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voice in animals and men, we refer the consonants, we remark, that while any reader to Blumenbach's Manual of continued or vowel sound is passing Comparative Anatomy (translated by W. through the mouth, if it be interrupted, Lawrence, revised by Coulson, London, whether by a complete closure of the 1827). Respecting the sounds of human mouth, or only by an approximation of language, by the various combinations of parts, the effect on the ear of a listener is which such a variety of words is pro- so exceedingly different, according to the duced, we will add a few remarks, Be- situation in the mouth where the intersides the lungs, the windpipe, &c., the ruption occurs, and to the manner in tidely-arched roof of the mouth, and the which it occurs, that many most distinct pliability of the lips (enabling us to give modifications thence arise. a great variety of forms to the mouth, continued sound, as q, if arrested by a which are almost the sole means of giving closure of the mouth at the external contheir peculiar character to the different fine or lips, is heard to terminate with the vowels), are of the greatest importance, modification expressed by the letter p; Under the articles on the separate letters that is, the syllable ap has been prothe reader will find an account of the way nounced: but if, under similar circumin which the sounds represented by them stances, the closure be made at the back respectively are produced. “The modi- of the mouth, by the tongue rising against fications of voice, easily made (says Mr. the palate, we hear the modification exAmott, in his Elements of Physics), and pressed by the letter k, and the syllable ak easily distinguishable by the ear, and, has been pronounced: and if the closure therefore, fit elements of language, are be made in the middle of the mouth, by about fifty in number; but no single lan- the tip of the tongue rising against the guage contains more than about half of roof, the sound expressed by t is prothem. They are divisible into two very duced, and the syllable at is heard: and distinct and nearly equal classes, called so of others. It is to be remarked, also, vowels (q. v.) and consonants.(q. v.) In that the ear is equally sensible of the pethe article Consonant, the natural division culiarities, whether the closure precedes of words is shown to cease with syllables: the continued sound or follows it; that is they are one sound, and the division into to say, whether the syllables pronounced vowels and consonants, ingenious and use- are ap, at, ak, or pa, ta, ka. The modififul as it is, does not, in fact, exist to the cations of which we are now speaking degree which we usually take for granted, appear, then, not to be really sounds, but from the circumstance of considering only manners of beginning and ending them as totally distinct from early child- sounds; and it is because they can thus hood. Consonants are, generally speak- be perceived only in connexion with voing, only the beginning or end of vowels; cal sounds, that they are called consoi. e. the mouth must in some way be nants.”—We refer the reader to Mr. Aropened to produce a vowel sound, and nott's work, for further remarks on the closed to conclude the vowel sounds; and pronunciation of the various vowels and this mode of opening or closing gives rise consonants, and add here only his table to that which we call a consonant. The of articulations, in which, if we consider circumstance that consonants cannot be the perpendicular line on the left as the pronounced without the aid of vowels, opening of the mouth, and the line on the shows, that the strict division into vowels right as the back part of the mouth, the and consonants is one which pature has four divisions indicate the places where not made. Mr. Arnott says (p. 488 of the the letters are pronounced.-See the artiAmerican ed.): "To explain the second cles on the letters and on writing. class of the modifications of sound, called

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The effect of the sexual functions on the cal persons it indicates an approachvoice is well known; but the mode in ing fit. which this effect takes place is not ex- Voice, in music. A good musical voice plained. This influence is observable depends chietly upon the soundness and even in birds, which delight us with their power of the organs of utterance and of ainorous melodies at the season of pair- hearing, and the necessary musical dispoing; in woman, whose voice acquires sition, and is distinguished by clearness its metallic tone and its fulness at the age of intonation, ease, strength, duration, of puberty; and particularly in man, equality, harmoniousness and fulness