Imatges de pÓgina
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cient to induce the court to give fo public a demonftration of its amity towards the republic. The cordial reception given to general Bournonville, who was deputed embaffador to Berlin, was a further evidence of the good underftanding which prevailed between the cabinet of the Tuilleries and that court. Every mode of pacific in terpofition was lavishly promifed; but no motives were fufficiently perfuafive to induce the cabinet of Pruffia to join in more active operations. The affurance of the neutrality of this court was, however, a victory gained to France; for, exhaufted as were the continental belligerent powers at this period, the military intervention of Pruffia would have decided at once the conteft. The fovere œconomy which the king had obferved for fix years paft had replenished the treafury which the great Frederic had left to his fucceffor, and which the imprudence and prodigality of this latter had fo completely exhaufted. The regiments which had been thinned in the three campaigns which the father of the prefent king had made against France were recruited, and thofe ameliorations had taken place without any extraordinary taxes being levied on the people. It was to the lower claffes of the community that the king was folicitous to extend his protection. The nobles of Pruffia and Silefia refifted the attempt of the king to equalize the taxes, in making them bear a part of the burdens which had hitherto fallen folely on the people. Their refufal had led the king to make up the deficit by more œconomical arrangements in the adminiftration of government. But, though the privileges of the nobles were obftacles to any infringedient on their purfes, the

king, in declining any further attempt at this equalization, made it understood that he fhould watch with more attention over the interefts of that part of his fubjects who contributed to the wants of the ftate; and that, if a stop was not put to the vexations which they exercised over their vaffals, a fuperior authority fhould conftrain them.

The elector of Saxony followed the example of the king of Pruffia. The folicitations of the imperial cabinet were of no avail against the impreffions which the late revolution in France had made on the mind of the elector. Whatever hoftile difpofitions might for a feafon have influenced the court of Sweden, the fame motives led it to adopt more pacific measures towards the French republic; and it was at this epocha more occupied in fuppreffing partial infurreations throughout the kingdom, in re-eftablishing the diforganifed ftate of its finances by the convocation of a general diet, than folicitous to augment the embarrassments of the ftate, by entering into a coalition which had just undergone fo large a difmemberment from the feceffion of fo confiderable a power as Ruffia. The continuance of the neutrality of the court of Copenhagen was con-firmed by the conduct of the court of Berlin, and the prudent policy of the late minifter Bernftorff was followed by his relation and fucceffor.

The court of Spain continued in its ufual state of inactivity with refpect to military operations, and was more occupied in maintaining internal order than providing for external defence. The feverity of the court was exercifed at this period against feveral of the most confiderable

confiderable nobility, against whom lettres de cachet were iffued, exiling them to the remoteft provinces of the kingdom. But the greateft and most difficult enemy which the court had to combat was the ftate of the public treasury, the credit of which was fo low, that the papercurrency was reduced to thirty or forty per cent. difcount, and money almoft difappeared from circulation. The principles of the French revolution, which had operated towards the introduction of more liberal principles in the furrounding monarchical states, had alfo fome influence in the counfels of this cabinet. On the death of the late pope, the king, on the fuggeftions of M. D'Urquijo, his first minister, who had been unwilling to add to the diftreffes of the pontiff, iffued a decree, expreffive of the will of the Spanish bishops to be reftored to their primitive rights of bestowing difpenfations without recurrence to the pope; which rights had been ufurped by the holy fee, and had drained the country an

nually of upwards of twenty millions of reals. The majority of the archbishops and bishops, notwithstanding the allurement of the money, hesitated in using the faculty which the royal decree gave them; but, as an occafion offered on the confecration to bring forward the queftion, it was difcuffed in due form before the chamber of the general council of Caftile. The affair had been prejudged by this council, fince it had previoufly given its opinion to the king, that his majefty could not, without ftripping himself of his authority, and committing the rights of his crown, difpenfe himself from ordering the decree he had iffued to be carried into execution. Nothing final was to be determined on this important point till the election of the new pope; but it is worthy of notice that this feceffion from the authority of the holy fee received, if not any fplendid marks of popular approbation, at leaft none of diflike.

