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his meals with a wooden spoon for ever paper-mill, and a flour and cotton fac-
; from which body he received several STEVENS, George Alexander, a whimsums of money, that were chiefly expend- sical and eccentric character, was born in ed in acts of charity, or in rewarding the London, and brought up to a mechanical good conduct of the soldiers.
business, which he quitted to become a Upon the disbandment of the conti- strolling player. In 1751, he published nental army at Newburgh, many affec- entitled Religion, or the Libertine tionate bonds, formed amidst the danger Repentant, which was succeeded, in 1754, and hardships of a long and arduous ser- by the Birthday of Folly. These were vice, were to be broken asunder for ever. followed by a novel called Tom Fool, At this season of distress, the benevolent and the Dramatic History of Master EdSteuben exerted himself to alleviate the ward and Miss Ann. He subsequently forlorn condition of many. He gave his invented his entertainment, called a Leclast dollar to a wounded black, to procure ture on Heads, which possessed no small him a passage home. Peace being estab- portion of drollery, and became very poplished, the baron retired to a farm in the ular. Several of his songe have also been vicinity of New York, where, in the socie- much admired. ty of his friends, and the amusements of STEVENS, Edward, an officer in the books and chess, he passed his time as American revolution, was a native of Vircomfortably as his exhausted purse would ginia. At the battle of the great bridge, allow. The state of New Jersey had near Norfolk, he commanded a battalion given him a small farm, and that of New of riflemen. Soon afterwards, he was York 16,000 acres of land in the county made a colonel. At the battle of Brandyof Oneida. The exertions of colonel wine, he was greatly instrumental in savHamilton and general Washington sub- ing the American forces, and received the sequently procured him an annuity of public thanks of the commander-in-chief. $2500, from the general government. He He was honored in the same way for his built a log house, and cleared 60 acres of behavior at the battle of Germantown. his tract of land, a portion of which he He was soon afterwards intrusted with partitioned out, on easy terms, to twenty the command of a brigade, and despatchor thirty tenants, and distributed nearly ed to the southern army. He evir.ced his a tenth among his aid-de-camps and ser- wonted gallantry in the battle of Camden. vants. In this situation he lived content. In that of Guilford court-house, he reedly, until the year 1795, when an apo- ceived a severe wound in his thigh; but, plectic attack put an end to his life, in his before quitting the field, he brought off his sixty-fifth year. An abstract of his sys- troops in good order. He closed his miltem of military manæuvres was published itary career at the siege of Yorktown. in 1779. The year preceding his death, From the foundation of the state constihe published a letter on the established tution until the year 1790, he was a prommilitia and military arrangements. (For inent member of the senate of Virginia. further information concerning baron He died in August, 1820. Steuben, see Johnson's Life of Greene, STEWARD. The lord high steward of Thatcher's Journal, Garden's Anecdotes.) England was formerly an officer who
STEUBENVILLE, a flourishing post-town had the supervision and regulation, next of Ohio, on Ohio river, is the seat of jus- under the king, of all affairs of the realm, tice for Jefferson county. It was laid out both civil and military. The office was in 1798, with streets crossing each other hereditary, belonging to the earls of Leiat right angles. In 1810, it contained cester until forfeited to Henry III. (See 800 inhabitants; in 1817, 2032; and in Montfort.) The power of this officer was 1830, 2937. It is 147 miles east by north so great, that the office has for a long time froin Columbus, and thirty-eight west of only been granted for some particular act, Pittsburg; lat. 40° 25' N.; lon. 80° 35' as the trial of a peer on indictment for W. It contains three churches, a market- a capital offence, the solemnization of a house, a woollen factory,—the machinery coronation, &c. The lord high steward of which is moved by steam, steam is the first of the nine great officers
5 of the crown.-The lord steward of the of the Human Mind (1792) was succeedhousehold is the chief officer of the king's ed by Outlines of Moral Philosophy, for the household : his authority extends over all Use of Sudents (1793); Doctor Adam officers and servants of the royal house- Smith's Essays on Philosophical Subjects, hold except those of the chamber, chapel with an Account of the Life and Writings and stable. Under the lord steward, in of the Author (1801); An Account of the counting-house, are the treasurer of the Life and Writings of Doctor Robertthe household, cofferer, controller, clerks son (1803); An Account of the Life and of the green cloth, &c. It is called the Writings of Doctor Thomas Reid. The me counting-house because the household ac- moirs of Smith, Reid and Robertson were counts are kept in it. (See Courts.) afterwards collected into one volume, with
STEWARD, in naval affairs, is an officer additional notes. In the election of a in a ship of war, appointed by the purser mathematical professor of the university to distribute the different species of pro- of Edinburgh, Mr. Stewart was reflected visions to the officers and crew.