of who does not possess, till that period, the the sounds; whilst natural defects or dis* voices" peculiar to him, the bass or ten- eases in those organs (for instance, narrowor, and in whom the change of voice, as ness of the chest, weak lungs) give rise to every one knows, is prevented by previ- imperfections in the voice. As weakness of ous emasculation. But also many other lungs necessarily affects the voice, so frecauses, affecting especially the nervous quent singing developes and strengthens system, produce considerable changes in the lungs, which are strong enough to the voice, which atford important symp- support it; and instruction in singing is, toms in diseases. Thus it may be want- therefore, in a medical respect, of great ing altogether in a diseased state (this is importance. The rarity of consumption called aphonia), or it may be changed in most parts of Germany, compared to marbidly (paraphonia, cacophonia). In other countries, is ascribed by some, in a the latter case, it is either too strong or great measure, to the general instruction too weak, too deep (vor clangosa, if it is and frequent practice in singing. Pracat the same time too strong, and raucittis tice in singing for several generations gravis, if it is at the same time too weak), must undoubtedly have a decided influor too high (oryphonia, which again is di- ence in giving strength to the lungs, vided into vor cucuriens or rudens, which which may also be much promoted by is at the same time too strong, and rauci- gymnastic exercises that expand the chest. tas acuta, at the same time too weak). A fine voice requires a long, regular and Most of these affections appear as symp- strong breath. Some faults in sing. toms, but are seldom considered as a ing, however, originate from a bad use of primary disease. They often enable the a good voice; as the singing through the physician to draw conclusions respecting nose, teeth, &c. A voice which has by the true character of the disease. The nature the requisite properties, acquires entire loss of voice originates from cramp, compass and strength, correctness and weakness or paralysis. If it is caused by pliability, by exercise. Thorough methodparalysis, it is almost always a fatal symp- ical practice in singing should not, in most iom. If it is connected with an excitable cases, be begun before the ninth or tenth constitution, it indicates violent congestions year, though the ear ought to be early and approaching apoplexy:occurring after exercised. The variety of voices is as delivery, it indicates convulsions; in the great as that of individuals. In respect croup, suffocation and mortification. An to depth and height, there are four prinunnaturally strong voice is very common cipal classes of voices: discant, alto, tenor in madness. The ror clangosa, sounding and bass. Discant, or soprano, moreover, as if the person was speaking in an empty is distinguished from lower, or mezzo pot, is, in dangerous diseases, a very seri- soprano, tenor from counter tenor, and ous symptom. The hoarseness, in which between tenor and bass comes the proper the voice is too deep, indicates great dan- baritono. A good bass voice generally ger in bilious fever, scarlatina, consump- extends from For G, below G gamut, tion, and dropsy of the chest. It is not a to C or D, above the bass-clef note; the symptom of disease when caused merely baritono from about G gamut to F, above by the arrival of the age of puberty, by the bass-clef note; the tenor from C, catarrh, or by dust which has been in- above G gamut, to G, the treble-clef note, spired. The ror cucuriens, seu rudens, seu or A above it; the counter-tenor from E pipiens (sounding similar to the crowing or F, above G gamut, to B or C, above of a cock, or the braying of an ass) is the treble-clef note; the mezzo soprano pathognomic in the hooping cough and from A or B, above the bass-clef note, to croup, and is also sometimes found in E or F, above the treble-clef note; and dropsy in the head and small-pox, and the soprano from C, above the bass-clef is a bad symptom. The raucitas acuta note, to A, B or C, in alt, and something originates partly from the same causes higher. Female voices are, by nature, as the raucitas gravis. With hysteri- treble and alto; those of boys, even if they have the compass of high treble, are tation, insipid pleasantries, and far-fetched usually alto. When the boy arrives at allusions. the age of puberty, the alto changes into VOLATILE Oils. (See Essential Oils.) tenor or bass.-Voice is also the name Volatility, in chemistry; the quality given to a part assigned to a hu- of a substance, to evaporate in a certain man voice or an instrument in a com- degree of heat: it is the opposite to fixposition.