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CHAP. IX.

Preparations in France for opening the Campaign. Berthier afumes the Command of the Army of Referve; and Carnot appointed Minifier of War. Extraordinary Sitting of the Legislative Body. Bill for regulating certain Taxes thrown out by the Legislature. Termination of the Seffion. Unjuft Conduct of the Tribunals refpecting Prizes-Diffolved, and a new Tribunal eftablished. Commiffaries appointed for the Refloration of Emigrants. Conduct of the Emigrants and non-juring Priefts. New Regulations concerning them. Department of the Marine. New Arrangements in that Department. Department of Foreign Affairs. New Syftem of Diplomatic Agency. Commencement of the Campaign. State of Genoa, Deplorable Situation of the French Army-Maffena affumes the Command. Infurrection in the Genoefe Territory. State of the Auftrian Army in that Vicinity. Advance of Melas-Invefts Bobbio, Tortona, Acqui, and Alessandria. English Fleet appears before Genoa-Savona taken by the Auftrians. French defeated near Safeto. Function effected between the French Forces. Several partial Engagements take place. Majena retreats into Genoa. Dreadful Famine in that City. Nice evacuated. General Melas gains Pofffion of the whole of the Maritime Alps. Campaign on the Rhine. Operations in that Quarter. Moreau paffes the Rhine. Battle of StockachOf Engen. Battle of Mofkirch-Of Biberach. General Kray retreats to Ulm. Battle of Heckfet-Of Newburg. Auftrians retreat to the Left of the Danube. Ulm invefted. Moreau's IIead-Quarters at Munich. March of the army of Referve towards Italy. Bonaparte fets out from Paris Paffes on to Genoa-Affumes the Command-Pales the Alps. Battle of Romano. Paffage of the Telino. French enter Milan. Pavia taken by the French. Piacenza alfo taken. Surrender of Genoa. Battle of Montebello. Battle of Marengo. Armistice propofed by Melas, and accepted. Armiftice on the Rhine. Count St. Julian arrives at Paris with Propofals for Peace. Charge of Affairs in Egypt. British Minifiry refuse to confirm the Convention made by Sir Sidney Smith. Hoftilities re-commenced with the Turks. The Grand Vizier completely defeated.

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S all hopes of terminating the government and the remainder of the coalition by negotiation had vanished, the greatest preparations were made throughout the republic for opening the campaign with vigour and effect. The army of referve, which was to be formed at Dijon, occupied almoft exclufively the public attention. This city, from its central pofition, was defignated for the place of general ren

dezvous for the operations of the

armies

Italy.

in That enthufiafim which had glowed with fo bright a flame in the first days of the revolution broke out again with renewed vigour at this period. The hope of obtaining peace, by one more great and general effort, feemed to infpire every clafs in France. Many who had hitherto evinced no friendly difpofitions towards the republic were among the first to make offers of

of fervice. The standard of the first conful was reforted to with alacrity, not only by the confcripts, but by numbers of former rank and fortune, who entered as volunteers, defraying themselves the expences of their equipment. The command of the army of referve was conferred on general Berthier, who, fince the revolution of the 18th of Brumaire, had been employed as minifter of war. In this laft poft, which he had administered with scarcely more talent or fidelity than his predeceffors, he was fucceeded by Carnot, who, amidst all the viciffitudes of his revolutionary career, had always difcovered great disintereftednefs and intelligence in the administration of fuch affairs as had been committed to his care; the chief of which had been thofe of the war department.

The feffion of the legislative body, which, in conformity to the conftitution, finished on the 1ft of Germinal (correfponding to the 22d or 23d of March) had been continued for the purpose of enacting certain laws, which the prefs of bufinefs had not permitted the council of ftate to prepare during the time of the ordinary fittings. One of the bills prefented was to authorise the government to regulate the taxes which were to be laid on bridges and canals conftructed by private individuals. Although the immenfe majority of the nation had embraced the prefent conftitution, as the code beft fitted in the prefent circumstances of the country to restore its tranquillity, and fecure that portion of liberty which it had obtained, yet various articles of this code had been fubmitted to by great numbers with reluctance; but with the hope, that, in calmer times, changes and amendments more confiftent

