Imatges de pÓgina
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beauty of coloring. He died at Amster- Two works, written during this period, dam, in 1719.

Ethices Stoicorum recentiorum Fundamenta Weevil (curculio); a genus of hard. ex ipsorum Scriptis eruta atque cum Prinshelled beetles, easily recognised by hav- cipis Ethices, quæ critica Rationis pracing the head prolonged into a long horny tice secundum Kantium erhibet, comparata snout, at the end of which the mouth is (Hamburg, 1797), and An Attempt to presituated. By later naturalists, this has sent the Chief Principles of a Philosophivery justly been considered as a family of cal System of Religion in Sermons (Haminsects, and has been divided into nu- burg, 1801), show how zealously he demerous genera. These insects have four voted himself, at that period, to philosophy, joints to each of the tarsi; the antennæ particularly that of Kant, and theologs. arise from the snout above mentioned, To these sermons is prefixed a treatise ou are usually clavate, and in most of the the mode of awakening an interest in regenera form an angle at the apex of the ligion, in which he shows how a liberal first joint: the abdomen in all is large. and frank address to the reason should be The larvæ are entirely destitute of feet, united with a judicious operation on the and live, some in the interior of seeds, feelings. He also produced a work dediothers in wood, in the interior of stems, cated to Jacobi (q. v.), On the Separation under the bark of trees, in fruits, in the of Morals from Religion, demanded by hardest puts, and some even in the inte- Modern Philosophy (Hamburg, 1804). In rior of the bodies of other insects. In 1805, he yielded to his inclination for an their perfect state, all these insects feed on academical life, and went to Göttingen, different parts of plants, but especially on where he settled as magister legens and leaves and the petals of flowers. The theological repetent. On this occasion, he weevil proper (calandra granaria) is best wrote a treatise De Græcorum Mysteris known on account of the ravages it com- Religioni non obtrudendis (Göttingen, mits among grain, sometimes destroying 1805), soon followed by his learned Inone third or one fourth of the whole crop. troduction to the Gospel of John (GotEach larva, as soon as born, penetrates tingen, 1806). In 1806, he accepted the into the interior of a grain, and feeds on professorship of theology and philosophy its substance till it has attained its full at Rinteln, after the university of Gotsize; then undergoes a change, and takes tingen had conferred upon him the degree the form of a chrysalis; and in due time the of doctor of theology. In 1810, wher

. perfect insect perforates the hull, which is the university of Rinteln was abolished, bow nearly empty. It is a European in- he received å professorship in Halle, and sect, and in that continent its ravages are published The First Epistle of Paul chiefly felt. Great complaints are, how to Timothy, translated anew and ex. ever, made of the weevil among wheat, plained, with Reference to the latest Inin certain parts of the U. States, and par- quiries respecting its Authenticity (Gör ticularly in Virginia. Having never seen tingen, 1810). In this work he refutet 2 specimen of this American weevil, we the doubts which Schleiermacher had sare unable to decide upon its identity with raised respecting its authenticity, in : the above; if identical, it must have been, small treatise in 1807, and showed that, by some means, introduced from Europe if it cannot be proved beyond doubt that ito this country.--The C. oryze very Paul wrote the Epistle, this is infinitely much resembles the preceding. It lives more probable than any other hypothesis in rice, but is observed to attack princi- Wegscheider lectures on the exegesis of pally those grains from which the hulls the New Testament, the history of dog have not been detached.

mas, and particularly dogmatics. In 1815, WŁOSCHEIDER, Julius Augustus Louis, he published his Institutiones Theologie doctor, one of the most celebrated of the (so Christiane Dogmatice, of which ther Palled) rationalist theologians of modern appeared, in 1826, a fifth edition, enlargel. ws, was born in 1771, in Kübbelingen, in In this work, the opinions of the superBrunswirk, where his father was a preach- naturalists respecting ecclesiastical doger. At the university of Helmstädt he mas, are criticised according to the views studied theology, philosophy and philolo- of the rationalists, and a system of Chriswy, Having finished his studies, he soon tian dogmatics presented according to the beramea teacher in the academy in which principles of rationalism, and, for the Le had received his instruction. He then first time, carried through consistently by became tutor in the house of a wealthy Wegscheider. He directed the exercises merchant in Hamburg, where he occa- of a theological society of students, wbich,

