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of the Iluminati; 4. Pythagoras, or Con- has done much for the improvement of siderations on the Secret Art of Ruling; children, was born Feb. 8, 1726, at An5. Materials for the Advancement of the naberg, in the Saxon Erzgebirge. He Knowledge of the World and of Men. went, in 1745, to the university of Leip
Weiss, Christian Samuel, professor of sic, where he studied philology. There mineralogy in the university of Berlin, he became acquainted with Klopstock, director of the royal mineralogical muse- Cramer, the Schlegels, and others. With um, member of the academy of sciences Lessing he formed an intimate friendship, at Berlin, &c., one of the most distin: and wrote, in connexion with him, for the guished mineralogists of the age, was German theatre. In 1759, he went, as born in 1780, at Leipsic, studied at the tutor of a young count, to Paris. He afschool and the university of his native terwards produced songs and other pocity, and at the mining academy (q. v.) of ems, plays, &c., and, in 1760, his Library Freiberg, in Saxony, where he was one of Polite Learning and the Fine Arts. of the most distinguished pupils of Wer. In 1762, he was appointed tax-gatherer, ner. He subsequently made mineralogical which office he held till his death. After journeys, examined the extinct volcanoes 1774, he ceased to write for the stage, in the south of France, visited Paris, and and chiefly turned his attention to works attended the lectures of the celebrated for children. His Songs for Children, Haüy (q. v.), then delivered private lec- and his A B C Book were received with tures in Leipsic, and, in 1809, was made great applause. In 1775, he began his professor ordinarius of natural philoso- Children's Friend, which, within six years, phy at the same place, on which occasion went through five editions; and there are he bublicly defended his dissertation few Germans whose youth has not been De indagando Formarum Crystallinarum delighted and improved by this book. His Charactere Geometrico principali. In this Correspondence of the Family of the treatise, which he subsequently continued, Children's Friend was a continuation of the principles of a division of all the this. He died in 1804. He has described forms of crystals into certain systems are himself with much candor in his Autobifound. In 1811, he was made professor ography, edited by E. C. Weisse and S. of mineralogy at the university of Berlin. G. Frisch (Leipsic, 1806). He has formed, already, a number of Welcker, Frederic Theophilus, progood mineralogists, and developed the fessor of archæology in the university of mathematical part of mineralogy accord- Bonn, was born at Grünberg, in Hesseing to a very natural method. In 1813, Darmstadt, in 1784. He studied at Gieshe wrote a treatise on the Natural Divis- sen, and, in 1806, went to Rome, where ion of the Systems of Crystallization, he enjoyed the personal instruction of printed in the Transactions of the acade- Zoëga (q. v.), which determined the charmy of Berlin (of which he became a acter of his subsequent pursuits. In member in 1813) for 1814 and 1815. 1819, be published Zoëga's Life, CollecMohs (q. v.) was also subsequently led to tion of his Letters, &c. (Göttingen, 2 adopt such a division as the basis of all vols.), a worthy monument to the memory crystallography. Besides the writings al- of the distinguished Dane. His diligent ready mentioned, he has written a series study of the classics, and of the plastic of treatises in the Transactions of the remains of antiquity, is very apparent in academy, and the society for the promo- his works, in which, sometimes, as in the tion of the natural sciences, in Berlin. His works of Zoëga, the abundance of the system of minerals is a natural one, in matter is productive of obscurity. In which the correct determination of the 1809, he was appointed professor extraorspecies and genus is the principal point. dinarius of archæology and Greek LitThough be adopts the form as a funda- erature at Giessen. In 1816, he was mental principle in determining the spe- made professor at Göttingen. Since cies, he, nevertheless, does not exclude 1819, he has been one of the most distinthe results of chemical investigation. As guished professors of Bonn.
