Imatges de pÓgina

invention of which is attributed to the dles consist of more than one set of Egyptians. It has, however, received strings, the sets are called leaves. Each nany modifications and great improve- of these heddles receives its portion of the ments in modern times, and is differently alternate threads of the warp, so that, constructed, according to the nature of when they are moved reciprocally up and the texture to be produced. The art of down, the relative position of the alterweaving by the power of steam or water nate threads of the warp is reversed. seems to have been invented, or, at least, Each time that the warp is opened by the first successfully carried into operation, in separating of its alternate threads, a shutScotland, in 1801 ; and such is the im- tle, containing the woof, is thrown across proved state of the process at present, that it, and the thread of woof is immediately one girl attends two looms. This mode driven into its place by a frame called a of weaving, however, could never have lay, furnished with thin reeds or wires, succeeded, and, indeed, must long ago placed among the warp like the teeth of have been abandoned, if the process for a comb. The woven piece, as fast as it dressing the web before it is put into the is completed, is wound up on a second loom had not been devised: this rendered beam opposite to the first. Power looms the stoppage of the work from time to driven by water or steam, although a late time--which made it impossible for one invention, are now universally introduced person to attend to more than one loom- into manufactories of cotton and wool. unnecessary. The following account of As the motions of the loom are chiefly of the processes of dressing and weaving is a reciprocating kind, they are produced, in from Bigelow's Technology (2d ed.,Boston, some looms, by the agency of cranks, and 1832.“ Dressing. As the threads which in others by cams or wipers, acting upon constitute the warp are liable to much weights or springs.—Twilling. In the mode friction in the process of weaving, they of plain weaving last described, it will be are subjected to an operation called dress- observed that every thread of the warp ing, the object of which is to increase crosses at every thread of the woof, and vice their strength and smoothness, by agglu- versa. In articles which are twilled, or tweeltinating their fibres together. To this ed, this is not the case; for, in this manuend, they are pressed between rollers im- facture, only the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, pregnated with mucilage made of starch, &c., threads cross each other to form the or some gelatinous material, and immedi- texture. In the coarsest kinds, every third ately afterwards brought in contact with thread is crossed; but, in finer fabrics, the brushes, which pass repeatedly over them, intervals are less frequent, and, in some very so as to lay down the fibres in one direc- fine twilled silks, the crossing does not take tion, and remove the superfluous mucilage place till the sixteenth interval. A loom from them. They are then dried by a invented in this country, by Mr. Batchelseries of revolving fans, or by steam cyl- der, of Lowell, has been applied to the inders, and are ready for the loom- weaving of twilled goods by water-power. Weaving. Woven textures derive their Twilled fabrics are thicker than plain strength from the same force of lateral ones when of the same fineness, and adhesion, which retains the twisted fibres more flexible when of the same thickness. of each thread in their situations. The They are also more susceptible of ornamanner in which these textures are form- mental variations. Jeans, dimoties, serges, ed is readily understood. On inspecting &c., are specimens of this kind of texture. a piece of plain cloth, it is found to con- - Double Weaving. In this species of sist of two distinct sets of threads running weaving, the fabric is composed of two perpendicularly to each other. Of these, webs, each of which consists of a separate the longitudinal threads constitute the warp and a separate woof. The two, scarp, while the transverse threads are however, are interwoven at intervals, so called the woof, weft, or filling, and con- as to produce various figures. The juncsist of a single thread passing backwards tion of the two webs is formed by passing and forwards. In weaving with the com- them at intervals through each other, so mon loom, the warp is wound upon a that each particular part of both is somecylindrical beam or roller. From this times above and sometimes below. It the thread passes through a harness, com- follows that, when different colors are posed of movable parts, called the heddles, employed, as in carpeting, the figure is of which there are two or more, consisting the same on both sides, but the color is of a series of vertical strings, connected reversed. The weaving of double cloths to frames, and having loops through is commonly performed by a complicated which the warp passes. When the hed- machine, called a draw-loom, in which the weaver, aided by an assistant, or by ma- ried to an English lady, and settled as a chinery, has the command of each par- merchant at St. Petersburg, where the ticular thread by its number. He works son was born in 1783. His father dying by a pattern, in which the figure before when he was but three years old, his him is traced in squares, agreeably to mother removed into Saxony, and her which the threads to be moved are select- son received his education at a German ed and raised before each insertion of the university. At the age of fourteen, he woof. Kidderminster carpets and Mar- quitted Germany for England, and, adoptseilles quilts are specimens of this mode ing the profession of medicine, attended of weaving.-Cross Weaving. This meth- lectures one winter at Edinburgh, and od is used to produce the lightest fabrics, then went to finish his studies at Jena. such as gauze, netting, catgut, &c. In Returning to Edinburgh to obtain a medithe kinds of weaving which have been cal diploma, he there formed an acpreviously described, the threads of the quaintance with sir Walter Scott, by whose warp always remain parallel to each oth- advice he devoted himself to literature as er, or without crossing. But, in gauze a profession. In 1808, he commenced weaving, the two threads of warp which his career by publishing a new edition of pass between the same splits of the reed, the Battle of Flodden Field, a Poem of are crossed over each other, and partially the Sixteenth Century, which was follow. twisted, like a cord, at every stroke of the ed by Metrical Romances of the Thirloom. They are, however, twisted to the teenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuright and left alternately, and each shot, ries, from ancient Manuscripts, with an or insertion of the woof, preserves the Introduction, Notes, and a Glossary (3 twist which the warp has received. A vols.); and, in conjunction with Jamieson, great variety of fanciful textures are pro- he produced a work entitled Ilustrations duced by variations of the same general of Northern Antiquities, from the earliest plan.”

