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made so little advance in the arts of civ- sea islands. Of their religious opinions ilized life: they are remarkable for their we have no accurate account: they are energy and self-denial in the pursuit of said to have no temples, and do not apdistant advantages; and their discernment pear to assemble together for purposes of in appreciating the benefits of civilization worship. The face of the country is ir. is equally striking. They are also re- regular and broken, presenting many markable for the ferocity with which they lotty and steep mountains, interspersed engage in the perpetual wars that the with fertile valleys and lovely plains different tribes wage with each other; Much of the land is covered by lofty for a contempt of human life, which is trees; and where there is no wood, the the natural result of a warfare that aims prevailing plant is the fern, which rises to at the extermination or captivity of the the height of six or seven feet. The clihostile tribe; and for the revolting prac- mate is temperate, suffering from neither tice of eating the flesh of the enemies extreme of heat or cold: the soil is, in they have slain, and even of their own general, rich, as the profuse vegetation slaves when pressed by hunger. It has with which it is covered, and the extraorbeen stated, in palliation of the character dinary vigor of its productions, prore. of the New Zealander, that this is a su- (For an account of two of the most imperstitious observance; but those who portant vegetable productions, see Fla, are best acquainted with them affirm that New Zealand, and New Zealand Spinit is also the result of a preference for that age.) The native land animals are not sort of food. Their chiefs are heredita- numerous: the most common is an aniry, and of difierent ranks, forming, with mal resembling the fox-dog, which is their connexions, a kind of aristocracy, sometimes eaten; the rat and bat are also the principal members of which enjoy dif- found. The birds are very numerous, ferent degrees of authority ; but the power and almost all peculiar to the country; of the principal chief of the tribe is ab- and the shores abound with fisb. (Sex solute; and the great body of the people Australia.) are in a state of slavery, and at the entire ZEALOTS, among the Jews; those who disposal of their masters, who put them were zealous for the honor of God and to death on the slightest occasion, or from his temple, and not unfrequently went so mere caprice. The food of these island- far that they stoned, or otherwise deers consists of the root of the fern (pteris stroyed, supposed blasphemers, or Sabesculenta), which grows to a large size, bath-breakers. and in the greatest abundance, in every ZEBRA. (See Horse.) part of the islands, and of potatoes, which Zecchi in Italian, zechino, from zerra are cultivated by the slaves. Many of the mint where the money is coined!; the the chiefs also possess herds of swine, gold coin of the former republic of Vese but seldom or never use the flesh of the ice. Certain gold coins of other countries latter as an article of food, when they can such as the papal dominions, some other dispose of it in trading with Europeans. Italian states, and Turkey, are also called (Busby, p. 60.) The New Zealander zecchins. The Florentine zecchins are call. does not, like some savages, despise the ed gigliati, from the lilies of the grandhabits of civilized life; nor is he, like ducal arms impressed on them; and the others, incapable of appreciating its ad- Austrian zecchins, or ducats, particulary vantages. The use of fire-arms has be- those of Cremnitz (q. v.), are called, in 1:come general among these islanders, and aly, ungheri. The Venetian zecchins were the whale fishery is carried on in canoes equal to the Hungarian ducats in actual manned wholly by natives. They are value, but stood from four to five pas also acquainted with the practice of agri- ceni. higher in Venice. The Italian culture, the art of weaving, and have ducat, a silver coin, is to be distinguished some musical wind instruments. The from the zecchin. Gold ducats are rark dress of both sexes is the same, and con- coined in Italy. sists of an inner mat or tunic, fastened, ZECHARIAH, or ZACHARIAH; one of the by a girdle, round the waist, and an up- twelve minor prophets, of whose history per cloak, both of which are made of the little is known. We are ignorant both of native flax. They are generally tall, the time and the place of his birth. He strong, active, and well-shaped; the hair is called the son of Barachiah, and was commonly straight, and the complexion commissioned by God to exhort the Jews brown. The practice of tattooing is com- to undertake the restoration of the temple. mon (see Tattooing); and the taboo (q. v.) Like the other prophets, be also preaches also prevails here, as in many of the South moral reformation. His obscurity bas much embarrassed his numerous com- with them. In the Onondago he commentators.
pleted, about the year 1768, two gramZEELAND. (See Zealand.)