Among a geologist, he early adopted views of his his writings are the following :—Comedies own, and, with von Buch and others, be- of Aristophanes ; On the Hermaphrolieved, contrary to the opinion of Wer- dites of ancient Art
, a treatise published ner, that there are internal powers which in the Studies of Daub and Creuzer (1808, have determined the character of the sur- 4 vols.), with which he began a series of face of the globe, and changed the moun- instructive antiquarian essays, published in tain layers that previously existed. Zoëga's Bassi Relievi of Rome (Giessen, Weisse, Christian Felix, a writer who 1811), Zoëga's Treatises (Göttingen, 1817),
and in the Journal for the History and Ex. Mornington, was born in 1760, and cduplanation of Ancient Art(3 numbers, 1817 cated first ai Eton and afterwards at Ox. and 1818). Among bis strictly philological ford, where he was distinguished for his works are his Fragmenta Alemani Lyrici classical attainments. In 1784, he suc(Giessen, 1815); Hipponactis et_Ananii ceeded to his father's title, and next year Fragmenta (Göttingen, 1816); De Erinna et was returned member of parliament for Corinna Poetriis, in the Meletem. (2d vol.) Beeralston, in Devonshire, and, having of Creuzer; and his Theognidis Frag- attached bimself to Mr. Pitt, was united in menta (Bonn, 1826); and particularly the the commission of the treasury. A finan. excellent edition prepared by bim, in con- cial speech which he made in the bouse nexion with Frederic Jacobs, of Philos- of commons having attracted consideratratus and Callistratus (Philostrati Imagi- ble notice, he became a favorite of the nes et Callistrati Statuæ ; Leipsic, 1823). king, and at the next election was returned Hermann (q. v.) has opposed bis views for New Windsor, which was called the on the trilogy of Æschylus, given in his king's borough. He was also made a Prometheus of Æschylus (1824), on ac- commissioner for India affairs. In 1797, count of which he wrote a supplement he was created an English baron, by the to that treatise in 1826. Another work, title of baron Wellesley, and was nomiOn a Cretan Colony in Thebes, the God- nated to the high office of governor-gendess Europa and Cadmus (Bonn, 1824), is eral of India, for which country he imrich in the results of well-directed inves- mediately sailed. After his arrival there, tigation. He was suspected, for some he soon began to act with vigor. The time, by the Prussian government, of be- period was, indeed, a critical one. Bonaing concerned in the liberal movements; parte had accomplished the conquest of and his papers were sealed up and taken Egypt, and was supposed to meditate an from him, but, after some time, were re- attack on the Indian possessions of Eng. stored.
land, in which the French encouraged Weld. (See Wold.)
Tippoo Saib, the sultan of Mysore, to Welding is the intimate union pro- assist. In this emergency, the first step duced between the surfaces of two malle- taken by lord Wellesley, was to secure able metals, when heated almost to fusion and fortify the island of Perim, which and hammered. This union is so strong commands the entrance of the straits of that when two bars of metal are properly Babelmandel; the next was to open a welded, the place of junction is as strong, negotiation with Tippoo, to induce him relatively to its thickness, as any other to remain neutral. The sultan, however, part of the bar. Only two of the old was so elated by the prospect of such metals are capable of firm union by formidable aid as would enable him to welding, namely, platina and iron. The subdue or humble the British, that he same property belongs to the newly-dis. treated the overtures of his lordship with covered metals potassium and sodium. neglect. Lord Wellesley determined, To weld bar iron to another piece of iron therefore, to strike an immediate blow requires a heat equal to 8.877 Fahr. against him; and, accordingly, the army
Welding Heat, in smithery ; a degree under general Harris was ordered to of heat given to iron, &c., sufficient to advance rapidly towards Seringapatam. make any two bars or pieces of iron unite After a siege of a month, the capital of by a few strokes of the hammer, and Mysore was taken by assault; the sultan form one piece.
was slain (see Seringapalam, and Tippool, Well, in naval affairs; an apartment and his dominions were partitioned. For formed in the middle of a ship’s hold, to this service, his lordship was raised to enclose the pumps from the bottom to the dignity of an Irish marquis. Jo 101, the lower deck. Its use is to defend the he despatched a considerable force up pumps from damage, and prevent the en- the Red sea, to assist in wresting Egypt irance of ballast, & c., which would oth- from the power of the French. He erwise choke the tubes in a short time, next turned the British arms against the and render the pumps incapable of ser- Mahrattas, and, after a hard struggle, vice. By means of this enclosure, the ar- conquered the whole country between tificers may, likewise, more readily de- the Jumna and the Ganges, and comscend into the hold to examine or repair pelled Scindiah and the rajal of Berar to the pumps, as occasion requires.
make peace. (See Mahrattas.) In 1303 WELLAND CANAL. (See Inland Navi- he was recalled, at his own request, with galion.)