Teutonic and Scandinavian Romances Weber, Godfrey, a theoretical and (1814, 4to.). In September, 1816, Mr. practical musician, born at Freinsheim, Weber became disordered in his intellects, near Manheim, in 1779, studied law, and in which state he remained till his decease, received an appointment as jurist, but, at in 1818. Besides the works already nothe same time, devoted himself to music. ticed, Mr. Weber published editions of The flute and violoncello were his instru- the Plays of Ford (2 vols., 8vo.), and of 'ments. He subsequently occupied him- those of Beaumont and Fletcher (14 vols.); self chiefly with the theory of music, and but his execution of these undertakinga published numerous articles on this sub, did not add to his reputation; and his erject in the Leipsic and Vienna Musical rors, as a dramatic commentator, were Gazettes, in the great German Encyclopæ- exposed by Mr. Gifford. dia (edited by Ersch and Gruber), in the WEBER, Charles Maria von, was born musical gazette called Cacilia, edited by December 18, 1786, at Eutin, in Holstein, himself, &c. &c., and in his distinguish- and received a very careful education ed work, Essay towards a systematic The Painting and music occupied his atten. ory of the Art of Composition for Self- tion in his leisure hours. His efforts in instruction, with Notes for Scholars (2d the former art were not without success ed., 1824 seq., 4 vols.), and his General But music gradually took entire possesDoctrine of Music, for Teachers and sion of him. As soon as his father obLearners (Darmstadt, 1822). He was served the promise of distinguished talent eventually appointed advocate-general of in his son, he fostered it with great care. the court of cassation in Darmstadt, and Towards the end of the year 1790, he received titles and orders. He composed went to Munich, and his talent for dramany songs, also a collection called the matic music began to develope itself. He Lyre and Sword, not to be confounded wrote, under the eyes of his teacher, an with the songs under the same title com- opera called the Power of Love and Wine : posed by Charles Maria von Weber. (q. v.) also a mass, and other compositions, all of There are also other compositions of which he subsequently burned. Soon afhis. He invented the musical chronome- ter, he became possessed with the idea of ter. (See Time.) His inquiries respect- excelling Sennefelder's new invention of ing the genuineness of Mozart's requiem lithography. He thought that he had dishave involved him in various controver- covered a better process, and went with sies.

his father to Freiberg, in Saxony, where Weber, Henry William, was the son all the necessary materials seemed to be of a native of Westphalia, who was mar. at hand. But he soon gave up his idea, and with redoubled zeal resumed his ap- descendants are found. At the saine time, plication to his music. Six variations of he composed the music for Preziosa. The his were published at that time in Munich. uncommon success of Der Freyschütz proWhen a boy of fourteen, he composed an cured him an invitation to compose an opera (the Maid of the Wood)

