Imatges de pàgina

with Parrhasius is well known. Zeuxis age to Madras, and also to visit the terripainted some grapes so naturally that tories of the Mogul. In October, 1714, birds flew to peck them. Parrhasius he sailed for Europe, and reached Copainted a curtain so naturally as to de- penhagen in the following year. He was ceive Zeuxis himself

, who asked to have received with great respect, and, after it drawn aside, and, on learning the de- completing a dictionary of the Malabar ception, acknowledged himself vanquish- language, which was printed at Halle in ed, as he had only deceived birds, while 1716, quarto, he visited England, where Parrbasius had deceived an artist. At he obtained an audience of George I, and another time, he painted a boy with the members of the royal family, and obgrapes, at which the birds again flew. tained a passage to India by the direct coun& It," said he, “ the boy had been painted tenance of the East India company. He as well as the grapes, the birds would not accordingly embarked at Deal, in March, have approached."

1716, and arrived at Madras the following ZEYD. (See Seyd.)

August, whence he proceeded to TranZeyst, or Zeist; a village of above quebar, and resumed his functions. In1200 inhabitants, with a fine castle, in the spirited by the encouragement which he province of Utrecht, in the Netherlands, had met with in Europe, in 1718, he took a league from the city of Utrecht, in an an extensive journey by land, and was agreeable country containing many gar- fulfilling the object of his mission with dens and walks. It formerly belonged to great zeal and success, when he was atthe counts of Nassau, and was sold, in tacked by the cholera morbus, and died 1752, to a merchant in Amsterdam, who Feb. 23, 1719, in the thirty-sixth year of gave it w the Moravian Brethren for the his age. He was the author of some acestablishinent of a settlement, which at counts in German of the particulars of present consists of 300 members. They his mission; of Grammatica Damulica have built here brother and sister houses, (Halle, 1716, 4to.); Brevis Delineatio Misand manufactories, where they make sionis Operis (1717); Explicatio Doctrine gloves, leather, ribands, gold and silver Christiane Damulice (1719, 8vo.); Biblia work, soap, candles, &c., of excellent Damulica (1723). In some of these works quality. Not far from Zeyst there is a he was assisted by his brother missionaheath, where the French-Dutch army ries Grundler and Schultz. raised a pyramid of earth a hundred and ZIETEN. (See Ziethen.) forty-eight feet high, on the occasion of ZIETHEN, Hans Joachim von, Prussian Napoleon's assuming the crown.

general of cavalry, knight of the order of Žia. (See Zea.)

the black eagle, &c., one of the most disZIEGENBALG, Bartholomew, a celebrat- tinguished generals of Frederic the Great ed Protestant missionary, was born at in the seven years' war, was born in 1699, Pullnitz, in Upper Lusatia, June 14, 1683. at Wustrau, a village in the county of Having gone through the usual course of Rappin, in Brandenburg, and began his school education at Gorlitz and Berlin, military career when fourteen years old. he removed, in 1703, to the university of After some time, he left the service, but Halle, where he applied himself closely returned to it in 1726, and was appointed to biblical literature. About this time, lieutenant, A quarrel with his captain the king of Denmark being desirous of occasioned his im risonment for a year. sending

some qualified missionary to In- A duel in which he was engaged, soon dia, Ziegenbalg was particularly recom- after his release, caused his dismission mended to him ; and, in 1705, he was or- from his corps. In 1730, however, he dained at Copenhagen for that purpose. was again taken into the service. In 1731, He sailed to India the same year, and ar- he was made captain of cavalry, and, in rived at Tranquebar, in July, 1706, but 1735, made bis first campaign against met with great opposition on the part of France. In 1736, he was made major, the Danish authorities, who, for a short and, in the course of the first Silesian time, even confined him; nor was he al- war (q. v.), lieutenant-colonel. A few lowed to proceed in a translation of the days after, he came near taking his forNew Testament into the Malabar language, mer teacher, general Baronay, prisoner, which he had commenced. Orders, how- upon which Frederic made him colonel, ever, arriving from Copenhagen for the and gave him a regiment of hussars. In Danish authorities to protect the mission- the campaign of 1742, he approached' aries, and also receiving great pecuniary very near Vienna, with a corps of 15,000 assistance from England and Germany, men. When the second Silesian war he was enabled, in 1711, to make a voy- broke out, in 1744, Ziethen was made

major-general. He distinguished him- delineatum, quo omnium optime tradi eself greatly in many engagements