a pension of £5000, and replaced by Wellesley, Richard Colley Welles- lord Cornwallis. The opponents of loni ley, marquis of, eldest son of the earl of Wellesley censured his administration s enormously expensive, not to say ex- gave much offence to the company's old travagant (he added 12,000,000 to the servants. In 1807, he was elected memdebt of the East India company), and ber of parliament, and made second secaccused him of being guilty of great in- retary to the treasury, under the duke of justice to the native powers, particularly Portland, but quitted both places in about to the nabob of Oude; while, on the two years, on being appointed envoy exother hand, his partisans urged that the traordinary to Spain. He was then also critical circumstances of the time com- admitted of the privy council, and, soon pelles a vast expenditure, and that his after, was made knight of the Bath, and conduct to the Indian princes was justi- appointed ambassador. While in this sitfied by their persevering hostility. Mr. uation, he had some extraordinary honors Paull presented articles of impeachment conferred on him by the king of Spain, but, against him to the house of commons, in 1821, was recalled, and the next year but they were not followed up; and a vote sent to Vienna. In 1828, he was created a was obtained in the marquis's favor. baron by the title of lord Cowley.--AnothWhen, in 1807, the duke of Portland be- er brother, William, born in 1763, takes came minister, the king wished lord the name of Pole from a rich relation, who, Wellesley to be secretary of state ; but he dying in 1778, made him heir to a large did not accept the office. In 1809, he fortune. He was created baron in 1821, went as ambassador to Spain, and evinced by the title of Maryborough, and has held his usual ability in negotiation. On the several lucrative posts. death of the duke of Portland, he accepted WELLINGTON, Arthur Wellesley, duke the office of secretary of state, and showed of, fourth son of the earl of Mornington, therein great attachment to the Spanish and brother of marquis Wellesley, was cause. In 1812, he resigned his place, born in Ireland, in May, 1769. He was being dissatisfied, it was thought, that he first placed at Eton school, and then sent was not made first lord of the treasury, to the military school of Angers, in when Mr. Perceval was elevated to that France. He entered into the army as high office. The prince regent was ensign of the forty-first regiment, and, by anxious to retain lord Wellesley, but interest and purchase, became, in 1793, could not accomplish it. From that pe- lieutenant-colonel of the thirtieth regiriod, his lordship continued in opposition ment of foot. The next year, he accomfor several years. During the time that panied lord Moira to Ostend, and com: he was out of office, he brought forward manded a brigade in the retreat of the a motion in favor of the Irish Catholics, duke of York througlı Holland. In 1796, which was lost by only a small majority. he embarked for the East Indies; but the In 1822, he was appointed lord-lieutenant fleet which he was on board of being of Ireland, and held this post till 1828, driven back by contrary winds, the deswhen he was succeeded by the marquis tination of the regiment was altered, and of Anglesea. In 1794, the marquis mar- he was sent on the recruiting service, to ried a French lady, named Roland, by Ireland. In 1797, he accompanied his whom he had had several children; but brother, lord Wellesley, to India, and was after their marriage, they ceased to live employed in the attack on Tippoo, and at together. She died in 1816 ; and, in the capture of Seringapatam. After this 1435, the marquis married Mrs. Patterson conquest, he was named one of the com(whose maiden name was Caton), grand- missioners to fix the divisions of the terdaughter of the late Charles Carroll
. He ritory, and was appointed, by his brother, is the author of Substance of a Speech in governor of Seringapatam. He had soon the House of Commons, on the Address the good fortune to defeat an India ad(1794); Notes relative to the Peace con- venturer, named Dhoopdiah Waugh, and, cluded with the Mahrattas (4to., 1804), in a short time after, was made major-genwhich he has given a succinct history of eral. He was next employed, with 12,000 Indian affairs; Letters to the Govern- men, in the war of the Mahrattas (q. v.), ment of Fort St. George, relative to the to support the Peishwa; and he advanced new Form of Government established to Poonah just in time to save it fronı There (1812); and Letters to the Directors destruction. The forces of Scindiah and of the East India Company, on the India the rajah of Berar having been joined by Trade (8vo., 1812.)-His brother Henry Holkar, he attacked them at Assaye, gave (lord Cowley), born in 1773, accompanied them a complete defeat, and compelled the marquis to India, in quality of secre- them to submit to such a peace as the tary, and, in 1802, was nominated gov- English chose to dictate.-See Thorn's ernor of Oude, by the marquis, which Memoir of the War in India, from 1803 to 1806 (London, 1817).