"tally preached with great approbation. in 1826, became a department in the royal theological seminary under his superin- France, division Decimal System of France, tendence. In 1830, he and Gesenius were explains the principles of the new French zealously attacked by the supernatural- measures. The following tables exhibit ists: this led to an investigation by the the relations of some of the most imporgovernment, which was not attended with tant measures of weight. any unpleasant consequences to him. 1. French Measures of Weight.-The unit

Weigel, Valentine. (See Weigelians.) used in weighing is the kilogramme. It has

WEIGELIANS were a Protestant sect in been fixed by law, and is equal to the spethe seventeenth century, chiefly resident cific weight of the distilled water contained in Upper Saxony, founded by Val. in one cubic decimètre. The kilogramme Weigel, pastor of Tschopau, in the Saxon thus fixed was found to be equal to 2 Erzgebirge (born in 1533, died in 1588), livres (pounds), 5 gros, 35 grains, you a pious and popular minister. The writ- poids de marc, and to 2 lbs. 8 oz. 3 dwt. ings of Theophrastus Paracelsus, and of 6.355 grains troy, or 2 lbs. 2 oz. 4 Tauler, had led him to entertain peculiar drams, 16 grains avoirdupois weight, views, which he set forth in his works. English. As the most common things of These, however, were not published till daily consumption are sold by weight in long after his death (1611–21). He speaks small quantities, a great difficulty arose in much of an unborn inner light. The the- introducing this part of the system; and ology taught at the universities is false in the old denominations of weight have his eyes. All creatures are effluxes of the therefore been allowed to remain, with Divine Being. His view of the Trinity some modification in their actual value, was peculiar. He set little value on out- taking the kilogramme as the basis. The

ward worship, and depicts the ministers kilogramme is divided into 2 livres ; the ? of the Protestant church in black colors. livre is subdivided into 16 ounces, the

Several of his works were burnt in 1624, ounce into 8 gros, and the gros into 72 ar Chemnitz; but they had already gained grains. This new livre, therefore, exceeds many adherents. Jacob Böhme was a the old one (poids de marc) by jó o ; so, Weigelian.

to reduce kilogrammes into old measWEIGHTS. In the article Measures, we ure, it is necessary to multiply by 2 and have given an account of the reformation add To: of the English measures. The article

T00

English Troy.

French. 1 grain (1-24th of a dwt.)....

0.06477 gramme. 1 pennyweight (1-20th of an ounce)

1.55456 gramme. 1 ounce

31.0913 grammes. 1 pound troy imperial

0.3730956 kilogramme. English Avoirdupois.

French. 1 dram (1-16th of an ounce)

1.7712 gramme. 1 ounce (1-16th of a pound)

28.3384 grammes. 1 pound avoirdupois imperial

0.4534148 kilogramme. 1 hundred weight (112 pounds)

50.78246 kilogrammes.
1 ton...

1015.649 kilogrammes.
1 millier = 1000 kilogrammes (weight of a tun of sea-water).
1 quintal = 100 kilogrammes.
1 hectogramme = 1-10th of a kilogramme.
1 decagramme = 1-100th
1 gramme = 1-1000th

1 decigramme = 1-10,000th 2. English Measures of Weight.- isted in the same state from the time of The statute of 5 George IV, c. 74, made Edward the Confessor; and there are some slight modifications in the measures reasons to believe that the word troy has of weight, but retained, in the main, the no reference to any town in France, but existing measures. “ The troy weight,” rather to the monkish name given to Lonsay the commissioners of weights and don of Troy Novant, founded on the measures, " appeared to us to be the an- legend of Brute: troy weight, therefore, cient weight of this kingdom, having ex- according to this etymology, is, in fact, VOL. XIII.