, and, on planarique posse videtur (part i, itud, one occasion, marched through the Aus- 1787); Veritas Christ. Relig., seu Thomael. trian army, having ordered his soldiers to Christ. dogmaticæ (parts j and ii, Augsburg turn their cloaks inside out, so that the 1789–1790); Fides Eristentis Dei, sire white lining looked like the Austrian uvi- de Origine hujus Fidei, unde ea deriran parform. He was wounded, Nov. 23, at sit et debeat criticum Eramen, &c.!! Catholic Hennersdorf. His enemies suc- Among his philosopbical works are l'utceeded in making Frederic ill disposed losophical Doctrine of Religion (1 vol towards him; but he became reconciled Doctrine of the Idea of the Absolute to him shortly before the breaking out (1805); Philosophical Inquiries reapert of the third Silesian war. The recon- ing the general Degeneracy of Malikind ciliation took place in a manner which (3 vols., 1809). "The three last are o is creditable to Frederic. Ziethen was German. very active in the course of that war, and ZIMMERMANN, John George, chevaher greatly distinguished himself. At Kollin von, an eminent physician and miscellane he was wounded. At Leuthen he broke ous writer, was born in 1728, at Brug, un the path to victory. At Liegnitz he was the canton of Berne, of which his father made general of cavalry on the field of was a senator. After receiving a regur battle. The battle at Torgau was decided education, he made choice of the medir! by him, though he received undeserved profession, and repaired to the univerty censure from Frederic. Soon after the of Gottingen, where he studied under peace of Hubertsburg, in 1763, he mar- Haller, a relation of whom he subsequrnaried a second time, when sixty-five years ly married, and soon after was appwinter! old; and the first son of this union was public physician to his native town of made a cornet in the cradle by Frederic. Brug. In this retired situation, he ett Frederic gave him many and repeated ployed his leisure in the publication or marks of his favor. Though seventy- pieces both in prose and verse, and, arırsg nine years old, he wished to take part in others, the first sketch of his popular the Bavarian war of succession ; but work On Solitude. This was followed Frederic declined his repeated offers. by his essay On National Pride, wtedy Ziethen was a man of a noble and frank passed through several editions, and was spirit, and a favorite with the whole na- translated into various foreign language tion. He died in 1786, in Berlin. His In 1763, he composed his work Un life was written by L. J. Leopoldina von Experience of Medicine, which be folBlumenhagen (Berlin, 1800).

lowed up by several other profesi ZIGETH. (See Szigeth.)

treatises ; in consequence of which bet Zumarra. (See Masks.)

ceived an offer of the post of physicians ZIMMER, Patricius Benedict, a Catholic the king of England for Hanover, what theologian, born at Abisgemünd, Feb. 22, he accepted, and removed, in 1762, to 1752, studied at Ellwangen and Dillingen, that capital. His work On Solitude received orders in 1775, and was made, was published in four volumes, o in 1783, professor of dogmatics in the vo. In 1786, he attended Freden university at Dillingen. In 1795, he was his last illness, which afforded little more dismissed for reasons not assigned, and for medical skill, but enabled him to put became pastor at Steinheim ; in 1799, lish an account of his conversations su was appointed professor of doginatics at that celebrated sovereign ; e.g. On Freda Ingolstadt, and, in 1800, was transferred to eric the Great, and my Conversation was the university of Landshut; in 1806, was him shortly before his Death (lap, disinised, probably for favoring the 1789), and Fragments on Frederve the philosophy of identity, so called; but, Great-works which did not increase tu after six months, was appointed professor reputation. He also undertook a dormire of archirology and exegesis. In 1819 of that prince from the censures of M. and 1420, while rector of the universi- beau, which writings exposed him to * ty, he was elected deputy of the second vere criticism. His inind was further <3 chamber of Bavaria, where he was chair- quieted by the part which he toxk in the man of the cominittee on the laws. He controversies which arose out of the se died in 1820. Among his theological cussions that led to the French prylar writings are Diss. de rera el completa Po Attached by court habits ani buth se testate ecclesiastica illiusque Sutrjecti (Dil- cause of royalty and anstocracy, be rund lingen, 1784); Theologiæ Christiana the- with extreme jealousy every ilung wurde oretice Systema co Veru alque Ordine exhibited the slightesi tendency to any

