Imatges de pÓgina

with Parrhasius is well known. Zeuxis painted some grapes so naturally that birds flew to peck them. Parrhasius painted a curtain so naturally as to deceive Zeuxis himself, who asked to have it drawn aside, and, on learning the deception, acknowledged himself vanquish ed, as he had only deceived birds, while Parrbasius had deceived an artist. At another time, he painted a boy with grapes, at which the birds again flew. "If," said he," the boy had been painted as well as the grapes, the birds would not have approached."

ZEYD. (See Seyd.)

ZEYST, or ZEIST; a village of above 1200 inhabitants, with a fine castle, in the province of Utrecht, in the Netherlands, à league from the city of Utrecht, in an agreeable country containing many gardens and walks. It formerly belonged to the counts of Nassau, and was sold, in 1752, to a merchant in Amsterdam, who gave it to the Moravian Brethren for the establishment of a settlement, which at present consists of 300 members. They have built here brother and sister houses, and manufactories, where they make gloves, leather, ribands, gold and silver work, soap, candles, &c., of excellent quality. Not far from Zeyst there is a heath, where the French-Dutch army raised a pyramid of earth a hundred and forty-eight feet high, on the occasion of Napoleon's assuming the crown.

ŻIA. (See Zea.)

ZIEGENBALG, Bartholomew, a celebrated Protestant missionary, was born at Pullnitz, in Upper Lusatia, June 14, 1683. Having gone through the usual course of school education at Gorlitz and Berlin, he removed, in 1703, to the university of Halle, where he applied himself closely to biblical literature. About this time, the king of Denmark being desirous of sending some qualified missionary to India, Ziegenbalg was particularly recommended to him; and, in 1705, he was ordained at Copenhagen for that purpose. He sailed to India the same year, and arrived at Tranquebar, in July, 1706, but met with great opposition on the part of the Danish authorities, who, for a short time, even confined him; nor was he allowed to proceed in a translation of the New Testament into the Malabar language, which he had commenced. Orders, however, arriving from Copenhagen for the Danish authorities to protect the missionaries, and also receiving great pecuniary assistance from England and Germany, he was enabled, in 1711, to make a voy

age to Madras, and also to visit the territories of the Mogul. In October, 1714, he sailed for Europe, and reached Copenhagen in the following year. He was received with great respect, and, after completing a dictionary of the Malabar language, which was printed at Halle in 1716, quarto, he visited England, where he obtained an audience of George I, and the members of the royal family, and obtained a passage to India by the direct countenance of the East India company. He accordingly embarked at Deal, in March, 1716, and arrived at Madras the following August, whence he proceeded to Tranquebar, and resumed his functions. Inspirited by the encouragement which he had met with in Europe, in 1718, he took an extensive journey by land, and was fulfilling the object of his mission with great zeal and success, when he was attacked by the cholera morbus, and died Feb. 23, 1719, in the thirty-sixth year of his age. He was the author of some accounts in German of the particulars of his mission; of Grammatica Damulica (Halle, 1716, 4to.); Brevis Delineatio Missionis Operis (1717); Explicatio Doctrine Christiana Damulice (1719, 8vo.); Biblia Damulica (1723). In some of these works he was assisted by his brother missionaries Grundler and Schultz.

ZIETEN. (See Ziethen.)

ZIETHEN, Hans Joachim von, Prussian general of cavalry, knight of the order of the black eagle, &c., one of the most distinguished generals of Frederic the Great in the seven years' war, was born in 1699, at Wustrau, a village in the county of Rappin, in Brandenburg, and began his military career when fourteen years old. After some time, he left the service, but returned to it in 1726, and was appointed lieutenant. A quarrel with his captain occasioned his im risonment for a year. A duel in which he was engaged, soon after his release, caused his dismission from his corps. In 1730, however, he was again taken into the service. In 1731, he was made captain of cavalry, and, in 1735, made his first campaign against France. In 1736, he was made major, and, in the course of the first Silesian war (q. v.), lieutenant-colonel. A few days after, he came near taking his former teacher, general Baronay, prisoner, upon which Frederic made him colonel, and gave him a regiment of hussars. In the campaign of 1742, he approached very near Vienna, with a corps of 15,000 men. When the second Silesian war broke out, in 1744, Ziethen was made

