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self before God, but because thy God is holy, and thou desirest
ANSWER TO A QUERY.
THE observation of your correspondent, who signs Jon, in the Evangelical Magazine for January, respecting the use of the Hebrew verb, is ingenious; and his Query worthy attention. He requests to have the passages where the same mode of expression is used (as in Gen. xxii. 17. "In blessing, I will bless thee," &c.) pointed out, and the propriety of his remark examined. Perhaps the following observations may, in some measure, satisfy his enquiry.
Mr. Parkhurst, in his Hebrew Lexicon, coinciding with your correspondent's sentiment, observes, "Hebrew verbs are frequently joined with their infinitives; which latter may then be rendered as participles active; or as the Latin gerunds in do. This sort of expression, generally, if not always, denotes succession, or continuance, as Gen. xxii. 17. " In blessing, I will bless, &c. i. c. I will continually bless thee."-The same mode of expression, upon the same subject, is used in Joshua xxiv. 10. "Therefore he blessed you still." 1 Chron. iv. 10. "O that thon wouldest bless me indeed." Mr. P. does not say that succession is the constant import of this mode of expression, but that it is generally so. That succession, or continuance, is the proper meaning of the expression in some passages, may be adinited; but that it is the radical, or uniform sense, does not to me appear evident. Nor, indeed, does it intend the certainty or importance of the subject, as the radical import of the phrase, any more than the continuance of the action; for no one preeise idea will apply to all the passages where it is so used. The true import of the expression is to be coliccted from the verb and its connexion: the infinitive being used adverbially, in some
places imports the continuance of the action, in others the certainty, in others the importance, and frequently the degree of the action.
Montanus uniformly, as far as I have observed, renders the expression either by the gerund in do, or by the participle of the verb. But though Calvin renders it in the same manner, yet, he frequently translates it by profecto, indeed; certe, certainly; calde, greatly. Poole, in his Synopsis, frequently does the same; and says, this mode of expression signifies certainty, vehemence, and acceleration. Leigh, in the Preface to his Critica Sacra, says, "The repetition of the Hebrew is emphatic."
Blackwall, in his Sacred Classics, on Acts vii. 34, where I y is a quotation from Exodus iii. 7, says, in the Septuagint and the New Testament writers, it is a vigorous repetition, after the Hebrew dialect; but which he proves to be pure Greek, by citations from Herodotus, Thucydides, and Plato.
Wolfius, in his Cure Philologica (on Hebrews vi. 17, and Acts vii. 34.) says, this repetition is not a mere Hebraism: and Vitringa, in his Animadversiones, remarks the same, citing examples, from which it docs not appear that succession is the meaning intended, but an emphatic or increased degree of the action expressed by the verb.
The analogy of the Hebrew language seems to teach us, that the repetition of the verb is emphatic of its meaning, and not confined to any one idea. The duplicate verbs, that is, verbs which have the last, or the two last radical letters doubled, heighten the meaning of the verb. Thus the repetition of the noun heightens the sense of it: "Thou wilt keep him in peace, peace" (that is, perfect peace)" whose mind is stayed on thee +.' They say, peace, peace" (that is, great or perfect peace) "when there is no peace.' "Deal no more so exceeding proudly. "That which is altogether just shalt thou follow ¶¶. The repetition of the particle is emphatic:-" The land is an exceeding good land §." "The stranger that is with thee, shall get up above thee very high, and thou shalt come down very low". As the repetition of letters, of the noun, and of the particle, heightens the sense of the word without any one speci-, fie idea being attached to it, why should it not be so with the repetition of the verb? The places where the verb is used with its infinitive, are numerous. I have noticed more than two hundred; but to cite them all is unnecessary. It is worthy of
See Parkhurst, under and in his Grammar, page 14. + Isaiah xxvi. 3. Psalm cxix. 165.
Sam. ii. 3. See Pool's Synopsis on this passage, and Gen. xxv. 39. Num. iii. 9. Jud. v. 22. Isa. xxv. 7. 2 Kings iii. 16. Deut. ii. 27. xvi. 20.
2 Samuel vi. 2. See Zena's edition of Noldius on the Hebrew Particles, No. 701, and 1582 of his Annotations at the end of his Concordance. Num. xiv. 7. 2 Kings x. 4.
Deut. xxviii- 43- Genesis xvii. 6, 20.
Exodus i. 7.
remark, that when this mode of expression is used, it is never, as far as I have noticed, used with a reduplicate verb; that being an increased sense of the verb itself, of course it is not necessary for the verb to be repeated.
It is remarkable, that when the idea of continuance is evidently intended, a particle is added to this expression, to denote continuance. Is Ephraim my dear son? for though I speak against him, I do carnestly remember him still."*
Dr. Owen † says, "This reduplication is a pure Hebraism, vehemently affirming the thing promised, and hath in it the nature of an oath. It also intends and extends the matter pronised: "Blessing, I will bless thee: I will do so without fail; 1 will do so greatly, without measure; and eternally, without end." This is very just, as it applies to this subject, collecting the sense from the verb and its conuection; but it will not apply as the radical and constant sense of this mode of expression, as will appear from several of the passages cited below ‡•
But what, I think, renders it evident that the phrase is not to be limited to any one sense, is the use of the same verb in this form; and at other times (to express the same idea, and sometimes the very same action) the verb isjoined with a word used adverbially, as will appear from a comparison of the following
† On Heb. vi. 14.
