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experience of fo many years of crimes and miferies, better principles have ultimately prevailed in France; and that all the gigantic projects of ambition, and all the reflefs fchemes of deftruction, which have endangered the very existence of civil fociety, have at length been finally relinquifhed: -But the conviction of fuch a change, however agreeable to his majesty's wifes, can refult only from experience, and from evidence of facts.
The best and most natural pledge of its reality and permanence would be the restoration of that line of princes which for fo many centuries maintained the French nation in profperity at home, and in confideration and refpe&t abroad; fuch an event would at once have removed, and will at any time remove, all obftacles in the way of negotiation or peace. It would confirm to France the unmolefted enjoyment of its ancient territory; and it would give to all the other nations of Europe, in tranquillity and peace, that fecurity which they are now compelled to feek by other means.
But, defirable as fuch an event mutt be both to France and to the
world, it is not to this mode exclufively that his majefty limits the poffibility of fecure and folid pacification. His majefty makes no claim to prescribe to France what fhall be the form of her government, or in whofe hands the fhall veft the authority neceflary for conducting the affairs of a great and powerful nation.
His majefty looks only to the fecurity of his own dominions and thofe of his allies, and to the general fafety of Europe. Whenever he hall judge that fuch fecurity gan in any manner be attained, as
refulting either from the internal fituation of that country, from whofe internal fituation the danger has arifen, or from fuch other circumftances of whatever nature as may produce the fame end, his majefty will eagerly embrace the opportunity to concert with his allies the means of immediate and general pacification.
Unhappily no fuch fecurity hitherto exists; no fufficient evidence of the principles by which the new government will be directed; no reafonable ground by which to judge of its ftability. In this fitua tion it can for the prefent only remain for his majefty to pursue, in conjunction with other powers, thofe exertions of juft and defenfive war, which his regard to the happiness of his fubjects will never permit him either to continue be yond the neceffity in which they originated, or to terminate on any other grounds than fuch as may beft contribute to the fecure enjoyment of their tranquillity, their conftitution, and their indepen. dence.
Official Nete referred to in the French
The official note, under date of the 14th Nivofe, the 8th year, addreffed by the minifter of his Britannic majesty, having been laid before the first conful of the French republic, he obferved with furprise, that it refted upon an opinion which is not exact refpecting the origin and confequences of the prefent war. Very far from its being France which provoked it, he had, it must be remembered, from the commencement of her revolution, folemnly proclaimed her love of peace, and her difinclination to conquets, her refpect for the independence of all governments; and it is not to be doubted that, occupied at that time with her own internal affairs, he would have avoided taking part in thofe of Europe, and would have remained faithful to her declarations.
her, and the execution of which
flicted Europe. Such projects, for
Affailed on all fides, the republic could not but extend univerfally the efforts of her defence; and it is only for the maintenance of her. independence that he has made ufe of thofe means which the poffeffed, in her own ftrength and the Courage of her citizens. As long as the faw her enemies obftinately refufed to recognise her rights, the counted only upon the energy of her refiftance; but as foon as they were obliged to abandon the hope of invafion, the fought for means of reconciliation, and manifefted pacific intentions; and if thefe have not always been efficacious; if, in the midst of the critical circumfances of her internal fituation, which the revolution and the war have fucceffively brought on, the former depofitaries of the executive authority in France have not always fhown as inuch moderation
as the nation itfelf has fhown cou
But from an oppofite difpofition, as foon as the French revolution had broken out, almoft all Europe entered into a league for its deftruction. The aggreffion was real, long time before it was public; internal refiftance was excited; its were received; their extravagant declamations were fupported; the French nation was infulted in the person of its agents; and England fet particularly this example by the difmiffal of the minifter accredited to Finally, France was, in fact, attacked in her independence, in her honour, and in her fafety, long time before the war was de
Thus, it is to the projects of fubjection, diffolution, and difmemberment, which were prepared against
rage, it muft, above all, be imputed to the fatal and perfevering animo. fity with which the refources of England have been lavished to accomplish the ruin of France.
But if the wishes of his Britannic
majefty (in conformity with, his af furances) are, in unifon with those of the French republic, for the reeftablishment of peace, why, inftead of attempting the apology of the war, fhould not attention be rather paid to the means of terminating it? And what obftacle can prevent a mutual understanding, of
which the utility is reciprocal, and is felt, especially when the first conful of the French republic has perfonally given fo many proofs of his eagerness to put an end to the calamities of war, and of his difpofition to maintain the rigid obfervance of all the treaties concluded?
The first conful of the French republic could not doubt that his Britannic majefty recognised the right of nations to choofe the form of their government, fince it is from the exercife of this rigut that he holds his crown; but he has been unable to comprehend how to this fundamental principle, upon which rests the existence of political focieties, the minifters of his majesty could annex infinuations which tend to an interference in the internal affairs of the republic, and which are no lefs injurious to the French nation and to its government, than it would be to England and to his majefty, if a fort of invitation were held out in favour of that republican government of which England adopted the forms. in the middle of the last century, or an exhortation to recall to the throne that family whom their birth had placed there, and whom a revolution compelled to defcend from it.
If at periods not far diftant, when the conftitutional fyftem of the republic prefented neither the ftrength nor the folidity which it contains at prefent, his Britannic majefty thought himfelf enabled to invite a negotiation and pacific conferences; how is it poffible that he should not be eager now to renew negotiations to which the present and reciprocal fituation of affairs promifes a rapid progrefs? On every fide the voice of nations and of humanity implores the con
clufion of a war, marked already by fuch great calamities, and the prolongation of which threatens Europe with an univerfal convulfion and irremediable evils. It is, therefore, to put a stop to the courfe of thefe calamities, or in order that their terrible confequences may be reproached to thofe only who fhall have provoked them, that the first conful of the French republic propofes to put an immediate end to hoftilities, by agreeing to a suspension of arms, and naming plenipotentiaries on each fide, who fhall repair to Dunkirk, or any other town as advantageously fituated for the quicknefs of the refpective communications, and who fhould apply themfelves without any delay to effect the re-establishment of peace and good understanding between the French republic and England.