on for his conduct to the successful canSTEWART, sir James Denham, an emi- didate, and he therefore thought proper to nent political writer, was born at Edin- publish a statement of facts relative to burgh, Oct. 10, 1713. His father was so- that election (1805). In 1796, he again licitor-general of Scotland. After having took a number of pupils under his care; been admitted to the bar, he travelled on and, besides adding a course of lectures the continent five years, and formed an on political economy to the usual courses intimacy with the Pretender, whom he of his chair, he repeatedly supplied the aided in his attempt in 1745. On the place of his colleagues in case of illness failure of that attempt, Stewart retired to or absence. In 1806, he accompanied France, and, in 1755, to Flanders. Here his friend, the earl of Lauderdale, on his he published a Vindication of Newton's mission to Paris, and, in 1810, relinquishChronology, a Treatise op German Coins, ed his professorship, and retired to Kinand a Dissertation on the Doctrine and neil house, about twenty miles from EdPrinciples of Money. He returned to inburgh, where he continued to reside till Scotland in 1763, where he was allowed his death, June 11, 1828. His publicato remain unmolested, and concluded his tions subsequently to his removal were Inquiry into the Principles of Political Philosophical Essays (1810); Dissertation Economy—a work of much research and on the Progress of Metaphysical and Ethacuteness, though the style and method ical Philosophy, prefixed to the Suppleare imperfect. He obtained a full pardon ment to the Encyclopædia Britannica (unin 1771, and afterwards published various fortunately rendered imperfect by the auworks of a philosophical and politico-eco- thor's ignorance of German philosophy, nomical character. His complete works and left incomplete in regard to ethical were published in 1805 (in 6 vols., 8vo.). philosophy—a deficiency partly supplied He died in 1780.
by Mackintosh's Essay on the Progress of STEWART, Dugald, was born in 1753, Ethical Philosophy); a second volume of and was the son of doctor Matthew Stew- the Philosophy of the Human Mind (1813), art, professor of mathematics in the uni- with a continuation (1827); and the Phiversity of Edinburgh. He was educated losophy of the Active and Moral Powers at the high school, and admitted, at the (1828). Stewart was a man of extensive age of thirteen, as a student in the college, and various acquisition, but not of a prounder the tuition of doctor Blair and doc- found or original mind. As a writer, he is tor Ferguson. Such was the progress he too often heavy and prolix, though his style made, that, at the age of eighteen, he was is clear, pure and elaborate. În philosoappointed to read lectures for his father, phy, he was a disciple of Reid, whose which he continued to do till the death of method and principles he followed with the latter. In 1780, he received a num- little deviation. (See Philozophy.) ber of pupils into his house, and, in 1783, STEWART, John ; commonly called visited the continent in company with the Walking Stewart, from his pedestrian marquis of Lothian. When doctor Fergu- feats; an eccentric individual, who wanson was sent to North America on a mis- dered, on foot, over a great part of the sion, Mr. Stewart taught his class in mor- habitable globe. He was born in Lonal philosophy during his absence; and, in don, and, having received the rudiments 1785, when the professor resigned, Mr. of education at the Charter-house, was Stewartwas chosen to fill his chair,in which sent out, in 1763, as a writer to Madras. he continued many years with great rep- Before he had been in that situation quite utation. His Elements of the Philosophy two years, he wrote a letter to the directors,
telling them that lie “ was born for nobler carefully finished, but never completed the
The verse bald, the commissioner for settling the which was pointed out served as an oraterms of peace between the presidency ele. Even at the present time, this is not and the sultan, procured his liberation. unfrequently done by the superstitious; and Stewart then started to walk to Europe, some sects even resort to it for guidance crossing the desert of Arabia, and arriv- on important occasions. (See Bibliomancy.) ing at length safely at Marseilles. Thence Stick, Gold; an officer of superior he proceeded, in the same manner, rank in the English life-guards, so called, through France and Spain, to his native who is immediate attendance upon the country; and, having walked through king's person. When his majesty gives England, Scotland and Ireland, he cross- either of his regiments of life-guards to ed the Atlantic, and perambulated the U. an officer, he presents him with a gold States of America. The last ten years stick. The colonels of the two regiments of his life were passed in London, where wajt alternately month and month. The he died in 1822.
one on duty is then called gold stick in STEWART, Robert, marquis of Lon- waiting ; and all orders relating to the lifedonderry. (See Londonderry.)