* Jer. xxxi. 20. Prov. xxi. 26. That our translators did not understand the phrase to have any one precise meaning, appears from the variety of forms used in translating it. They have sometimes rendered it by a word implying continuance, but more frequently by words expressing the certainty of the action, than by any other. That the certainty of the action is sometimes the meaning of the expression, is evident from Jer. xxxviii. 15. Jeremiah said unto Zedekiah, "Wilt thou not surely put me to death? And he sware unto Jeremiah, I will not put thee to death." In other places the form of expression is thus variously rendered :-" Of every tree in the garden thou mayest freely cat," Gen. ii. 16.- -“I will greatly multiply thy sorrow," Gen. iii. 16.—I will multiply thy seed exceedingly," xvi. 1o.-"They said, this one fellow will needs be a judge."-Thou sore longest after thy father's house," xxxi. 30.-" Joseph is without doubt torn in pieces,' xxvii. 33.-" "The man did solemnly protest unto us," xliii. 3. For inted I was stolen away out of the land of the Hebrews," xl. 15. —“The man asked us straitly of our state." xliii. 7.- Wot ye not, that such a man as I can certainly divine ?” xliv. 15.-"I know that Aaron can speak well," Ex. iv. 14.-"He hath triumphed gloriously," xv, 21.—“ Diligently kearken,” xv. 26. If thou afflict them in anywise, and they cry at ail unto me, I will surely hear their cry," xxii. 23." He that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall surely be put to death." Lev. xxiv. 16.— Thou shalt freely tithe all the increase of thy seed," Deut. xiv. 22.-" Her father said, verily thought that thou hadst utterly hated her," Judges xv. 2. "If her father had but spit in her face, should she not be ashamed seven days?"-Num. xii. 14- Boaz said unto her, it hath fully been shesun me all that thou hast done." Ruth ii. 11.-David earnestly asked leave of me to go to Bethlehem." 1 Sam. xx. 6. "For it is told me, that he dealeth vary subtilly," xxiii, 22. — "I have grievously rebelled." Lain. i. 20. "We have dealt very corruptly." Noh, i. 7. &c. &c.
texts. The first in each couplet expressing the verb, with its infinitive; and the second, the same verb with an adverb:
Deut. xv. 4. "The Lord shall greatly bless thee in the land."
Gen. iii. 16. “I will greatly multiply thy sorrow.'
Deut. xvii. 17.
Neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver," &c.
Zech. ix. 9.
Gen. xvi. 10.
"The Father of the righteous shall greatly rejoice."
"I will multiply thy seed exceedingly."
1 Sam. i. 10. "And Hannah wept sore."
2 Sam. xvii. 16. "Lodge not in the wilderness, but quickly pass over."
I have entered thus largely into this subject, because, if continuance or succession be the radical meaning of the phrase, our translators have not been accurate in giving it so many different explanations, but should have made use of some word or phrase expressing that sense; but from what has been observed, I think it appears that the mode of expression has no one fixed and radical meaning. Our translators, therefore, have done right in collecting its import from the verb, and its connection, and rendering it in such a variety of forms; and I profess myself pleased with whatever tends to show the critical propriety of our English translation. EBER.
THE SERIOUS MAN.
To the Editor.
In your last Volume, page 212, you inserted a few hints of mine, or Seriousness. Reading very lately the works of an eminent and learned Divine of the last century, I was much pleased and impressed with the following, which will make an excellent Appendix to the paper above referred to; and your giving it a place in your useful work, at some convenient opportunity, will oblige your sincere friend,
"SERIOUSNESS does not consist in the morosity of a Cynic, nor in the severity of an Ascetic, nor in the demureness of a Precisian,
nor in the deadness and sullenness
of a Quaker, nor in the solemn mien of an Italian, the slow pace of a Spaniard :-'tis neither in a drooping head, nor a mortified face, nor a primitive beard:- it is something very different, and much more excellent that makes up a Serious Man; and I believe I shall not misrepresent him if I say, He is one that duly and impartially weighs the moment of things, so as neither to value trifles, nor despise things really excellent :That dwells much at home, and studies to know himself, as well as books or men: That considers why he came into this world, how great his business, and how short his stay in it; how uncertain it is when he shall leave it; and whither a sinner shall then betake himself, when both Heaven and earth shall fly from the presence of the Judge:- That considers God as always present, and the folly of doing what must be repented of; and of going to Hell when a man may go to Heaven! In one word, That knows how to distinguish between a moment and eternity!
"This is to be truly serious; and however the pretender to gaiety and lightsomeness of humour may ridicule it by the names of Melancholy, Dulness, Stupidity, &c. he that is thus affected cannot miss of being good and wise here, and happy hereafter; and then it will be his turn to laugh when the others shall mourn and weep."
ANSWERS TO THE QUERIES OF S. T.
In the Evangelical Magazine for April 1803, page 137.
1. "How may we discover a call to fill any particular situation in the dispensations of Providence?"
The querist will pardon me for attempting to place the question in a less complex and ambiguous state, thus: "How may we determine a call in Providence to fill up any particular situation?" To which it may be briefly replied: 1st, It is necessary that the station or employment called to, be in its own nature lawful: i. e. Such as may be engaged in with a good conscience, is not forbidden by the word of God, and which does not necessarily lead to sin: "for, as God cannot be tempted to evil,-neither tempteth he any man." - 2d, To make such a call clear, there should be found a natural fitness in the subject, to whatsoever he is called. Modesty, it is true, may sometimes conceal from our view our own talents, as in the case of Moses, when called to lead Israel; yet, to the sincere enquirer, Providence seldom fails to make the way straight. "The way of the slothful man is an hedge of thorns; but the way of the righteous is made plain." It may be considered rather a temptation than a call in Providence, for a man to attempt what he knows, or ought to know, he is naturally un