of the storm; and will you venture with them into the woods before you are sure of a refuge?' 'I will go, and with all my children endure any storm, if you will give me but a safe and speedy conveyance to my husband. If there be no shelter, or fence, or fort, his faithful arm will guard me, and his trusty men will aid him; and their God, who is above all, ruleth all, and directeth all, will provide.'
A subscription for Bishop Chase's object is opened at Messrs. Farquhar and Herries, St. James's Street.
"A much smaller degree of sagacity than our neighbour Spalding possessed, would have been sufficient to make him sensible that it was in vain to thwart a resolution so firmly taken; and the speedy removal once determined on, all the force of his ingenious and friendly mind was called into action to make things ready. Such goods as we needed least were secured in the fort; and such as the boats would carry, and we needed most, with ample provisions, were put on board; and the morning sun had scarcely risen, ere the indefatigable exertions of Spalding, and the anxious assiduity of my children, had made all things ready for the voyage. Spalding was a good canoe-man; and under the protection of the Almighty, in whom our trust was placed, the exertions of his strong arm, and the industrious aid of my elder sons, made our speed, though slow, yet unceasing; and, in time of war ascending a rapid stream in a frail Indian canoe, we reached before night the little opening among the towering trees, from whence the spot of your father's choice appeared to our longing eyes. 'There they are,' said the mingled voices of my children; there is our dear father, and yonder are his men; I hear his voice, and the sound of their axes.' For a moment all was hidden from our view, by the density of the forest-trees intervening. This gave me time to utter what was labouring in my bosom-a prayer of faith and benediction. God of our ancestors, bless your father, and me your helpless mother, and you my loved children, now, even now, as we
shall, in a few minutes, take possession of this our dwelling-place in the wild woods; and though, like Jacob, we have nought but a stone for our pillow, and the canopy of heaven for a covering, may we all find God indeed to be in this place; and may this place be to us a house of God and a gate of heaven!' What a moment was this to one who had left all for her husband and the future fortunes of her children! The wealth of India would have been meanly estimated in comparison of the endeared spot before me.
"With your leave, madam,' said pilot Spalding, 'I think it prudent that your husband come to us, and give orders where he will have his family landed.' Accordingly he made fast the canoe to the willows, and desired us to await his return. Your father could get no direct answer from Spalding as to the nature of the cargo he had brought. Come and see,' was all he could get from him. Is all well?' said your father; 'have you brought us a good supply of food?' and see,' replied Spalding, with animation, and in an instant they burst upon our view; and as your dear father stood on the margin of the high bank, he saw beneath his feet the frail bark in which were his wife and children. The emotion was almost too much for him; I saw this, and sprang forward, the children quickly following. He received us with an exclamation of joy mingled with agony; 'Are you come to die here,' he exclaimed, before your time? We have no house to shelter you, and you will perish before we get one erected.' Cheer up, cheer up, my faithful!' said I to your father; let the smiles and the ruddy faces of your children, and the health and cheerfulness of your wife, make you joyful. If you have no house, you have strength and hands to make one. The God we worship will bless us, and help us to obtain a shelter. Cheer up, cheer up, my faithful!'
"The sunshine of joy and hope began to beam from his countenance; the news was communicated throughout the company of workmen, and the woods rang with shouts at the arrival of the first white woman and the first family on the banks of the Connecticut river above Fort Number Four. All assembled to see the strangers, and strove to do them acts of kindness. The trees were quickly felled and peeled, and the clean bark in large sheets was spread for a floor; other sheets, being fastened by thongs of twisted twigs to stakes driven in the ground, were raised for walls, or laid on crosspieces for a roof; and the cheerful fire soon made glad our little dwelling. The space of three hours was not consumed in effecting all this; and never were men more happy than those who contributed thus speedily and thus effectually to supply our wants. Beds were brought from the canoe to this rustic pavilion, and on them we rested sweetly, fearless of danger, though the thick foliage was wet with dew, and the wild beasts howled all around us, trusting in the protecting hand of Providence, and the watchful fidelity of our faithful neighbours.