them. He even proceeded so far as to ad- habitants, according to the latest Discovedress a memoir to the emperor Leopold, ries, in five volumes. In 1779, he wrote recommending the suppression of certain on the compressibility and elasticity of societies, of which he disapproved, by the water. He died in 1815. hand of power, and involved himself in Zinc is a metal of a bluish-white color, a prosecution for libel, for a charge which somewhat brighter than lead, of considhe brought against the baron de Knigge, erable hardness, and so malleable as pot for an unavowed publication. While his to be broken with the hammer, though mind was in a state of agitation from incapable of much extension in this way. these causes, the approach of the French At a temperature between 212° and 300° towards Hanover, in 1794, almost sub- Fahr., it is both malleable and ductile. verted his reason. He could think of Its specific gravity is from 6.9 to 7.2. nothing bat the pillage of his house and When broken by bending, its texture is ruin of his fortune, and, under this morbid seen to be coarsely granular. On account irritation, wasted to a skeleton, and died, of its imperfect malleability, it is diffiabsolutely worn out, in 1795, at the age cult to reduce it into small parts by filing of sixty. Most of his works have been or hammering ; but it may be granulated, translated into English ; and his Solitude like the malleable metals, by pouring it

, was, at one time, very popular. His when fused, into cold water; or, if it be writings towards the end of his life al- heated nearly to melting, it is then suffimost destroyed the reputation which he ciently brittle to be pulverized. It melts had earned at an earlier period.