guards are transmitted through him. DurStewart, Gilbert, an eminent portrait ing that month he commands the brigade, painter, was born at Newport, Rhode Island, receives all reports, and communicates them in 1757, guve early manifestations of to the king.--Silver stick : the field officer bis fondness for the pencil, and was sent of the life-guards whenon duty is so called. to London, where he was placed under Stigma (Greek); with the Greeks and the care of Benjamin West. In the execu- Romans, a mark impressed with a hot iron tion of portraits, the pupil soon surpassed on the foreheads of slaves who had run the master. In 1784, he was established as away or committed theft. The Greeks one of the first portrait painters of London, used a o, signifying Peuktos (fugiendus) and had, in the exhibition of that year, sev- or qevktikos (runaway), and the Romans cral full lengths of distinguished individ- an F, signifying fur or fugitivus. A black uals. He lived elegantly and gayly; but coloring substance was put in the wound. it is believed that, notwithstanding his Such slaves were called stigmatici, inscripgreat success, he was obliged, by pecuniary ti, literati, arıypuriai, oriywves. The Samidistresses, to remove to Dublin. In 1790, ans, who freed many slaves, and admitted he returned to his native country, from them to office, were called, in derision, which he never again departed. He re- Tool vy pa paroi, literati. This name, howsided successively in New York, Phila- ever, may have had another origin, as delphia and its neighborhood, Washing many believe. Prisoners of war were ton, and last in Boston, continuing to also branded, as the slave-traders now paint with unabated power, although for brand the negroes with the marks of their years racked by the gout. Soon after his several owners. (See Slavery.) Recruits return to America, he painted the best also were burned in the hand, generally portrait of Washington. The head he with the name of the general. This was
not considered a disgrace. In some coun- of Rufinus, and the latter under the guartries, criminals sentenced to the galleys dianship of Stilicho. (See Western Emare branded in a similar way to this day. pire.) No sooner was Theodosius no
STILES, Ezra, a president of Yale col- more, than Rufinus stirred up an invasion lege, was the son of the reverend Isaac of the Goths in order to procure the sole Stiles, of North Haven, Connecticut. He dominion, wbich Stilicho put down, and graduated in that institution in 1746, with effected the destruction of his rival. After the reputation of being one of the greatest suppressing a revolt in Africa, he marched scholars it had ever produced. He then against Alaric, whom he signally defeated studied law, but subsequently devoted at Pollentia. After this, in 406, he repelhimself to theology, and settled at New- led an invasion of barbarians, who peneport, as pastor of the Second church, trated into Italy under Rhadagasius, a where he continued from 1755 to 1776. Hun or Vandal leader, who formerly acDuring this and several succeeding years, companied Alaric, and produced the enthe enemy were in possession of New- tire destruction both of the force and its port, and the inhabitants of the town leader. Either from motives of policy or scattered. Doctor Stiles was solicited to state necessity, he then entered into a preach in several places : he accepted the treaty with Alaric, whose pretensions invitation from the church at Portsmouth, upon the Roman treasury for a subsidy where he was looked up to with great ad- he warmly supported. This conduct exmiration. In 1788, be was chosen presi- cited suspicion of his treachery on the dent of Yale college, and continued to part of Honorius, who massacred all his adorn that station, by his great learning, friends during his absence. He received abilities and piety, until his death, May intelligence of this fact at the camp of 12, 1795, in the sixty-eighth year of his Bologna, whence he was obliged to flee age. In person doctor Stiles was small, to Ravenna. He took shelter in a church, but well proportioned. His countenance from which he was inveigled by a solemn was expressive of benignity and mildness, oath, that no harm was intended him, and ard bis manners were amiable and kind. conveyed to immediate execution, which He had a thorough knowledge of the he endured in a manner worthy his great Hebrew, Greek and Latin, and French military character. Stilicho was charged languages; in the Samaritan, Chaldee, with the design of dethroning Honorius, Syriac and Arabic he had made consid- in order to advance his son Eucherius in erable progress, and had bestowed some his place; and the memory of this distinattention on the Persian and Coptic. He guished captain has been treated by the was well versed in most branches of ecclesiastical historians with great severimathematical knowledge. He had a thor- ty. Zosimus, however, although otherough acquaintance with the rabbinical wise unfavorable to him, acquits him of writings, and with those of the fathers of the treason wbich was laid to his charge ; the Christian church. Sacred literature and he will live in the poetry of Claudian was his favorite study; and next to it he as the most distinguished commander of most delighted in astronomy: As a his age. (See Gibbon's Decline and Fall, preacher, he was impressive and eloquent ch. 29 and 30.) in a high degree: the intrinsic excellence STILL. (See Distillation.) of his sermons was enhanced by the en- STILLING. (See Jung.) ergy of his delivery. He published vari- STILLINGFLEET, Edward, bishop of ous discourses, among which was Worcester, was born in 1635, and receivelection sermon, entitled The United ed his education at St. John's college, States elevated to Glory and Honor, Cambridge, where he was elected, in 1653, preached May 8, 1783. He also wrote a to the first fellowship that became vacant history of the three judges of Charles I after he had taken his bachelor's degree. (Whalley, Goffe and Dixwell), and left an His chief work, Origines Sacra, or a unfinished ecclesiastical history of New Rational Account of Natural and Reveal.. England, and more thar, forty volumes of ed Religion, is esteemed for the erudition manuscripts.