idity. It is very probable, that all subVOIGTLAND (in law Latin, Terra Advo- stances are capable of being volatilized, catorum); in a wider sense, all that part and that we should be able to dissolve of Germany which formerly belonged to every one of them by fire, but for the the imperial bailiffs (in German, Voigte, want of a sufficient degree of heat. Latin, advocati), the ancestors of the pres- VOLCANOES. The volcano and the ent princes and counts of Reuss.

It earthquake might, perhaps, with no imcomprised the Saxon circle of Voigtland, propriety, have been treated of together, the bailiwic of Weida and Ziegenrück, in since both are undoubtedly effects of the the grand duchy of Saxe-Weimar, the same subterranean process; but we have territories of the princes and counts of preferred to devote to each a separate arReuss, the district of Hof, now included ticle, as the phenomena on the earth's in the Bavarian circle of the Upper Maine, surface, to which they give rise, are conand the Saxe-Altenburg bailiwic of Ron- siderably different. The present article neburg. From the eleventh century there will, however, embrace several particuwere imperial officers, in the above de- lars relating to earthquakes, which were scribed region, who bore the name of bai- omitted in the article under that title, on liffs (advocati, voigte) of the holy Roman account of their close connexion with empire, and who managed the affairs of the subject of volcanoes. There are certhe emperor. In a narrower sense, the tain regions to which volcanic eruptions, term is applied particularly to a circle of and the movements of great earthquakes, Saxony, consisting of a part of the former are confined: over the whole of vast Voigtland. It has 102,891 inhabitants on tracts active volcanic vents are distributed 680 square miles, and is also called the at intervals, and most commonly arranged circle of Neustadt. The chief town is in a linear direction. Throughout the inPlauen. It contains some mountainous termediate spaces there is abundant eviand woody districts, and in some parts is dence that the subterranean fire is continwell adapted for pasturage and tillage. ually at work ; for the ground is con

The most remarkable peculiarity is the vulsed, from time to time, by earthquakes: pearl-fishery in the river Elster (see gaseous vapors, especially carbonic acid Pearl), which is sometimes very produc- gas, are disengaged plentifully from the tive, and has yielded some pearls of much soil; springs often issue at a very high beauty.

temperature, and their waters are very VOITURE, Vincent, a celebrated French commonly impregnated with the same wit, was born at Amiens, in 1598. His mineral matters which are discharged by agreeable manners and conversation in- volcanoes during eruptions. Of these troduced him to good company; and he great regions, that of the Andes is one was a visitor at the Hôtel de Rambouillet, of the best defined. Commencing southand was also well received at court, and ward, at least in Chile, at the forty-sixth by Gaston, duke of Orleans, who made degree of south latitude, it proceeds northbim his master of the ceremonies In ward to the twenty-seventh degree, form1634, he was admitted into the French ing an uninterrupted line of volcanoes. academy, and was subsequently sent on a The Chilean volcanoes rise up through mission to Spain, where he composed granitic mountains. Villarica, one of the some verses in such pure and natural principal, continues burning without inSpanish, that every body ascribed them termission, and is so high, that it may be to Lope de Vega. He also visited Rome distinguished at the distance of 150 miles. and England, and died in 1618. Voiture A year never passes in this province withwas one of the first persons in France dis- out some slight shocks of earthquakes ; tinguished by the title of bel esprit. He and about once in a century, or oftener, wrote verses in French, Spanish and Ital- tremendous convulsions occur, by which ian. The former are occasionally easy and the land has been shaken from one exsprightly, but have much strained wit and tremity to the other, and continuous tracts, affected sentiment. His letters place him together with the bed of the Pacific, have bigh in the class of epistolary writers, been raised permanently from one to though they often degenerate into affec- twenty feet above their former level.