-For this he was impregnable strength of the lines, obliged honored with the order of the Bath ; and to remain six months before them inhe returned to England in 1805. On his active, during which his convoys were return, he married a lady of the family cut off by the Spaniards. He then, at of lord Longford, to whom he had been length, made a most masterly retreat, and previously engaged. Soon after this, he lord Wellington blockaded Almeida; bui commanded, for a short time, a brigade Masséna found means to draw off the garunder lord Cathcart, in Hanover. The rison, after a battle at Fuentes d'Onor, in command of the fifteenth regiment was which his lordship had some advantage. next bestowed on him. He now, for a In June, his lordship besieged and aswhile, devoted himself to civil occupa- saulted Badajoz, but was repulsed with tions, and was sent to Ireland as secretary loss. He soon after passed the Tagus, to of state, under the duke of Richmond. oppose Marmont (q. v.), who had sucHe next accompanied lord Cathcart in ceeded Masséna ; and he was successful his expedition to Copenhagen. The in taking Ciudad Rodrigo by storm. In houses of parliament having voted thanks consequence of this success, the regency to the officers on this service, sir Arthur, of Spain bestowed on him the title of who was then returned member of par- duke of Ciudad Rodrigo, and the rank of liament for Newport, in the Isle of Wight, a grandee of Spain. The English parliawas thanked by the speaker, in his place ment had before settled on him £2000 a in the house. In 1808, he received or- year, and they now gave him a second ders to sail for the Peninsula, which he £2000, and the prince regent made him reached shortly after the defeat of the an earl. Having taken Badajoz, in a Spanish generals Cuesta and Blake. second attack, he advanced to SalaAfter a conference with admiral Cotton, manca, defeated Marmont, and pursued he landed at the mouth of the Mondego the French to Burgos, which be besieged. river, and, being joined by general Spen. For this he was rewarded with £200,000 cer, with 5000 men, marched towards and the title of marquis. He had already Lisbon. The twenty-first of August, he been created marquis of Torres Vedras, fought the battle of Vimeira (q. v.); but by the Portuguese government. Burgos, sir Hugh Dalrymple, arriving, took the however, obstinately held out, and thus command, and made the convention of gave time to the French to reinforce the Cintra. Sir Arthur Wellesley returned western army of Portugal, and to march to England, and, in 1809, was again sent the army of Soult from the southem to Lisbon, with more troops, and the provinces. By this means the enemy commission of commander-in-chief. He were rendered too powerful to allow ot then marched for Oporto, from which he his maintaining his ground; and he acdrove marshal Soult, and, entering Spain, cordingly raised the siege of Burgos, and fought the battle of Talavera de la Reyna, commenced his retreat, during which he in which he toiled the French in all their was considerably harassed by the French, attacks on his position, but was obliged who took his heavy artillery and the to move off the next morning, and leave greater part of his baggage. In 1813, his sick and wounded to the mercy of after Napoleon's disasters in Russia, and the enemy. (See Spain, and Soult.) He the best French troops in Spain had been was, however, for this exploit, created a replaced by conscripts, he repaired to viscount, and received the thanks of par- Cadiz, to make arrangements with the liament. In 1810, Masséna, with a for- regency of Spain, who placed the whole midable army, entered Portugal, in the of the Spanish army under his command. full confidence of driving the English The remnant of the French army was army from that country. On this occa- encamped on the Douro; be, however, sion, lord Wellington adopted the de- made good the passage, turned their pofensive plan suggested by Dumouriez, in sition, and they retreated to Burgos, then a work on the subject. He first with- to Vittoria (q. v.), where he intercepted drew to the position of Busaco (q. v.), them, May 13, 1813, and took their bag. where he was attacked by the French, gage, artillery, and a great number of who were repulsed with mutual slaugh- prisoners. He was now raised to the ter. The position of Busaco being ren- rank of field-marshal, and the Spanish dered untenable by the wrong movement government created him duke of Vittoof a corps on his left flank, he fell back ria. He next besieged Pampeluna and to the lines of Torres Vedras (q. v.), St. Sebastian, and repulsed marshal Soul which had long been constructing. Mas- in several attacks which that general séna (q. v.) advanced, but was, from the made to relieve them. Lord Wellington