which it displays. It was followed (1664) Stilicho; a Vandalic general, in the by a treatise On the Origin and Nature service of the emperor Theodosius the of Protestantismn. Having distinguished. Great, whose niece Serena he married. himself by the prominent part which he Theodosius having bequeathed the ein- took previous to the revolution, against pire of the East to his son Arcadius, and the establishment of the Romish church that of the West to his second son, Hono- in England, he was elevated to the see rius, the former was left under the care of Worcester by William III. Besides
the writings enumerated, he was the au- mainly owing to the administration, by thor of an appendix to Tillotson's Rule nurses and physicians, of strong cordials, of Faith (1676); the Unreasonableness of and heating stimulants of all sorts, the Separation (1683); and Origines Britan- tendency of all of which was to increase nicæ, or Antiquities of the Churches in the violence of the disease, although they Britain (folio, 1685). A short time before were intended merely to expel the noxhis death, bishop Stillingfleet engaged in ious and poisonous humors from the sysa controversy with Locke, respecting tem. But, happily for mankind, a more some part of that philosopher's writings, cautious use of these articles has been which he conceived had a leaning to- introduced, and they are now the constant wards materialism. His death took place means of preserving, when properly apin 1699. His works have been collected plied, the life which they were formerly and published entire, in six folio volumes so quick to destroy. Stimulants are either (1710).
simple and direct in their operation, as Still Life, in painting; the represen- the external application of heat in all tntion of inanimate objects, such as dead forms, dry and moist, by friction, &c., animals (game, fishes, &c.), furniture, the application to the stomach of hot sometimes with fruits and flowers in ad- liquors, spices, camphor, hartshorn, warm dition. The interest of such representa- and aromatic gums and oils, as mint, cartions can consist only in the form, group- damom, cajeput, ginger, assafætida, red ing and light; hence the pictures of still pepper, spirits of turpentine, &c.; or they life belong to the lowest species of painting. act first as stimulants, but produce afterBut some scenes of still
life are of a higher wards effects of a different character, as order than others. The object of the is the case with all which are termed lowest kind is merely to produce a close diffusible stimulants, as wine, brandy, and imitation of nature. A higher kind com- spirits of all sorts, opium, &c., all of bines objects so as to form an interesting which are highly stimulant at first, and in whole; and the highest employs the ob- small quantity, but afterwards, and when jects only to express a poetical idea, as taken in larger doses, produce exhaustion, in representing the room of a painter, a debility, sleep and death. The first class table with Christmas presents, the game are, upon the whole, the most safe, and of a hunter returned from his day's sport.sh ld be always used, in preference to All these may be so represented as to the last, when they can be had, in all cases have a poetical character, by remind- of suspended animation, from cold, drowning us of the individuals with whom ing, suffocation, &c.; while the others they are associated. The Dutch painters are more valuable for their secondary and Van Ælst, John Fyt, Francis Sneyders, remote effects, by means of which they David Koning, John Weeninx, Melchior ease pain, relieve spasm, &c.; and for Hondekoeter, William Kalf, and Van these purposes they should be used freely, Streeck, are distinguished for the repre- as they can do no hurt, while the violence sentation of still life.
of the disease subsists. But they should STIMULANTS are all those medicinal never be resorted to, unless pain is urgent, substances, which, applied either exter- or debility become so great as to ennally or internally, have the property of danger life. accelerating the pulse and quickening the Stink-Pot; an earthen jar, charged vital actions. They are among the most with powder, grenades, and other matevaluable and important of medicines, and rials of an offensive and suffocating smell. perhaps are more often the direct means It is sometimes used by privateers, to anof saving life than any others. But as noy an enemy whom they design to they are powerful, their injurious effects, board. when misapplied, have been even more STIPPLING. (See Engraving.) prejudicial to mankind than their best Stiria (in German, Steiermark); a prov use has been beneficial. In fact, it may ince of the Austrian empire, which takes be suid, that the abuse of this one class of its name (see Marches) from the county of medicines, under the names of cardiacs, Steier, in the Land above the Ens. The cordials, alexipharmics, &c., was the eastern part was anciently a portion of cause of more numerous deaths during Pannonia, the western of Noricum, which the dark ages of medicine, than the sword were conquered by the Romans at the and the pestilence united. The dreadful close of the last century before the Chrismortality of the small-pox and of fevers
The Avars afterwards occupiduring the middle ages, and even during ed ( per Stiria, and the Veneti Lower the earlier parts of the last century, were Stiria , whence the latter was called