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Hot springs are numerous in this district, ing Caribbean sea must be considered as and mineral waters of various kinds. a theatre of earthquakes and volcanoes. Pursuing our course northward, we find On the north lies the island of Jamaica, in Peru only one active volcano as yet whieh, with a tract of the contiguous sea, known; but ihe province is so subject to has often experienced tremendous shocks; earthquakes, that scarcely a week passes and these are frequent along a line exwithout a shock; and many of these have tending from Jamaica to St. Domingo been so violent as to create great changes and Porto Rico. On the south of the of the surface. Farther north, we tind, in same basin, the shors and mountains of the middle of Quito, where the Andes Colombia are perpetually convulsed. On ittain their greatest elevation, Tungura- the weet is the volcanic chain of Guatigua, Cotopaxi, Antisana and Pichincha, mala and Mexico, and on the east, the the three former of which not unfre. West Indian isis, where, in St. Vincent's quently emit fames. From the first of and Guadaloupe, are active vents. Thus it these, a deluge of mud descended in will be seen that volcanoes and earth1797, and filled valleys, 1000 feet wide, to quakes occur, uninterruptedly, from Chile the depth of 600 féri, forining barriers, to the north of Jlexico; and it seems whereby rivers were dammed up, and probable, that they will hereatier be found lakes occasioned. Earthquakes have, in to extend, at least, frem cape Horn to the same province, caused great revoiu- California. In regard to the eastern limtions in the physical features of the sur- its of the region, they lie deep beneath face. There are three volcanoes farther the waves of the Pacitic, and must therenorth, in the province of Pusto, and three fore continue unknown to us. On the others in that of Popayan. In the prov- west, they do not appear, except where inces of Guatimala and Nicaragua, which they in.lude the West Indian islands, to lie between the isthmus of Panama and be prolonged to a great distance; for there Mexico, there are no less than twenty-one seem to be no indications of vo'a'anic disactive voicanoes. This great volcanic turbances in Guiana, Brazil and Buenos chain, after having pursued its course for Ayres. On an equal, it not a still grandseveral thousand miles from south to er scale, is another continuous line of volnorth, turns off in a side direction in canic action, which commences on the Mexico, and is prolonged in a great plateau, north, with the Aleutian isles in Russian beiween the eighteenth and twenty-second America, and extends first in an easterly degrees of north latitude. The plateau direction for nearly two hundred miles, in question owes its present forin to the and southward, without interruption, circumstance of an ancient system of throughout a space of between sixty and valleys, in a chain of primary inountains, seventy degrees of latitude, to the Moluchaving been filled up, to the depth of ma- cas, and then branches off in different ny thousand feet, with various volcanic directions both towards the east and products. Five active volcanoes traverse north-west. The northern extremity of Mexico from west to east ; viz. Tuxtla, this voicanic region is the peninsula of Orizaba, Popocatepetl, Jorullo and Coli- Alaska, in about the fifty-titih degree of nia. Jorullo, which is in the centre of latitude. Thence the line is continued, the great plateau, is no less than forty through the Aleutian or Fox islands to leagues from the ocean, which shows that Kamtschatka, in the southern extremity the proximity of the sea is not a necessa- of which there are seven active volca. ry condition, although certainly a very noes, which, in some eruptions, have general characteristic, of the position of scattered ashes to immense distances. active volcanoes. The extraordinary The Kurile chain of isles constitutes the eruption of this mountain in 1759 will prolongation of the range in a southern be described in the sequel. To the north direction; the line is then continued to of Mexico there are three, or, according to the south-west in the great island of Jesso, some, five volcanoes, in the peninsula of where there are active vents. Between California. In the year 1912, violent the Japanese and Philippine islands, the earthquakes convulsed the valley of the communication is preserved by several Mississippi at New Madrid, for the space small insular vents. "he line is then of three hundred miles in length. As prolonged through Sanguir, and the this happened exactly at the same time as north-eastern extremity of Celebes, to the the great earthquake of Caraccas, it is Moluccas. llere a great transverse line probable that these two points are parts may be said to run from east to west. On of one continuous volcanic region; for the west, it passes through the whole of the whole circumference of the interven- Java, where there are thirty-eight large