at about 700° Fahrenheit, and soon afterZIMMERMANN, Eberhard Augustus Wil- wards becomes red hot, burning with a liam von, a German writer of note in the dazzling white flame of a bluish or yeldepartments of geography, ethnography, lowish tinge, and is oxidized with such anthropology and zoology, was born, in rapidity that it flies up in the form of 1743, at Uelzen, near Celle, in Hanover. white flowers, which are called flowers of He studied at Göttingen, where he zinc, or philosophical wool. These are wrote on the analysis of curves, and at generated with such rapidity that the acLeyden, where he conceived the idea cess of air is soon intercepted, and the of dividing the animal kingdom with combustion ceases unless the metal reference to climates, and of directing his be stirred, and a considerable heat kept attention to the migrations and the rami- up. If the metal be heated in close vesfications of the races, beginning with sels, it rises without being converted into man bimself-an idea which he kept in oxide. Chemists are not agreed as to view in all his travels and in his writings. the number of oxides of zinc; but the one He visited England, Italy, France, also above mentioned is the only one of imRussia and Sweden. To England he portance. At common temperatures, it is went three times, and published in Lon- white; but when heated to low redness, it don, in 1788, a Political Survey of the assumes a yellow color, which gradually present State of Europe, with sixteen disappears on cooling. It is quite fixed in statistical tables. In 1797, he published the fire, and insoluble in water. It is a General Observations on Italy, also a strong salifiable base, forming regular treatise on the Molfetta in Apulia. His salts with acids, most of which are colorGeographical Annals were continued for less. It combines also with some of the althree years. In 1795 appeared his France kalies. It consists of thirty-four parts zinc and the Free States of North America, and eight parts oxygen. When metallic and, at a later period, his General View zinc is exposed for some time to air and of France, from Francis I to Louis XVI, water, or is kept under water, it acquires and of the Free States of North America a superficial coating of a gray matter, (1800, 2 vols.). In 1766, he had been ap- which is called å sub-oride of zinc. pointed professor of natural philosophy When zinc is burned in chlorine, a solid in the Caroline college at Brunswick. substance is formed, of a grayish-white The emperor Leopold raised him to the color, semi-transparent. This is the rank of nobility for his writings against chloride of zinc. It may likewise be made the spirit of the revolution. His most by heating together zinc filings and corroimportant work is his Geographical Pock- sive sublimate. It is soft as wax, fuses at et-book, wbich appeared in twelve annual a temperature a little above 212° Fahr., numbers, from 1802 to 1813, and describes, and rises in the gaseous form at a heat in an agreeable manner, a great part of much below ignition. Its taste is inthe earth. A sort of abridgment appear- tensely acrid, and it corrodes the skin. ed under the title the Earth and its In- It acts upon water, and dissolves in it, producing much heat. Its solution, de- hard and brittle; the fracture showing the composed by an alkali, affords the white broad facets like zinc, but of a duller gray hydrated oxide of zinc. This chloride color, with surfaces more rough and has been called the butter of zinc and mu- granular. Its specific gravity was 7.172. It riate of zinc. It consists of nearly equal consisted of 92.6 zinc and 7.4 iron.—The weights of zinc and chlorine. Bro- ores of zinc are five in number; viz. blende mide and iodide of zinc may be formed red oride of zinc, electric calamine, cal by processes similar to those for preparing amine, and white vitriol.-1. Blende occurs the analogous compounds of other metals. crystallized in rhombic dodecahedrons, Sulphuret of zinc may be formed by octahedrons, and in numerous interneheating to redness a mixture of oxide of diate forms. It cleaves with facility parzinc and sulphur. This substance, as allel to the faces of the rhombic dodeca. found in nature, will be described in the hedron, which is the primary form of its sequel, under the head of the ores of zinc. crystals ; lustre adamantine'; color redThe salts of zinc possess the following dish-brown, black, yellow and green ; general properties : They generally yield streak white to reddish-brown; hardness colorless solutions with water ; ferro- equal to that of apatite; specific gravity prussiate of potash, sulphureted hydro- 4.5 to 4.8. It occurs massive also, as gen and alkalies, occasion white precipi- well as in crystals; structure curved, lameltates ; infusion of galls produces no pre- lar, columnar, granular and impalpable. cipitate.-Sulphate of zinc. Dilute sul- Composition, according to the analysis of phuric acid dissolves zinc, and the salt doctor Thomson :may be obtained in fine prismatic four

Zinc, sided crystals. It is commonly called white vitriol. It may be formed also by


23.16 dissolving the white oxide of zinc in sul


8.08 phuric acid. But it is more extensively Blende occurs in primitive and secondary manufactured from the native sulphuret rocks, and is found associated with galena in the following manner : The ore is and copper pyrites. It abounds in Enge roasted, wetted with water, and exposed land, Scotland, Saxony, Carinthia, and to the air. The sulphur attracts oxygen, other European countries. In the U. and is converted into sulphuric acid ; and States, it is found at the Southampton lead the metal, at the same time being oxi- mine, and at several places in the neighdated, combines with the acid. After borhood. Localities of it are also known some time, the sulphate is extracted by so- throughout the secondary limestones of lution in water; and by evaporating the the Western States. It is the ore which solution to dryness, the mass is run into affords the zinc of commerce. Specimoulds. The taste of this salt is ex- mens from some localities are phosphores. tremely styptic. It reddens vegetable cent, with a yellow light simply on frieblues, though in composition it is strictly tion. This is the case at Schlackenwald, a neutral salt. Dilute nitric acid com- Bohemia, in the Hartz, and in Perthshire. bines rapidly with zinc, and produces The splendent fibrous variety from Przimuch heat, at the same time that a large bram contains a small proportion of the quantity of nitrous acid gas is evolved. rare metal cadmium. This metal has likeThe solution is very caustic, and affords wise been detected in the radiated blende crystals by evaporation of nitrate of zinc. of Freyberg and Derbyshire.-2. Rd Muriatic acid acts very strongly upon oride of zinc. This interesting ore poszinc, and disengages much hydrogen. sesses only a lamellar structure, never Phosphoric acid also dissolves this metal. having been met with in perfect crystals