with the fpirit of republican liberty would be made. Such, for inftance, was that which gave the executive power the exclufive faculty of propofing laws; and which was confidered as derogatory, if not altogether incompatible, with a just and well regulated freedom. It would feem reasonable that thofe who are appointed to execute the laws, and who from their fituations are best fitted to judge of their expediency, fhould be confulted in the formation. The preceding conftitution had been greatly defective in this point; the executive power had no legal organ by which its advice or its objections could be tranfmitted; and the only mode of expreffing its difapprobation was by difobedience, or neglect in the execution. In the prefent code the organ of the executive government are the counsellors of ftate; and, as the legislative body are the ultimate judges of the merit of every project, difcuffed in their prefence by deputations from the council of state and from the tribunate, where all projects prefented are the fubjects of previous debate, little inconveniency it would feem could arife from a conftitutional permiffion given to this latter body to propofe laws equally with the executive power. Under the prefent conftitution the legiflative power has only the negative; and, if it is restrained from enacting good, it has the privilege at least of preventing evil. It had been fuggefted, that under these regulations the legiflative body would be little elfe than the enregifterers of the edicts of the executive power. Various decifions of the tribunate and the legiflature, during its firfl feffion, had however fhown the fallacy of this opinion. The decisions of the tribunate

tribunate in favour of projects prefented by the executive power had been fometimes rejected by the legiflature; and its oppofition to thofe projects fometimes confirmed. Such was the cafe in the last bill introduced during this feffion refpecting canals. The project, haftily and lightly framed, had been rejected by the tribunate after a very fhort dif. cuffion. The attempt to lay taxes on any object, without the exprefs confent of the legiflative power, was treated in the tribunate with feverity bordering on contempt: and though the fubject was highly popular, and the neceffity of the meafures propofed obvious, the legislative body evinced their approbation of the regulation made by the tribunate, in throwing out the bill by a vote which, from the vast majority of diffentient voices, might almost be deemed unanimous.

The executive power having no other laws to propofe, the feflion of the legiflative body was adjourned, (31st March.) Among the multiplied abufes of preceding adminiftrations, none fcarcely had been greater than the decifion of the tribunals refpecting prizes. Injuftice was the conftant handmaid of corruption; and little hope of redress remained to the fufferer, fince, among the higher conftituted authorities of the ftate, numbers were interested in giving their fanction to iniquity, from the intereft they had in the plunder. A decree of the confulate put a final ftop to thofe depredations, by the formation of a tribunal fitting at Paris, called confeil des prifes, compofed of eight members, named by the chief conful, and a counsellor of ftate as prefident. Not more comformable to juftice had been the laws enacted refpecting emigrants, but particularly the mode by which erafures from that fatal

lift had been obtained. Six com. miffaries were now named, whofe operations were to be fubmitted to the minifter of juftice, with the decifions which they had taken with refpect to the individuals whose cases they had in charge to examine. The minifter fubmitted these examinations to a new revifion, after which the whole, together with the motives which led to the conclufion, were laid before the first conful, who was to pronounce a definitive judgment. The difpofition in the government to do juftice to numbers who had been the victims of arbitrary measures and iniquitous laws had emboldened a multitude of emigrants to enter France, in order to prefent their claims against their infcription on the list. Some of thofe perfons, even while they accepted the benefit of these acts,treated them with derifion; while others fpurned at them with contempt, from the perfuafion that, by accepting this grace, they fhould forfeit their allegiance to their lawful fovereign, whofe return they expected as ardently as they wifhed. So perfuaded were thefe latter of the confummation of their wishes, and fo far was their fidelity to the ancient order of things carried, that in fome families where, agreeably to the laws of the republic on the demife of parents, the property had been equally divided among the children, the younger branches had confented to yield up their rights to their eldest brother. In the departments near the capital the nonjuring priefts officiated in the public fervice, and the formulary of prayer for the fafety of the perfon of the fuppofed lawful monarch was chanted without hesitation or fear. The indulgence of the government had fo emboldened thefe royalifts, that their plans of counter-revolution were put into almoft public circulation,

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