, which opera for Vienna, for which purpose madwas performed in 1800, and acquired a ame de Chezy wrote for him Euryanthe, celebrity subsequently disagreeable to the after an old French tale. This work ocauthor, who had come to consider it a cupied him chiefly from 1822 to the auvery immature production. In 1802, he tumn of 1823; and, in September of the made a musical journey with his father, same year, he travelled to Vienna to direct and collected and studied theoretical its performance, which took place, for the works on music with the greatest zeal, first time, October 25, 1823.It met with and, having been led, by his own re- great applause. In 1824, Weber received flections, to study harmony thoroughly, from London an invitation to compose formed a musical system of his own, in Oberon for Covent-garden theatre. The which he adopted the excellent rules of first act was sent him at the same time. the old masters. He went to Vienna, He prepared bimself for it by studying where he became acquainted with the English. But the numerous duties of his immortal Haydn, and with Vogler (q. v.), appointment, often increased by the addiwho received him with great kindness. tion of those of his colleague, Morlachi, By Vogler's advice, he gave up for a time, who was in ill health, and often went to though with reluctance, the composition Italy, together with his devotion to study, of large pieces, and studied for two years impaired

his health. He went, in the sumthe works of the greatest masters. At the mer of 1825, to Ems. Towards the end same time, he acquired great proficiency of 1825, he directed the performance of in playing on the piano. During this his Euryanthe on the stage of Berlin. His time, he published only a few small health grew worse in 1826. In February, works. He then went, as musical direct- he went to London, where he finished his or, to Breslau, where he composed the magnificent Oberon, directed the performgreatest part of Rübezahl, an opera by ance of it, and on the day when Der Rhode. In 1806, Eugene, duke of Wür- Freyschütz was to be performed for his temberg, induced him to go to Carlsruhe, benefit (June 5), breathed his last. Weber in Silesia, where he wrote two sympho- made an epoch' in opera music, produced nies, several concerts, &c. He soon after much that was new, applied the instrufollowed the duke to Stuttgard, where he ments with great effect, and, in fact, gave wrote his opera Silvana; re-wrote his a new life to the opera. The songs of the cantata the First Tone, several overtures, spirits in Oberon have a peculiarly ideal &c.; and composed much for the piano. character. Unfortunately, his comic ope

, In 1810, he set out for France, Munich, ra the Three Pintos, on which he had Berlin, &c., and wrote his opera Abu- labored for several years, was left unfinHassan. From 1813 to 1816, he directed ished. Weber united many great musithe opera in Prague, where he composed cal qualities : he was not only one of the the great cantata Battle and Victory, which, most original composers, a great performthough imposing by its grandeur and co er, showing peculiar originality in piano piousness of ideas, does not yet show a playing, an ardent, judicious and intellisettled style. Living only for his art, he gent director, equally at home in the es gave up his place, when his purpose—the thetical and in the technical parts of his entire reorganization of the opera, was art,—but also a very intellectual and aceffected. În 1816, he lived in Berlin, complished man, with higher and more where he received an invitation to form a philosophical views of life than artists German opera at Dresden, which he ac- often have. Besides the works already cepted, and to which he devoted all his mentioned, his published compositions powers. There he wrote, besides several comprise a number of instrumental pieces instrumental pieces, various occasional especially for concertando instruments, and captate; a mass and offertorium (1818) for calculated for accomplished performers the day of the king's baptism, which was (concerts, concertinos, pot-pourris and harafterwards followed by a second one; and mony pieces for the piano-forte, clarionet, his Der Freyschütz (text by Kind), which bassoon, horn, violoncello, sonatas, variawas first performed in Berlin in 1821, and tions, polonaises and dances, some symsince that time has acquired universal phonies, and a quintetto for the clarionet), reputation; and several melodies, which, various cantatas, vocal pieces for four like some of Mozart's, are sung, and even voices, and songs (particularly the comwhistled, wherever Europeans or their positions of Körner's Lyre and Sword,



wnich have becomc truly national songs en, where his father was a professor, was of the Germans). The Posthumous graduated in 1780, and soon distinguished Works of Ch. M. von Weber (Dresden, himself in various places as a practical 1828), containing the results of his views physician and as an author. In 1787, he and experience, are of much interest. was appointed body physician to the elecWeber was, an excellent man, a kind tor of Mayence, and professor of medihusband, a careful father, and faithful cine in the university of that city. But friend.