volcanic mountains. In the volcanoes leged existence of burning volcanoes in of Sumatra, the same linear arrangement that island shall be substantiated. Reis preserved. In another direction, the specting the volcanic system of Southern volcanic range is prolonged through Bor- Europe, it may be observed, that there is neo, Celebes, Banda, New Guinea ; and a central tract, where the greatest earthfarther eastward in New Britain, New quakes prevail, in which rocks are shatIreland, and various parts of the Polyne- tered and cities laid in ruins. On each sian archipelago. The Pacific ocean, in- side of this line of greatest commotion, deed, seems, in equatorial latitudes, to be there are parallel bands of country where one vast theatre of igneous action; and its the shocks are less violent. At a still innumerable archipelagoes, such as the greater distance, as in Northern Italy, New Hebrides, Friendly islands, and there are spaces wbere the shocks are Georgian islands, are all composed either much rarer and more feeble. Beyond of coralline limestones or volcanic rocks, these limits, again, all countries are liable with active vents here and there inter- to slight tremors at distant intervals of spersed. In the old world, the volcanic time, when some great crisis of subterregion extends from east to west for the ranean movement agitates an adjoining distance of about 1000 miles, from the Cas- volcanic region ; but these may be conpian sea to the Azores, including within sidered as mere vibrations, propagated its limits the greater part of the Medi- mechanically through the external crust terranean and its most prominent penin- of the globe, as sounds travel almost sulas. From south to north, it reaches to indefinite distances through the air. from about the thirty-fifth to the forty- Shocks of this kind have been felt in fitih degree of latitude. Its northern England, Scotland, Northern France and boundaries are Caucasus, the Black sea, Germany, particularly during the Lisbon the mountains of Thrace, Transylvania earthquake. and Hungary,—the Austrian, Tyrolian We shall now give some account of a and Swiss Alps,--the Cevennes and Pyr- few of the principal volcanic vents, disenees, with the mountains which branch persed through the great regions before off from the Pyrenees westward, to the described, and consider the composition north side of the Tagus. Its western and arrangement of their lavas and ejectlimits are the ocean; but it is impossible ed matter. From the first colonization to determine how far it may be prolonged of Southern Italy by the Greeks, Vesuin that direction; neither can we assign vius afforded no other indication of its with precision its extreme eastern limit, volcanic character than such as the natsince the country beyond the Caspian and uralist might in fer from the analogy of its sea of Aral is scarcely known. The structure to other volcanoes. These were southern boundaries of the regiou include recognised by Strabo. The ancient con the most northern parts of Africa, and was of a very regular form, terminating, part of the desert of Arabia. We may not, as at present, in two peaks, but with a trace, through the whole of the area flattish summit, where the remains of an comprehended within these extensive ancient crater, nearly filled up, had left a limits, numerous points of volcanic erup- slight depression, covered in its interior tions, hot springs, gaseous emanations, and by wild vines, and with a sterile plain at other signs of igneous agency; while the bottom. On the exterior, the sides few tracts of any extent have heen en- of the mountains were covered with fertirely exempe from earthquakes through- tile fields, richly cultivated, and at its out the last 3000 years. Besides the con- base were the populous cities of Hercutinuous spaces of subterranean disturb- laneum and Pompeii. But the scene of ance, of which the outline has been repose was at length doomed to cease, given above, there are other disconnected and the volcanic fire was recalled to the volcanic groups, of which the geograph- main channel, which, at some former, unical extent is, as yet, imperfectly known. known period, had given passage to reAmong these may be mentioned Iceland, peated streams of melted lava, sand and which belongs, perhaps, to the same re- scoriæ. The first symptom of the revival gion as the volcano in Jan Mayen's island. of the energies of this volcano was the With these, also, part of the nearest coast occurrence of an earthquake, A. D. 63, of Greenland, which is sometimes shaken which did considerable injury to the cities by earthquakes, may be connected. The in its vicinity. From that time to the island of Bourbon belongs to another the- year 79, slighi shocks were frequent; and atre of volcanic action, of which Mada- in the month of August of that year, they gascar probably forms a part, if the al- became more nuinerous and violent, till

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