mars, one written in English and the ZEGEDIN, or SZEGEDIN; a royal free other in German, and a copious dictionatown of Hungary, in Csongrad, near the ry (German and Indian), containing upconflux of the rivers Maros and Theisse; wards of one thousand seven hundred 60 miles north-west of Temesvar, 68 north pages. In the language of the Lenape of Belgrade ; lon. 9° 56' E.; lat. 46° 15' (or Delaware), he published, in the year N.; population, 32,000; houses, 3800. It is 1776, his first edition of a spelling-book, surrounded by a mound and moar, has a and, in 1806, his second edition, enlarged. brick fort, is one of the most considerable Two other books were published by him towns in Hungary, and contains a college in this language, the one sermons to chilof the monks called Piarists, a Catholic dren, and the other a hymn-book, congymnasium, a small philosophical semi- taining about three hundred sixty pages, nary, a monastery of Minorites, and sev- and upwards of five hundred hymns, eral Catholic and Greek churches. It translated partly from the English, partly has some manufactures of woollens, from the German. He left, in manuscript, a leather and toys. Its commercial inter- grammar of the Delaware language, writcourse is considerable, its position, at the ten in German, which has been translated junction of two navigable rivers, giving it into English for the American Philosophithe command of an extensive water car- cal Society of Philadelphia, by Mr. Duponriage. The exports consist chiefly of ceau,and which the distinguished and learncorn, cattle, wool, tobacco and timber. ed translator pronounces to be the most
ZEISBERGER, David, a missionary among complete grammar that we have ever had the Indians, distinguished by his zeal in of any one of those languages which are religious labors, and by the services which called barbarous (see Indian Languages, he has rendered to general philology, was Appendix to vol. vi); and also a translaborn in Moravia, a province of Austria, tion into Delaware of the Harmony of the whence he emigrated, when young, with Four Gospels. Mr. Zeisberger's works his parents, to Herrnhut (9. v.), in Upper are so important to the students of the Lusatia, for the sake of obtaining religious particular dialects which he had learned, liberty. In 1738, he went to America, and afford so valuable materials to the and landed in Georgia, where, at that general philologist, that we think it proptime, some of the United Brethren (q. v.) er to add the titles of them, as they are had begun a settlement for the purpose enumerated in the Catalogue annexed to of preaching the gospel to the Creek pa- Mr. Duponceau's Report io the American tion. Thence he removed to Pennsylva- Philosophical Society, in whose library nia, and assisted at the commencement of they are deposited : Deutsch und Ononthe settlements of Bethlehem and Naza- dagoisches Wörterbuch; a Dictionary of reth. From 1746 to his death, which took the German and Onondago Languages place Nov. 17, 1808 (when he was eighty- (7 vols., 4to., MS.); a Grammar of the seven years and seven months old), a pe- Lenni Lenape or Delaware Language riod of sixty-two years, he was, with very (translated from the German Ms. of the few and short intervals, a missionary author by P. S. Duponceau, since pubamong the Indians, and made himself lished in the Transactions of the Philomaster of several of their languages. sophical Society at Philadelphia); Essay Those Indians among whom he lived of an Onondago Grammar, or a short Inloved bim, and often referred decisions, troduction to learn the Onondago, alias
even respecting disputes among different Maqua, Tongue (4to., 67 pp., MS.); Onon# tribes, to him. He received no salary, dagoische Grammatik (410., 87 pp., MS.);
wanting nothing but food and clothing, another Onondago Grammar (in the Gerand liberty to preach the gospel. He was man language, 4to., 176 pp., MS.) See a one of the oldest white settlers in the state Narrative of the Mission of thé United of Ohio, and there, and in Upper Canada, Brethren among the
Delaware and Mohegan dwelt with the Indians, who had given Indians, from its Commencement, in 1740, him the name of Anausseracheri (signify- to 1808, by John Heckewelder (q. v.) ing On-the-pumpkin), with whom he en- (Philadelphia, 1820). dured the greatest hardships.