major-general. He distinguished himself greatly in many engagements, and, on one occasion, marched through the Austrian army, having ordered his soldiers to turn their cloaks inside out, so that the white lining looked like the Austrian uniform. He was wounded, Nov. 23, at Catholic Hennersdorf. His enemies succeeded in making Frederic ill disposed towards him; but he became reconciled to him shortly before the breaking out of the third Silesian war. The reconciliation took place in a manner which is creditable to Frederic. Ziethen was very active in the course of that war, and greatly distinguished himself. At Kollin he was wounded. At Leuthen he broke the path to victory. At Liegnitz he was made general of cavalry on the field of battle. The battle at Torgau was decided by him, though he received undeserved censure from Frederic. Soon after the peace of Hubertsburg, in 1763, he married a second time, when sixty-five years old; and the first son of this union was made a cornet in the cradle by Frederic. Frederic gave him many and repeated marks of his favor. Though seventynine years old, he wished to take part in the Bavarian war of succession; but Frederic declined his repeated offers. Ziethen was a man of a noble and frank spirit, and a favorite with the whole nation. He died in 1786, in Berlin. His life was written by L. J. Leopoldina von Blumenhagen (Berlin, 1800).

ZIGETH. (See Szigeth.)
ZIMARRA. (See Masks.)

ZIMMER, Patricius Benedict, a Catholic theologian, born at Abtsgemünd, Feb. 22, 1752, studied at Ellwangen and Dillingen, received orders in 1775, and was made, in 1783, professor of dogmatics in the university at Dillingen. In 1795, he was dismissed for reasons not assigned, and became pastor at Steinheim; in 1799, was appointed professor of dogmatics at Ingolstadt, and, in 1800, was transferred to the university of Landshut; in 1806, was dismissed, probably for favoring the philosophy of identity, so called; but, after six months, was appointed professor of archæology and exegesis. In 1819 and 1820, while rector of the university, he was elected deputy of the second chamber of Bavaria, where he was chairman of the committee on the laws. He died in 1820. Among his theological writings are Diss. de vera et completa Potestate ecclesiastica illiusque Subjecti (Dillingen, 1784); Theologia Christiana theoretica Systema eo Neru atque Ordine

delineatum, quo omnium optime tradi ezplanarique posse videtur (part i, ibid. 1787); Veritas Christ. Relig., seu Throl. Christ. dogmatica (parts i and ii, Augsburg. 1789-1790); Fides Eristentis Dei, sive de Origine hujus Fidei, unde ea derivari possit et debeat criticum Examen, &c. (1791 Among his philosophical works are Philosophical Doctrine of Religion (1 volDoctrine of the Idea of the Absolute (1805); Philosophical Inquiries respecting the general Degeneracy of Mankind (3 vols., 1809). The three last are m German.

ZIMMERMANN, John George, chevaher von, an eminent physician and miscellane ous writer, was born in 1728, at Brug, in the canton of Berne, of which his father was a senator. After receiving a regular education, he made choice of the medical profession, and repaired to the university of Göttingen, where he studied under Haller, a relation of whom he subsequently married, and soon after was appointed public physician to his native town of Brug. In this retired situation, he en ployed his leisure in the publication of pieces both in prose and verse, and, anong others, the first sketch of his popular work On Solitude. This was followed by his essay On National Pride, which passed through several editions, and was translated into various foreign languages In 1763, he composed his work. On the Experience of Medicine, which he foilowed up by several other professiona treatises; in consequence of which he received an offer of the post of physician to the king of England for Hanover, whach he accepted, and removed, in 176, to that capital. His work On Soltiade was published in four volumes, orn vo. In 1786, he attended Frederic m his last illness, which afforded little room for medical skill, but enabled him to pub lish an account of his conversations with that celebrated sovereign; e. g. On Frederic the Great, and my Conversation .:2 him shortly before his Death (Lee, 1788), and Fragments on Frederie the Great-works which did not increase has reputation. He also undertook a de ferre of that prince from the censures of Manbeau, which writings exposed him to vere criticism. His mind was further o quieted by the part which he took in the controversies which arose out of the im cussions that led to the French revolatz Attached by court habits and birth to the cause of royalty and aristocracy, he viewed with extreme jealousy every thing which exhibited the slightest tendency to acet