then forced the passage of the Bidassoa, ral, a diplomatist, and a minister. The and entered France. Soult endeavored details of his history and conduct in these to impede his march, but was repulsed different characters are too well known on several occasions; and at Toulouse to need repetition.* the last battle was fought.-See Napier's Wells; a city of England, in SomerHistory of the War in the Peninsula (4 setshire, nineteen miles south-west of vols., 1828–1832).—The peace imme- Bath, 121 west of London : lon. 2° 50 W., diately followed, and the return of the lat. 51° 11' N.; population, 6649. United Bourbons. Wellington was created a with Bath, it forms a bishop's see. It is duke, and returned to London, after an situated in a diversified and picturesque absence of five years, and again received country, having fertile and extensive the thanks of the houses of parliament, meadows to the south, east and west. It who voted him a gift of £400,000. In is small
, compact, generally well built, July he was nominated ambassador extra- and contains one of the most magnificent ordinary to France, and was then sent to cathedrals in England (381 feet long, 131 the congress at Vienna. While he was broad, with a quadrangular tower 178 feet there, Napoleon escaped from the isle high). It receives its name from a reof Elba. He was instantly named, by markable spring, called St. Andrew's well the allied sovereigns, generalissimo of the (vulgarly bottomless well). European troops. He fixed his head- WELSER; an old patrician family in quarters at Brussels, and issued a proc- Augsburg, now extinct. A Julius Welser lamation. Hostilities commenced, and is mentioned under the emperor Otho I, Napoleon, after having defeated the Prus- who was made a noble, in 959, on acsians at Ligoy, was completely routed at count of his services in the war against Waterloo, by the fortunate arrival of the Hungarians.-His son Octavianus setBülow and Blücher. (See Waterloo.) tled in Augsburg; and from him sprung Wellington then advanced to Paris, and an the family which became so famous. end was put to the war under the walls of Bartholomew Welser was privy counsellor Paris.See Sherer's Military Memoirs of Charles V, and so wealthy that, with of the Duke of Wellington (2 vols., Lon- the family of the Fugger, he lent 1,200,000 don, 1832).—T'he parliament of England florins to the emperor. With the consent now voted him a further sum of £200,000; of the emperor, he equipped, in 1528, and the sovereigns of Europe all be- three vessels in Spain, which sailed under stowed on him rewards and honors. He afterwards commanded the army of oc
* He was created baron Douro of Wellesley cupation in France, and was at the con
in the county of Somerset, and viscount Wellinggress of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1818, where of Wellington in 1812 ; marquis of Wellington in
ton of Talavera, and of Wellington, in 1809; earl he was attended by a guard of honor, like 1812; marquis of Douro and duke of Wellington a prince of the blood. In 1822, he was in 1814. He is also duke of Ciudad Rodrigo, and British minister plenipotentiary at the
a grandee of the first class in Spain ; duke of congress of Verona, and, in accordance Vimeira’ in Portugal, and prince of Waterloo in
Vittoria, marquis of Torres Vedras and count with the policy of Canning, refused to the Netherlands. He is likewise knight of the noparticipate in the measures of the powers ble order of the garter, knight grand cross of the against Spain. In 1826, he was sent to Bath, &c., &c. Previous to the change of minisSt. Petersburg to congratulate Nicholas try in 1830, his
grace was at once field-marshal in on his accession to the throne. On the the army;
colonel of the royal regiment of horse
guards, colonel-in-chief of ihe rifle brigade; conappointment of Canning to the premier- stable of the Tower; prime minister (first lord of ship, in 1827, Wellington resigned his the treasury); a lord of trade and plantations ; seat in the cabinet, with the other minis- commissioner for the affairs of India ; lord-warden ters opposed to Catholic relief (see Cath- of the Cinque Ports ; lord-lieutenant of the olic Emancipation); and, in 1828, having pensions, salaries, and the interest on grants, in
county of Hants, &c., &c., and, including bis overturned the Goderich administration, the receipt of £48,000 per annum from the pubwhich had given him the important post lic. In addition to these honors and distinctions, of cominander-in-chief of the army, he he was field-marshal in the Portuguese, Spanish, himself assumed the premiership, al- Netherlandish, Austrian, Russian and Prussian ser though, at the previous session of parlia- plate of the value of about 8700,000; the emperor
vice. The king of Portugal gave him a service of ment, he had declared his entire unfitness of Austria, and the kings of Prussia and Saxony, for high civil office. In December, 1830, splendid services of Vienna, Berlin and Misnian he was obliged to give way, in turn, tó porcelain ; the city of London a shield of massive the present whig ministry. Such is a silver, upwards of three feet in diameter, with rapid sketch of the forty-years' public eldest son and heir, Arthur, marquis of Douro, was
representations of his victories in relief, &c. His life of this distinguished man, as a gene- born in 1807, and his other son, Charles, in 1808.