10

London weignt. We were induced, however, seems not to have been preserve moreover, to preserve the troy weight, be- ed with such scrupulous accuracy as trvy cause all the coinage has been uniformly weight, by which more precious andis regulated by it; and all medical prescrip- have been weighed; but we bave reaso tions or formulæ always have been esti- to believe that the pound cannot durins mated by troy weight, under a peculiar by more than one, two or three grains, subdivision, which the college of physi- from 7000 grains troy. It, therefore, arcians have expressed themselves most curred to us, that we should be offing anxious to preserve." It was resolved, no violence to this system of weighis, if therefore, to continue the use of troy we declared that 7000 grains troy shout weight, and also, on account of the accura- be hereafter considered as the punt cy of the troy standard, to raise the avoir- avoirdupois.” It was accordingly endupois weight from this basis. “ We acted that, from January 1st, 12*, ibe found," continue the commissioners, the standard brass weight of one punai avoinlupois weight, by which all heavy troy weight, made in 1757, should be goods have been for a long time weighed the genuine standard measure (probably derived from aroirs (areria), the weight, and be denominated the impunai ancient name for goods or chattels, and standard troy pound, containing 5770 poils, weight), to be universally used grains, and that 7000 such grains stuull throughout the kingdom. This weight, be a pound avoirdupois.

= 7000

Divistos I. Aroirdupois Weight.
27}\ grains
1 dram.

27}i grains
16 drams
= 1 ounce

= 4374
16 ounces

1 pound (Ib.) 28 pounds

I quarter (gr.). 4 quarters

= 1 hundred weight (cwt.). 20 hundred weight. = 1 ton This weight is used in almost all commercial transactions, and in the common dealings of life. Particular Weights belonging to this Division.

ewt. qr. Ib.
8 pounds ... 1 stone

used for meat and fish
7 pounds ...= 1 clove
14 pounds.
= l stone

0 0 14
2 stone
= I tod

0 1 0 used in the
69 tod
= 1 wey

1 2 14

wool trade.
2 weys
- 1 sack.

3 1 0
12 sacks .... 1 last

= 39 0 0 A pack of wool contains 240 lbs. A truss of hay weighs 56 lbs., and of straw 3 stone of glass is 5 lbs.; a seam 21 stone. pounds

1 clove, 32 cloves

1 wey in Essex, used for cheese 42

* in Suffolk,

and butter. 56 pounds

1 firkin,

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Division II.-Troy Wright.
24 grains
= 1 pennyweight

24 grains.
20 pennyweights .. 1 ounce

4-0
12 ounces.
= l pound

5700 Three are the denominations of try and by them the ounce is divided into weight when used for weighing gold, sil- eight drams, and the dram into three sta ver, and precious stones, excepe dia- ples, so that the latter is equal to twer ty monds. But troy weight is also used by grains. For scientific purposes, the grain apothecaries in compounding medicines, only is used; and sets of weights are COD

enna.