them. He even proceeded so far as to address a memoir to the emperor Leopold, recommending the suppression of certain societies, of which he disapproved, by the hand of power, and involved himself in a prosecution for libel, for a charge which he brought against the baron de Knigge, for an unavowed publication. While his mind was in a state of agitation from these causes, the approach of the French towards Hanover, in 1794, almost subverted his reason. He could think of nothing but the pillage of his house and ruin of his fortune, and, under this morbid irritation, wasted to a skeleton, and died, absolutely worn out, in 1795, at the age of sixty. Most of his works have been translated into English; and his Solitude was, at one time, very popular. His writings towards the end of his life almost destroyed the reputation which he had earned at an earlier period.

ZIMMERMANN, Eberhard Augustus William von, a German writer of note in the departments of geography, ethnography, anthropology and zoology, was born, in 1743, at Uelzen, near Celle, in Hanover. He studied at Göttingen, where he wrote on the analysis of curves, and at Leyden, where he conceived the idea of dividing the animal kingdom with reference to climates, and of directing his attention to the migrations and the ramifications of the races, beginning with man himself an idea which he kept in view in all his travels and in his writings. He visited England, Italy, France, also Russia and Sweden. To England he went three times, and published in London, in 1788, a Political Survey of the present State of Europe, with sixteen statistical tables. In 1797, he published General Observations on Italy, also a treatise on the Molfetta in Apulia. His Geographical Annals were continued for three years. In 1795 appeared his France and the Free States of North America, and, at a later period, his General View of France, from Francis I to Louis XVI, and of the Free States of North America (1800, 2 vols.). In 1766, he had been appointed professor of natural philosophy in the Caroline college at Brunswick. The emperor Leopold raised him to the rank of nobility for his writings against the spirit of the revolution. His most important work is his Geographical Pocket-book, which appeared in twelve annual numbers, from 1802 to 1813, and describes, in an agreeable manner, a great part of the earth. A sort of abridgment appeared under the title the Earth and its In

habitants, according to the latest Discoveries, in five volumes. In 1779, he wrote on the compressibility and elasticity of water. He died in 1815.

ZINC is a metal of a bluish-white color, somewhat brighter than lead, of considerable hardness, and so malleable as not to be broken with the hammer, though incapable of much extension in this way. At a temperature between 212° and 300° Fahr., it is both malleable and ductile. Its specific gravity is from 6.9 to 7.2. When broken by bending, its texture is seen to be coarsely granular. On account of its imperfect malleability, it is difficult to reduce it into small parts by filing or hammering; but it may be granulated, like the malleable metals, by pouring it, when fused, into cold water; or, if it be heated nearly to melting, it is then sufficiently brittle to be pulverized. It melts at about 700° Fahrenheit, and soon afterwards becomes red hot, burning with a dazzling white flame of a bluish or yellowish tinge, and is oxidized with such rapidity that it flies up in the form of white flowers, which are called flowers of zinc, or philosophical wool. These are generated with such rapidity that the access of air is soon intercepted, and the combustion ceases unless the metal be stirred, and a considerable heat kept up. If the metal be heated in close vessels, it rises without being converted into oxide. Chemists are not agreed as to the number of oxides of zinc ; but the one above mentioned is the only one of importance. At common temperatures, it is white; but when heated to low redness, it assumes a yellow color, which gradually disappears on cooling. It is quite fixed in the fire, and insoluble in water. It is a strong salifiable base, forming regular salts with acids, most of which are colorless. It combines also with some of the alkalies. It consists of thirty-four parts zinc and eight parts oxygen. When metallic zinc is exposed for some time to air and water, or is kept under water, it acquires a superficial coating of a gray matter, which is called a sub-oxide of zinc. When zinc is burned in chlorine, a solid substance is formed, of a grayish-white color, semi-transparent. This is the chloride of zinc. It may likewise be made by heating together zinc filings and corrosive sublimate. It is soft as wax, fuses at a temperature a little above 212° Fahr., and rises in the gaseous form at a heat much below ignition. Its taste is intensely acrid, and it corrodes the skin. It acts upon water, and dissolves in it,