He was Zeist. (See Zeyst.) chiefly acquainted with two Indian lan- Zeitz ; formerly á Saxon city, but guages, the Onondago (one of the idioms since 1815, has belonged to Prussia. It of the Six Nations) and the Delaware, but is about twenty-three miles distant from understood other languages connected Leipsic, on the right bank of the White
Elster, on a high mountain, contains 7000 name of the sacred books which the deinhabitants, manufactories of cloth, leath- scendants of the ancient Persians, the er, &c. The town is very old, has four Guebers (q. v.) in Persia, and the Parsees churches, and a gymnasium, a house of in India, assert that they received, more correction, an institution for the reforma- than four thousand years ago, from their tion of juvenile offenders, a good library lawgiver, and the founder of their religiou, with 12,000 volumes and many manu- Zoroaster (q. v.), or Zerdusht. English scripts. The former bishopric of Zeitz and French travellers, at an early period, was founded by the emperor Otho I, in gave some information respecting the re968, in order to promote the conversion ligion of the Guebers and their sacred of the Wends (q. v.) to Christianity. In books. Anquetil du Perron (9. v.) lear1029, the bishops transferred their see to ed, during his residence in India, the saNaumburg.
cred language in which those books are Zelle, or CellE; a city of Hanover, written, brought copies of them to Euin Luneburg, 128 miles west of Berlin; rope in 1762, and published, in 1771, a lon. 10° 14' E.; lat. 53° 42' N.; popula- French translation of the Zend-Areste tion, including the suburbs, 9729. It con- English and German scholars soon raised tains five churches, two hospitals, a gym- doubts respecting the genuineness and nasium, an orphan-house, a lunatic hospi- antiquity of these writings, which occatal, a school of surgery, a society of agri- sioned disputes. Even the fire-worshipculture, &c. It is fortified, and tolerably pers (q. v.) themselves are said to have built, situated on the Aller, which is here adınitted that the real Zend-Avesta has navigable, and, behind the New Town, long been lost. Their present books are is joined by the Fuhsee, and has some said to be legends of the middle ages, and trade and manufactures. It contains the the religion of the present Guebers a mix. courts of appeal for the Hanoverian terri- ture of
ancient Greek, Christian, and per. tory at large. It was formerly the capital haps even Mohammedan notions. Rask of a duchy belonging to the house of (q. v.), however, in his treatise on the Brunswick.
Age and Genuineness of the Zend LanZelter, Charles Frederic, professor guage and of the Zend-Avesta (translated and director of the singing academy in into German by Hagen ; Berlin, 1850, Berlin, a man of much musical talent, was maintains the genuineness of the Zendborn in 1758, in Berlin. In his seven- Avesta, at least of some parts; but wbo is teenth year, he began to learn the trade the author he does not decide. Tbe of his father, a mason. All his leisure, Zend-Avesta consists of five books, writhowever, was given to music. Bach's ten in the Zend language. A part of it and Hasse's works first made him ac- was revealed to Zoroaster by Ormurd, quainted with the rules of scientific com- the highest among good beings. They position. At last his father forbade him treat of Ormuzd, and of the antagthe study of music altogether, because onist principle of evil, Ahriman; also of he neglected his trade. In 1783, he be- the genii of heaven (the angels), the recame a master mason. Being now inde- wards and punishments of a future state. pendent, he became an active member &c., and are read aloud during religious of the singing academy above mentioned, service. Another part consists of a cob of which he was made director in 1800. lection of prayers, glorifications of the In 1809, he was made professor of music most important genii
, moral sentiments in the Berlin academy of arts and sciences, &c. These are by various authors, and and founded the_first Liedertafel (glee written in various dialects. There are club) in Berlin. From this glee club nu- also historical and geographical notices merous others proceeded in Germany, to contained in these books, which, howerwhich the amateurs of music are indebted er, seem to be capable of various interprefor many beautiful tunes and songs. He tations. Respecting the contents of the composed many glees for this club. He Zend writings, see Rhodes's work, The Stalso composed other music; but his glees cred Traditions and the complete Religia and motetts (q. v.) are his best produc- System of the ancient Bactrians, Med. tions. He has done much towards im- ans and Persians, or of the Zend People proving vocal music in Berlin, a city per- (Frankfort on the Maine, 1820). The great haps superior to any in respect to the work of M. Burnouf, secretary of the general diffusion of tine singing. Died '32. Asiatic society in Paris, will throw light Zemlin. (See Semlin.)
on this subject. (See Burnouf, Appendix ZEMZEM. (See Mecca.)