France, and received by the underfigned on the fi inftant, has been laid before the king.
His majesty cannot forbear expreffing the concern with which he oblerves in that note, that the unprovoked aggreffions of France, the fole cause and origin of the war, are fyftematically defended by her prefent rulers, under the fame injurious pretences by which they were originally attempted to be difguifed. His majefty will not enter into the refutation of allegations now univerfally exploded, and (in fo far as they refpect his majefty's conduct) not only in themselves utterly groundless, but contradicted both by the internal evidence of the tranfactions to which they relate, and also by the exprefs testimony, given at that time, of the government of France itfelf.
With refpect to the object of the note, his majetty can only refer to the anfwer which he has already given.
He has explained without referve, the obitacles which, in his judgment, preclude, at the prefent moment, all hope of advantage from negotiation. All the inducements to treat, which are relied upon in the French official note; the perfonal difpofitions which are faid to prevail for the conclufion of peace, and for the future obfervance of treaties; the power of infuring the effect of thofe difpofitions, fuppofing them to exift; and the folidity of the fyftem newly eftablished, after fo rapid a fucceffion of revolutions-all thefe are points which can be known only from that teft to which his majefty has already referred them-the refult of experience, and the evidence of facts.
With that fincerity and plain
nefs his anxiety for the re-establish, ment of peace indifpenfably requir ed, his majefty has pointed out to France the fureft and speedieft means for the attainment of that great object. But he has declared in terms equally explicit, and with the fae fincerity, that he entertains no de fire to prescribe to a foreign nation the form of its government; -that he looks only to the fecurity of his own dominions and of Europe; and that whenever that effential object can in his judgment be, in any manner whatever, fufficiently provi ted for he will eagerly concert with his allies the means of immediate and joint negotiation, for the re-eftablishment of general tranquillity.
To thefe declarations his ajefty fteadily adheres: and it is only on the grounds thus ftated, that his regard to the fafety of his su jects will fuffer him to renounce that fyftem of vigorous defence, to which, uncer the favour of provi dence, his kingdoms owe the fecurity of thofe bleffings which they now enjoy. (Signed) GRENVILLE. Downing-freet, Jan. 20, 1800.
Convention between the French Republic and the United States of America. The first conful of the French republic, in the name of the French people, and the prefident of the United States of America, equally animated with a defire to put an end to the differences which have arifen between the two flates, have refpectively nominated their plenipotentiaries, and invested them with full powers to negotiate upon these differences, and terminate them: that is to fay, the first conful of the French republic, in the name of the French people, has nominated for plenipo
plenipotentiaries of the faid repub, lic the citizens Jofeph Bonaparte, ex-ambaffador of the French republic at Rome, and counsellor of ftate Charles-Pierre Claret-Fleurieu, member of the national inftitute, and of the office of longitude of France, and counsellor of state, prefident of the fection of marine; and Pierre-Louis Roederer, member of the national inftitute, and counsellor of ftate, prefident of the fection of the interior; and the prefident of the United States of America, by and with the advice and confent of the fenate of faid ftates, has appointed for their plenipotentiaries Oliver Ellfworth, chief-juftice of the United States, William Richardfon Davie, ci-devant governor of North Carolina, and Williams Vans Murray, refident minifter of the United States at the Hague:
Who, after having exchanged their full powers, and patiently and carefully difcuffed their refpective interefts, have agreed to the following articles:
Art. I. There fhall be a firm, inviolable and univerfal peace, and true and fincere friendship, between the French Repu' lic and the United States of America, as well between their countries, territories, cities, and places, as between their citizens and inhabitants, without exception of perfons or places.
II. The minifters plenipotentiary of the two parties, not being impowered at present to agree relative to the treaty of alliance of the 6th of February, 1778, to the treaty of friendship and commerce of the fame date, and to the convention of the 14th of November, nor to the indemnities mutually due and claimed, the parties fhall further negotiate upon thefe points at a convenient time; and until
they fhall be agreed upon these points, the faid treaties and convention fhall have no effect, and the relations of the two nations fhall be regulated as follows:
III. The fhips belonging to the ftate taken on either fide, or which may be taken before the exchange of ratifications, fhall be given up.
IV. The properties captured and not yet definitively condemned, or which may be captured before the exchange of ratifications, except contraband merchandife deftined for an enemy's port, fhall be mutually reftored upon the following proofs of property, viz.
On the one part and on the other, the proofs of property relative to merchant veffels armed or unarmed fhall be a paffport in the following form:
"To all thofe to whom these prefents hall come, be it known, that power and permition has been given to mafter or commander of the veffel called the of the city of — of the burden of - tons, or thereabouts, now lying in the port or harbour of and deftined for laden with ——, that after his fhip has been rifited, and before his departure, he shall make oath before officers authorised for that purpose, that the said ship belongs to one or more fubjects of
the execution of which form
fhall be annexed to these prefents, in order that he may obferve, and caufe to be obferved by his crew, the maritime ordinances and regulations, and give in a lift figned and attefted, containing the names and furnames, places of birth and abode, of the perfons compofing the crew of his hip, and of all on board her, whom he fhall not receive on board without the knowledge and permiffion of the officers (I 4) authorised