The next day all hands were called to build a cabin, which served us for the coming winter, and in which, cheered by the rising prospects of the family, and the mutual affection of all around us, my enjoyments were more exquisite than at any subsequent period of my life."
Thus far the story from the lips of my venerable mother: it will serve to shew with what unsubdued, pure, and patriotic spirits New England was first overspread with inhabitants.
Seven children were added to my father's family in this new settlement. Five out of eight of his sons received a collegiate education; one of whom was a senator in the congress of the United States, and afterwards chief-justice of the state of Vermont; two died after pursuing their professions with reputation; one is now a counsellor in New Hampshire; and the fifth and youngest of the whole family is the writer of this.
My history, as connected with the Church of Christ,
may be learned from the following statement:-My ancestors were what is termed in England Dissenters. They continued of the Independent persuasion till the year 1795, when nearly all that branch of the family settled in Cornish New Hampshire conformed to the liturgy, and became members of the Protestant Episcopal Church, as the same had been recently organised by the bishops, clergy, and laity of that communion in the United States of America.
The circumstances which led to this then unusual change in the sentiments and habits of a numerous family, are interesting, but cannot now be related any further than in general to say, that a candid examination of her primitive liturgy and of her well-authenticated claims to an apostolic constitution in her ministry, were among the principal reasons which induced so many to conform to the Protestant Episcopal Church; and instead of repairing the meeting-house, where both my grandfather and father had officiated as congregational deacons, inclined them to pull it down, and erect in its place an episcopal church. This was effected in great harmony; not a voice, to my recollection, was raised against the measure throughout the neighbourhood.
It becomes not me, young as I was (about nineteen years of age,) when this change of sentiment began to take place, to say I had any agency in it; but even at that early period of my life, being greatly desirous of becoming, when qualified, a minister of the Gospel, the subjects daily discussed in my vacations from collegiate duties were to me of great importance: well do I remember the pleasure it afforded me to contemplate in our examinations of the Prayer-Book the strict adherence to scriptural doctrine and scriptural expressions, and, above all, the fervency of piety that glowed throughout the whole. And when we considered the subject of the ministry, many expressions in the epistles of St. Paul to Timothy and Titus, and in the Acts of the Apostles, were made plain, which before were to us unintelligible.
In the fall of the year 1796 I became a candidate for holy orders, and went to Albany, in the state of New York, in order to pursue my studies with the episcopal clergyman of that city. This learned gentleman had been educated at Oxford in England, and was of great service to me. In June 1798 I received holy orders in the city of New York, and was soon after appointed a missionary to extend the ministration of the word and sacraments to the then new settlements at the westward in that diocese.
In the arduous task of extending the Gospel and its ordinances to the new settlements in the western and northern parts of the state of New York, I continued for nearly two years. Congregations were gathered and organised in Canandagua, Utica, Auburn, in the main road to the lakes; in Hampton and other places on the borders of Vermont; at Ocwaga, Stamford, and other places on the banks of the Susquehannah, Unadika, and Delaware rivers; and in many other intermediate stations.
The churches in most of these places, though first planted in the woods and among log-cabins, are now flourishing in villages; some, nay most of which, contain many thousand inhabitants, affording a conspicuous and lasting monument of the great utility and necessity of not despising the day of small things, but, in disregard of all hardships, of planting the Church of Christ wherever the human family is first planted; in other words, of rendering the means of religion as commensurate as possible with the settlement of every new country.
In the winter of 1800, I took charge of the parishes of Christ Church, Poughkeepsie, and Trinity Church, at Fishkill, on the Hudson River, about eighty miles above the city of New York. As principal of the academy in Poughkeepsie, and rector of these churches, I remained till 1805; when, seeking for a warmer