{

stricted in decimal progression, from Weigl, Joseph, a distinguished opera 10,000 grains downwards to one hun- composer, born in 1766, at Eisenstadt, in dredth of a grain. By comparing the Hungary. In his fifteenth year, he comnumber of grains in the avoirdupois and posed a small opera. Gluck and Salieri troy pound and ounce respectively, it ap- aided him, and he became director of the pears that the troy pound is less than the Italian opera. In 1807, he was in Milan, avoirdupois, in the proportion of fourteen where his I Rivale di se Stesso attracted to seventeen nearly; but the troy ounce much attention. He now resides in Viis greater than the avoirdupois, in the His genius is more adapted to the proportion of seventy-nine to seventy-two agreeable and gay than to ibe grand. nearly. The carat, used for weighing Some of his most admired productions diamonds, is 34 grains. The term, how- are, La Principessa d'Amalfi; Giulietta ever, when used to express the fineness e Pierotto ; I solitarj ; L'Amor marinaro ; of gold, has a relative meaning only: L’Uniforme ; and, in a different style, his Every mass of alloyed gold is supposed Orphan Asylum (1808); Swiss Family to be divided into twenty-four equal (1809); the Hermit of the Alps; Francisparts : thus the standard for coin is twen- ca de Foix; the Fall of Goldau (1812). ty-two carats fine; that is, it consists of He has also written other operas, besides twenty-two parts of pure gold, and two some oratorios. parts of alloy. What is called the new stand- WEIMAR, Saxe (in German, Sachsenard, used for watch-cases, &c., is eighteen Weimar); a sovereign grand-duchy of carats fine.

Germany, lying on the south of the Prus3. Ancient Weights. It is well known sian government of Erfurt, and bordering that this subject is involved in consider- on Gotha. It is composed of two parts able difficulty. The following table gives or provinces, separated from each otherthe estimates of different authors, in re- the principality of Weimar, and the gard to some of the ancient weights. principality of Eisenach, with a popula

tion of 226,628 souls, on 1400 square English Troy Graing. miles. The province of Weimar com

8.2 Christiani. Attic obolus

prehends the duchies of Weimar and 9.1 Arbuthnot. Jena, with a part of the principality of 51.9 Chr.

Altenburg, the chief part of the circle of Attic drachma, . 54.6 Arb.

Neustadt, and the petty districts of Ilme69. Paucton.

nau, Oldisleben, and Alstadt, which lie

scattered in Thuringia. The province of Lesser mina = 3,892 Chr.

Eisenach lies on the west side of Gotha,

5,189 Chr. and to the east of Hesse-Cassel. (See Greater mina ={5,464 Arb. Eisenach.) The surface of the province

6,900 Pauc. of Weimar is agreeably diversified; the Medical mina ....= 6,994 Arb.

soil fertile, producing corn sufficient for

consumption ; and it has good pastures, Talent. = 60 minæ = dcwt. English.

which feed numerous flocks of sheep;

but large cattle are less attended to. The Old Greek drachm 146.5 Arb.

province of Eisenach is more mountain

ous and less fertile. The revenue is Old Greek mina = 6,425

about $800,000. The government is a Egyptian mina .. ..= 8,326

Jimited monarchy, administered by the Ptolemaic mina of = 8,985

grand-duke, with a representative constiCleopatra

tution, granted by the duke May 5, 1816, Alexandrian mina

which established a diet composed of of Dioscorides = 9,992

deputies from the nobles, citizens and 51.9— } Roman

peasants, and guarantied the freedom of the press.

The grand-duke of SaxeRoman deparius .. =

Weimar-Eisenach has the twelfth vote (2.5=+Roman in the German diet, in conjunction with

the other princes of the Ernestine line Denarius of Nero . 54 Pauc. (see Sarons), and one vote by himself in

the plenum. The grand-duchy has one 415.1 Chr.

university, that of Jena (q. v.), with (in Ounce

437.2 Arb.

1829) 619 students, two gymnasia, and 431.2 Pauc.

numerous inferior institutions for educaPound = 12 Roman ounces.

tion. The religion is Lutheran.

Grains.

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oz. Chr.

oz. Arb.