to this volume.) ZEND-Avesta (Liring Word) is the Zenith; an Arabic word, used in as
tronomy to denote the vertical point of the ters, finishing his course of study in the heavens, or that point of the heavens school of Polemon, who detected his purdirectly over the head of the observer. pose of selecting materials for the formaEach point on the surface of the earth has tion of a sect of his own. The design he therefore its corresponding zenith. The ultimately carried into execution, in a zenith is called the “pole of the horizon, place called the painted porch, from its as it is 90° distant from every point of being adorned with the pictures of Polygthat circle. (See Nadir.—The zenith notus, and other eminent painters, and distance of a heavenly body is the arc in- more generally the Stoa, or porch, whence tercepted between the body and the ze- all his followers' acquired the name of nith, being the same as the co-altitude of Stoics. Zeno obtained great fame by the the body.
acuteness of his reasonings; and, his priZeno; a name which often appears in vate character being also highly respectaancient history. Two philosophers of ble, he was much beloved and esteemed this name are particularly celebrated :- by his numerous disciples, and even by 1. Zeno, the Eleatic, of Elea, or Velia, a the great. The Athenians placed so much Greek colony in Magna Græcia, lived confidence in his integrity, that they deabout the eightieth Olympiad (about 450 posited the keys of their citadel in his B. C.), at which time he went with Par- hands, and decreed him a golden crown menides to Athens. He was a disciple and a statue. He is said to have come of the Eleatic school, founded by Xenoph- rich into Greece, but he lived with great anes. (q. v.) To him is ascribed the simplicity and abstemiousness; and the invention, or at least the developement, of modesty of his disposition led him to shun dialectics, of which he made use with crowds and personal distinctions. He much acuteness for the defence of the reached the advanced age of ninety-eight, Eleatic system. Of his writings, nothing when, hurting one of his fingers in a fall, has come down to us. According to Ar- he interpreted the accident into a warnistotle, be taught that there is only one ing to depart, and, repeating from the being, which is God; that in nature there tragedy of Niobe, “Here I am; why do is no vacuum, and that motion is impos- you call me ?” went home and strangled sible. Seneca even asserts that he carried himself, on the principle that a man was his scepticism so far as to deny the exist- at liberty to part with life whenever he ence of external objects. He is repre- deemed it eligible to do so. The Atheni
sented as a man of noble spirit, full of ans honored him with a public funeral i vigor and patriotism. Failing in his at- and a tomb, with an inscription recording
tempt to deliver Elea from the tyrant his services to youth, by his rigid inculcaNearchus, he calınly endured the torture, tion of virtuous principles and good conand at length bit off his own tongue, in duct. His death is dated in the
first year order to prevent himself from betraying of the 129th Olympiad (B. C. 263). As | his companions. It is said that he was at the founder of a new school, he seems
last pounded in a mortar; and that, in the rather to have invented new terms than midst of his torments, he called Nearchus new doctrines, and agreed in many points to him, as if he wished to reveal some- with his masters of the Platonic sect. In thing of importance. The tyrant ap- morals, he followed the principles of the proached, and Zeno, pretending to whis- Cynics, freed of their practical indecenper, caught his ear with his teeth, and bit cies, which induced Juvenal to observe it off.