after some time, he lost the favor of the WEBSTER, John, a dramatic poet of the elector, who had been prejudiced against seventeenth century, was clerk of the par- him by another physician. Wedekind ish of St. Andrew, Holborn, and a member was even accused of belonging to the of the company of merchant tailors. His sect of illuminati, but without grounds. works are the White Devil, or the Trage- Among his works are the following :-On dy of P. Giordano Ursini, Duke of Bra- Medical Instruction (Frankfort, 1799); On chiano, with the Life and Death of Vit- the Effect of Confidence and the Way of toria Corombona, the famous Venetian Curing by Persuasion (Frankfort, 1790): Courtesan (1612); the Devil's Law-Case, Lectures on Inflammations (Leipsic, a tragi-comedy (1623); the Duchess of 1791); De vera Notitia et Curatione Mor. Malfy, a tragedy (1623); Appius and Vir- borum primarum Viarum, nec non de Morginia, a tragedy (1654); the Thracian bis ex earundem Affectionibus oriundis Wonder, a comical history (1661); and a atque cum iisdem complicatis (Nuremberg, Cure for a Cuckold, a comedy (1661). 1742). When Mayence came under the He was also the author of a pageant, ex- dominion of the French, in 1792, Wedehibited in 1624, by the tailors' company; kind entered the French service as phyand he assisted Dekker in writing Wy- sician of the military hospitals. He wrote. att's History.

whilst in this capacity, On Cachexy in WECHABITES. (See Wahabees.) general, and on Hospital Cachexy in par

WEDDERBURN, Alexander, earl of Ross-ticular(Leipsic, 1796), and Accounts of the lyn, a distinguished English lawyer, eld- French Military Hospitals (Leipsic, 1797 est son of Peter Wedderburn, one of the 98, 2. vols.). He also wrote against senators of the college of justice in Scot- Jacobinism. By his Economical and Poland, was born in 1733, and brod to the litical State of France under her Constlaw in his native country, but early re- tution of the Third Year of the Republic moved to the Middle Temple, by which (in favor of the directory), he obtained the society he was called to the bar in 1757. civic crown. But afterwards, when the He rapidly acquired reputation, and also defects of the constitution became visible, obtained the patronage of the earls of he wrote against it, in his Letters on the Bute and Mansfield. He was appointed Revolution of the 18th of Brumaire (1800. solicitor-general in 1771, in which office After Napoleon's government had bebe insulted Franklin, in arguing before come oppressive, Wedekind gave up his the privy council on American affairs. rights as a French citizen, and became In 1778, he was made attorney-general, body physician to the grand duke of and, in 1780, chief justice of the common Hesse-Darmstadt. Among his later works pleas, with the title of lord Loughborough. is a treatise On the Typhus or tha ContaHe adhered to the party of Mr. Fox gious Nervous Fever (1814), which has when Mr. Pitt first came into power; but been translated into English, Spanish and joined the administration, with many oth Portuguese, and one on the value of ers, under the alarm produced by the Medicine (1816). Of his numerous other French revolution in 1793, when be suc- medical treatises, many are given in his ceeded lord Thurlow as chancellor, which article in the German Conversationsoffice he held until 1801, when he retired Lericon. He has also written On the with the title of earl of Rosslyn. As a Changes which the Spirit of the Time relawyer, he was able, plausible, subtle and quires to be made in the Institution of Xoeloquent; as a politician, rather a parti- bility (1816), and on the Destination of san than a statesman, but serviceable to Man (Giessen, 1827). the side which he espoused. He died Wedge. (See Mechanics.) without issue, January 3, 1805. Lord WEDGWOOD, Josiah, an ingenious imRosslyn wrote a work on the manage- prover of the pottery manufacture, was ment of prisons.

born in July, 1730, and was the younger Wedding, WEDLOCK. (See Marriage, son of a potter, to whose business be sueand Husband and Wife.)