Weimar; capital of the grand duchy, the government was celebrated, in 1925, on the Ilm; 94 miles west of Dresden; with delight by his grateful subjects. He lon. 11° 21' E.; lat. 50° 59 N.; popula- was succeeded by his son Charles Fredtion, 9917. It is situated in a pleasant val- erir, born in 1783, who married a sister ley, with a woody mountain to the north, of Alexander, emperor of Russia.- His and hills of little elevation to the south second son, Charles Bernard, born in 1792, and east, while the river winds along the is major-general in the service of the south side of the town. The prospect is king of Netherlands. He married the sister agreeable, particularly in summer, when of the duke of Saxe-Meiningen, another the gardens surrounding the town appear of whose sisters is the wife of William IV to encircle it with foliage. The houses are of England. He served under Napoleon, built in a plain and somewhat antique style. and obtained the cross of the legion of The grand ducal residence is a large honor on the field of Wagram. In 1825, castle, finely situated to the east of the he travelled through the U. States, and bas town, with a park extending to the banks published an account of his travels, which of the Ilm, and open to the public. The has been translated into English-Travels Belvidere, another residence of the reign- in the United States (Philadelphia, 1820 1. ing family, is situated on a delightful em- WEIMAR, Bernard, duke of. (See inence to the south. The town contains Bernard.) two Lutheran churches, a work-house, an WEINSBERG ; a town in the circle of hospital, a gymnasium, a seminary for the Neckar, in Würtemberg, on the Sulm, school-masters, an academy for drawing, with 1720 inhabitants. The ruins of the painting and sculpture, a theatre, erected castle of Weibertreu (Wives-faith) recall in 1825, an extensive institution connect- to mind its siege, in 1140, when the emed with the study of geography and sta- peror Conrad III granted free egress to tistics, and a public library of upwards of the women only, who were allowed to 130,000 volumes. Weimar is a town of carry off the best of their possessions literary celebrity, and long held the same on their back. The women came out, rank in Gerinany, for literature, as Dres- each carrying her husband on her back. den has for the fine arts; and, owing to The emperor pardoned the men. (See the liberal patronage of the court, a num- Guelphs.) ber of the best writers of the last and WEISHAUPT, Adam, born at Ingolstadt, present age have either been educated or in 1748, studied at the same place, beresidents here. In the early years of the came, in 1772, professor extraordinarius present century, there were residing here of law, and, in 1775, professor of natural more than twenty writers of note, among and canon law. As the professorship of whom were Schiller, Göthe, Herder, canon law had, until then, always been Wieland and Kotzebue; the last of whom given to ordained clergymen, the clergy was a native.

attacked him, particularly as he, though a WEIMAR, Anna Amalia, duchess of pupil of the Jesuits, showed himself their Saxe. (See Amalia.)

bitterest enemy, after the abolition of their Wermar, Charles Augustus, grand duke order. He now formed a connexion with of Saxe, born in 1756, and died in 1828, several able men, and strove to gain them may well boast of having done great over to his system of cosmopolitism ; but, things in a little state. He was educated as he went to work openly, the public auby his mother Amalia (q. V.), who-first thorities could not be made to believe that collected the lights of learning in the little bis designs were dangerous. The Jes. court of Weimar. The young prince uits, therefore, attacked him the more bitwas carefully instructed by able men, terly in private. As a jurist, he obtained among whom was Wieland, and, after much fame : his lectures attracted stutravelling in France and Switzerland, as- dents belonging to all the faculties; and he sumed the reins of government in 1775. made use of this opportunity to propa. During his reign of fifty-three years, he gate his cosmopolitism, and for this purwas not only the father of his people, but pose founded the order of Illuminati (9.v., the patron of learning and the arts. which afterwards became so famous Göthe, Herder, Wieland, Schiller, von Weishaupt lost his professorship, in 1785, Voig, von Einsiedel, von Knebel, Musä- in consequence of the persecutions of the us, and others, were atnong the ornaments Catholic clergy and his own imprudence, of his court; and the university of Jena and went to Gotha, where he published experienced his patronage. In 1816, he several works-1. Complete History of the granted his people a representative consti- Persecution of the Illuminati in Bavaria ; 2 tution. The jubilee of his accession to System of the Illuminati ; 3. Description

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