that the two sects only differed in the tu2. Zeno, the founder of the Stoic sect, nic. (For an account of his philosophy, was born at Cittium, a maritime town of see Stoics.). Cyprus, about 366 B. C. His father was Zeno, Nicholas and Anthony; two cela inerchant, who occasionally visited ebrated Venetian navigators of the fourAthens, where he purchased many of the teenth century, to whom the discovery of writings of the Socratic philosophers for America, prior to the voyage of Columhis son, who early displayed a great pro- bus, has been attributed. The story is as pensity for learning. When he became a follows: Nicholas having set sail in a man, he visited Athens himself, where he ship equipped at his own cost, on a voybecame the disciple of the Cynic philoso- age to Flanders and England (about pher Crates; but, wishing to extend the 1388), was driven by a storm upon an sphere of his knowledge beyond the nar- island called by the inhabitants Friseland, row limits of a sect which prided itself in which geographers suppose to have been n contempt for all science, he forsook one of the Faroe , islands. Here he was Crates for Stilpo, and various other mas- kindly received by a prince of some
neighboring islands, called Porland, who tion of finding land to the west, and not was then meditating the conquest of to the north. Friseland. Having aided that prince in Zero, Apostolo, an eminent Italian man conquering this and other northern of letters, was born at Venice, in 100 islands, Nicholas Zeno sent for his broth- He was the son of a physician in that er Anthony, who joined him there in city, who was a descendant froin a noble 1391 or 1392. The former died about family lovg settled in the island of Can. 1395 ; but the latter remained in the dia. He was educated in a seminary of country till about 1405, when he returned religion at Castelli, but principally cultito Venice. During their residence in vated polite literature, and the study of Friseland, their attention was attracted by Italian history and antiquities. He firs the report of a fisherman concerning acquired celebrity by his melo-dramassome land about 1000 miles west of Frise- species of poetry then much in vogue in Italand, inhabited by people living in cities, ly. In 1696, he instituted at Venice the acquainted with the mechanical arts, and academy Degli Animosi, and was the editor possessing some Latin books, which, how- of the Giornale de' Letterati d'Italia, of ever, they did not understand. While in which he published thirty-eight volumes that country, which he said was called between the years 1710 and 1719.and whuch Estotiland, the same person declared that still maintains its reputation. His first muhe went, in a fleet fitted out by the prince sical drama, L'Inganni Felice, was perform of Estotiland, to a country to the south, ed-at Venice in 1695; and between this called Drogeo, the inhabitants of which time and bis quitting Vienna, to which be were naked and barbarous, though, far was invited by Charles VI, in 1718, wims to the south-west, there was another civil- made him both his poet and historian, he ized country, where the people had great produced forty-six operas and seventera abundance of gold and silver, and in their oratorios. He continued eleven years it. temples sacrificed human victims. This the imperial service, at the expiration of account determined the prince to send an which he obtained his dismission from the expedition thither under Anthony Zeno, emperor, his personal friend, who allowed which, however, returned, after discover- him to retain his salary on condition of ing the island of Icaria, and visiting furnishing annually a drama for music ; Greenland, without accomplishing the which he continued to do until the apobjects of the voyage. The relation and pointment of Metastasio. On his retur letters of the brothers Zeni, and the map to Venice, he lived in literary leisure untia of the country mentioned in them, re- his death, Nov. 11, 1750, a few months mained in the family archives a century before which he gave his valuable library and a half, when they were published by and collection of coins to the Dominicans Marcolini, under the title of the Discove- Zeno was of much service to the musical ry of the Isles of Friseland, Esland, En- poetry of the Italians, especially the open groveland, Estotiland and Icaria (Venice, ra, to which he gave a more regular form. 1508). This work is given in the second (See Opera, and Italian Poetry. But his volume of Ramusio's collection, and in labors as a biographer and historian art the third volume of Hakluyt, and has of more importance. These include his excited much discussion among geo- notes to Fontanini's Biblioteca della El grapbical writers, such as Ortelius, Mer- quenza Italiana, his Dissertazioni l'ossione, cator, Forster, Malte-Brun, &c. The lat- his additions to Foresti's Mappaminter considers Estotiland to be Newfound- do Istorico, and his biographies of sabel land, Drogeo, Nova Scotia or New Eng- lico, Guarini, Davila, and the three Maland, and the civilized people to the nutiuses. He also aided the labors of south, the Mexicans, or some ancient na- others, as Muratori. The dramatic work tion of Florida or Louisiana. Irving of Zeno were published at Venice in li +4 (Life of Columbus, appendix, No. xiii) re- (10 vols., 8vo.). They rank pot very higt marks that, although the brothers Zeni as poetical compositions ; but he is the probably visited Greenland, the rest of first Italian poet who gave his countr. the story resembles the fables circulated men good rules for tragedy, and freed it shortly atter the discovery of Columbus, from the intermixture of low buffoonery, to arrogate to other nations and individu- with which the Italian serious drama was als the credit of the achievement.-See, before infected. His letters, which were further, Daru's Histoire de Venise (vol. i, published in 1752 (3 vols., 8vo.), contaan b. 40). - At all events, it is evident that much sound criticism, and many notices Columbus had no knowledge of these of the literary history of his time.
oyants, as he sailed under the expecta- ZENOBIA, queen of Palmyra, claimed