ceeded. He soon distinguished himself by WEDEKIND, George Christian Gottlieb, his discoveries of new species of eartben baron von, was born in 1761, at Götting- ware and porcelain (q. v.), as well as by the


taste and fancy displayed in the forms and over the world from the earliest times ; decorations of the various results of his and, what is remarkable, the days of the ingenuity. So important was the result, week are generally named after the sun that in a very few years he turned the and planets, only six planets having been current of importation of the finer earth- known to the ancients. This manner of en wares into that of exportation. In distinguishing a series of seven days is 1763, he obtained a patent for a new spe- found to be the same among the ancient cies of ware, which received the name Egyptians, Indians and Chinese. Still of queen's ware, and, continuing his ex- the order is not that of the distances, perimental researches, added six other magnitude or brightness of the planets. different species of ware to the English The following ingenious conjecture has manufacture. He was versed in several been adopted to account for the origin of branches of natural philosophy, and in- the names and arrangement of the days vented a pyrometer (q.v.) for measuring the of the week :- The planetary arrangement higher degrees of heat employed in the of Ptolemy was thus: 1. Saturn; 2. Jupivarious arts. He was also the proposer ter; 3. Mars; 4. the Sun; 5. Venus ; 6. of the Grand Trunk canal, uniting the Mercury; 7. the Moon. Each of these Trent and Mersey, and subsequently com- planets was supposed to preside succesmunicating with the Severn and the Grand sively over each hour of the twenty-four of Junction canal. To this navigation, which each day, in the order above given. In this was of the greatest benefit to the pottery way, Saturn would preside over the first district, he added a turnpike-road, ten hour of the first day, Jupiter over the miles in length, which gave still greater second hour, Mars over the third, the facilities to that extensive branch of man- sun over the fourth, and so on. Thus ufacture. His own pottery was near the sun, presiding over the fourth, elevNewcastle-under-Line, in Staffordshire, enth and eighteenth hours of the first day, where he built a village, which he called would preside over the first hour of the Etruria. In 1786, he was the promoter second day; and, carrying on the series, of an association in London, denominated the moon would preside over the first the general chamber of the manufac- hour of the third day, Mars over the first tures of Great Britain; and he much dis- hour of the fourth day, Mercury over the tinguished himself by opposing Mr. Pitt's first hour of the fifth day, Jupiter over the proposition for adjusting the commercial first hour of the sixth day, and Venus intercourse between Great Britain and over the first hour of the seventh day. Ireland. His death took place January 3, Hence the names of the days yet used in 1795, in his sixty-fourth year. To great the learned professions: 1. dies Saturni public spirit and an open hand in the (Saturday); 2. dies Solis (Sunday); 3. dies distribution of the large fortune which he Lunæ (Monday); 4. dies Martis (Tuesacquired by his spirit and enterprise, in day); 5. dies Mercurii (Wednesday); 6. beneficial objects and institutions, Mr. dies Jovis (Thursday); 7. dies Veneris Wedgwood united great private benevo- (Friday). The English names of the lence, and was a benefactor to the poor days of the week are derived from the in the most enlarged sense of the term. Saxons, and are partly adopted from the He was a member of the royal and anti- more civilized nations of antiquity. (For quarian societies. (See White Ware.) the etymology of the English names, see

WEDNESDAY; the fourth day of the the separate articles.) week (in Latin, dies Mercuriï, whence the WEENINY, John Baptist, a celebrated French Mercredi, the Italian Mercoledi, Dutch painter, was born at Amsterdam, in &c.). The Germans call it Mittwoche 1621. He was the son of an architect, (mid-week). The English name is de- and became the pupil of Abraham Bloerived from the old Scandinavian deity mart. After residing some time in Italy, he Odin or Woden. In Anglo-Saxon, it is returned to Holland, and settled at Utrecht, Vodensdag; in Swedish, Odensdag; in where he died in 1660. He painted smalí Dutch, Woensdag. We find the same landscapes, animals and historical pieces prefix in the name of some English towns: with great accuracy and perfection, but Wednesbury, Wednesfield, &c. (See was deficient in variety.-His son John, Week. See, also, Ash-Wednesday.) born at Amsterdam, in 1644, was more dis

WEEK. The week approaches pretty tinguished. He studied at first under his nearly to a quarter of a lunation; but this father, and acquired great skill in the dedivision of time has no obvious founda- lineation of animals. Still life, the chase, tion in nature. It appears, notwithstand- dead game, &c., are represented in his ing, to have prevailed very extensively works with an inimitable truth and great

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