producing much heat. Its solution, decomposed by an alkali, affords the white hydrated oxide of zinc. This chloride has been called the butter of zinc and muriate of zinc. It consists of nearly equal weights of zinc and chlorine. Bromide and iodide of zinc may be formed by processes similar to those for preparing the analogous compounds of other metals. Sulphuret of zinc may be formed by heating to redness a mixture of oxide of zinc and sulphur. This substance, as found in nature, will be described in the sequel, under the head of the ores of zinc. The salts of zinc possess the following general properties: They generally yield colorless solutions with water; ferroprussiate of potash, sulphureted hydrogen and alkalies, occasion white precipitates; infusion of galls produces no precipitate.-Sulphate of zinc. Dilute sul phuric acid dissolves zinc, and the salt may be obtained in fine prismatic foursided crystals. It is commonly called white vitriol. It may be formed also by dissolving the white oxide of zinc in sulphuric acid. But it is more extensively manufactured from the native sulphuret in the following manner: The ore is roasted, wetted with water, and exposed to the air. The sulphur attracts oxygen, and is converted into sulphuric acid; and the metal, at the same time being oxidated, combines with the acid. After some time, the sulphate is extracted by solution in water; and by evaporating the solution to dryness, the mass is run into moulds. The taste of this salt is extremely styptic. It reddens vegetable blues, though in composition it is strictly a neutral salt. Dilute nitric acid combines rapidly with zinc, and produces much heat, at the same time that a large quantity of nitrous acid gas is evolved. The solution is very caustic, and affords crystals by evaporation of nitrate of zinc. Muriatic acid acts very strongly upon zinc, and disengages much hydrogen. Phosphoric acid also dissolves this metal. The phosphate does not crystallize, but becomes gelatinous, and may be fused by a strong heat. Fluoric, boracic, carbonic, acetic and oxalic acids, each forms compounds with the oxide of zinc. Zinc may be combined with phosphorus by projecting small pieces of phosphorus on melted zinc. The compound is white, with a shade of bluish-gray. Zinc forms a brittle alloy with antimony. An alloy of zinc and iron has been observed in a zine manufactory at Bristol. It lined the tube leading from the retort. It was

hard and brittle; the fracture showing the broad facets like zinc, but of a duller gray color, with surfaces more rough and granular. Its specific gravity was 7.172. It consisted of 92.6 zinc and 7.4 iron.-The ores of zinc are five in number; viz. blende, red oxide of zinc, electric calamine, calamine, and white vitriol.-1. Blende occurs crystallized in rhombic dodecahedrons, octahedrons, and in numerous interme diate forms. It cleaves with facility parallel to the faces of the rhombic dodecahedron, which is the primary form of its crystals; lustre adamantine; color reddish-brown, black, yellow and green; streak white to reddish-brown; hardness equal to that of apatite; specific gravity 4.5 to 4.8. It occurs massive also, as well as in crystals; structure curved, lamellar, columnar, granular and impalpable. Composition, according to the analysis of doctor Thomson:Zinc, Sulphur, Iron,


23.16 8.08

Blende occurs in primitive and secondary rocks, and is found associated with galena and copper pyrites. It abounds in England, Scotland, Saxony, Carinthia, and other European countries. In the U. States, it is found at the Southampton lead mine, and at several places in the neighborhood. Localities of it are also known throughout the secondary limestones of the Western States. It is the ore which affords the zinc of commerce. Specimens from some localities are phosphores cent, with a yellow light simply on friction. This is the case at Schlackenwald, Bohemia, in the Hartz, and in Perthshire. The splendent fibrous variety from Przibram contains a small proportion of the rare metal cadmium. This metal has likewise been detected in the radiated blende of Freyberg and Derbyshire.-2. Red oxide of zinc. This interesting ore possesses only a lamellar structure, never having been met with in perfect crystals. It yields to cleavage, parallel to all the faces of a regular six-sided prism. Its color is ruby or blood-red. It is translucent, with a shining lustre. By long exposure to the weather, it suffers de composition at the surface. It is easily scratched by the knife; specific gravity 6.2. It consists of oxide of zinc 88 and red oxide of manganese 12. It is infusi ble before the blow-pipe, excepting when mixed with sub-carbonate of soda, in which case, it melts into a transparent yellow bead. Its only localities are

Franklin and Stirling, New Jersey, where it occurs along with ores of iron and manganese.-3. Electric calamine. This ore occurs crystallized, stalactitic, mamillary, and compact. The crystalline forms are numerous; the primary form is that of a right rhombic prism of 102° 30′ and 77° 30. The crystals are not often solitary, but mostly disposed in radiating groups. It varies from transparent to translucent or opaque. Its hardness is above that of apatite; specific gravity 3.4. Its colors are grayish, bluish and yellowish-white, or possessed of some tinge of green; and occasionally it presents a brownish or blackish color. It consists of

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When gently heated, it is strongly electric some varieties become so by friction. Before the blow-pipe, it is infusible, but loses twelve per cent. by ignition. Coatings of it have been noticed upon the throat of the iron furnace at Salisbury in Connecticut. Its native localities are in primitive and secondary rocks. It is found at Retzbania in Hungary, at Bleiberg in Carinthia, and at Freyberg in the Brisgau. In Scotland, it is found in the lead mines of Wantockhead. It also occurs in Wales and England. 4. Calamine. This valuable ore is found crystallized, pseudimorphous and massive. The crystals are obtuse or acute rhomboids, or long quadrilateral tables: cleavage is parallel to all the planes of an obtuse rhomboid of 106° 30'; lustre between vitreous and resinous. It is more or less transparent, commonly of a grayish or yellowish-white color, with some shade of green or brown; hardness equal to apatite; specific gravity 4.1 to 4.4. It is composed of oxide of zine 65.2 and carbonic acid 34.8. Before the blow-pipe, it is infusible, but loses about thirty-four per cent. by ignition. It dissolves with effervescence in muriatic acid. It is very abundant in England, in Siberia, and in several countries of Europe. Localities of it exist in the U. States, in Missouri. It is an ore which is highly prized, on account of the facility with which brass may be manufactured from it.-5. White vitriol occurs massive, stalactitic, botryoidal, reniform and investing. The structure of the massive is fibrous and radiated. It is shining, soft, brittle and translucent; specific gravity 2.

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Before the blow-pipe, it is fusible with ebullition, giving off large quantities of sulphureous acid, and leaving a gray scoria. It dissolves in boiling water. It occurs principally with blende, from whose decomposition it is supposed to arise. Its localities are the Hartz, Austria, Sweden and England.

ZINGARELLI, Nicolo, a celebrated composer, the last scion of the genuine Neapolitan school, chapel-master at St. Peter's in Rome, was born at Naples, in 1752. In the seventh year of his age, he lost his father, and was placed at the conservatory in Loretto, for the purpose of studying music under Fenaroli. Cimarosa and Giordanello were his school-fellows here. To obtain a more complete knowledge of the theory of the art, he also studied under the abbate Speranza, and, on leaving the conservatory, received the place of master of the chapel at Torre dell' Annunziata. In 1781, he composed for the theatre San Carlos, in Naples, his opera Montezuma, and, in 1785, brought forward his Alzinda, in the theatre Della Scala in Milan, with great success. In this work, he adopted a more simple and easy style. His best operas are Pirro; Artaserse; Romeo e Giulietta. In 1789, he brought out his Antigone, from Marmontel, in Paris; but the public events, then occurring, absorbed the attention of the public, and he soon returned to Italy, where, in 1806, he became director of the Vatican chapel. In 1812, he was appointed chapel-master in St. Peter's, and, soon after, director of the new conservatory in Naples. Zingarelli has composed much church music; and his works are highly esteemed for their expression.


ZINZENDORF, Nicholas Louis, count von, the restorer of the Moravians, or founder of the society of United Brethren (see Bohemian Brethren, and United Brethren), was born May 26, 1700, at Dresden, in Saxony, where his father was one of the elector's ministers of state, and much esteemed. He died early, and the son was educated by his grandmother, Mad. von Gersdorf, a pious and learned lady, who published a collection of hymns and

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