. The phosphate does not crystallize, but It yields to cleavage, parallel to all the becoines gelatinous, and may be fused by faces of a regular six-sided prism. Its a strong heat. Fluoric, boracic, carbonic, color is ruby or blood-red. It is transacetic and oxalic acids, each forms com- lucent, with a shining lustre. By long pounds with the oxide of zinc. Zinc exposure to the weather, it suffers de may be combined with phosphorus by composition at the surface. It is easily projecting small pieces of phosphorus on scratched by the knife; specific gravity melted zinc. The compound is white, 6.2. It consists of oxide of zinc 88 and with a shade of bluish-gray. Zinc forms red oxide of manganese 12. It is infus. a brittle alloy with antimony. An alloy ble before the blow-pipe, excepting wben of zinc and iron has been observed in a mixed with sub-carbonate of soda, in zinc manufactory at Bristol. It lined the which case, it melts into a transparent tube leading from the retort. It was yellow bead. Its only localities are

Franklin and Stirling, New Jersey, It has a nauseous and metallic taste. It where it occurs along with ores of iron consists of and manganese.-3. Electric calamine.

Oxide of zinc,

27.5 This ore occurs crystallized, stalactitic,

22.0 mamillary, and compact. The crystal

Sulphuric acid,
Oxide of manganese,

0.5 line forms are numerous; the primary


50.0 form is that of a right rhombic prism of 102° 30 and 77° 30. The crystals are Before the blow-pipe, it is fusible with not often solitary, but mostly disposed in ebullition, giving off large quantities of radiating groups. It varies from trans- sulphureous acid, and leaving a gray scoparent to translucent or opaque. Its ria. It dissolves in boiling water. It ochardness is above that of apatite ; specific curs principally with blende, from whose gravity 3.4. Its colors are grayish, bluish decomposition it is supposed to arise. Its and yellowish-white, or possessed of localities are the Hartz, Austria, Sweden some tinge of green; and occasionally it and England. presents a brownish or blackish color.

ZINGARELLI, Nicolo, a celebrated comIt consists of

poser, the last scion of the genuine NeaOxide of zinc, .

68.3 Politan school, chapel-master at St. Peter's Silex, .


in Rome, was born at Naples, in 1752. In Water,


the seventh year of his age, he lost his

father, and was placed at the conservatory When gently heated, it is strongly elec- in Loretto, for the purpose of studying tric: some varieties become so by fric- music under Fenaroli. Cimarosa and Gition. Before the blow-pipe, it is infusible, ordanello were his school-fellows here. but loses twelve per cent. by ignition. To obtain a more complete knowledge of Coatings of it have been noticed upon the theory of the art, he also studied unthe throat of the iron furnace at Salisbu- der the abbate Speranza, and, on leaving ry in Connecticut. Its native localities the conservatory, received the place of are in primitive and secondary rocks. It master of the chapel at Torre dell' Anis found at Retzbania in Hungary, at nunziata. In 1781, he composed for the Bleiberg in Carinthia, and at Freyberg theatre San Carlos, in Naples, his opera in the Brisgau. In Scotland, it is found Montezuma, and, in 1785, brought forward in the lead mines of Wantockhead. It his Alzinda, in the theatre Della Scala in also occurs in Wales and England. - Milan, with great success. In this work, 4. Calamine. This valuable ore is found he adopted a more simple and easy style. crystallized, pseudimorphous and mas- His best operas are Pirro ; Ariaserse ; sive. The crystals are obtuse or acute Romeo e Giulietta. In 1789, he brought rhomboids, or long quadrilateral tables : out his Antigone, from Marmontel, in cleavage is parallel to all the planes of Paris; but the public events, then occuran obtuse rhomboid of 106° 30'; lustre ring, absorbed the attention of the public, between vitreous and resinous. It is and he soon returned to Italy, where, in more or less transparent, commonly of a ' 1806, he became director of the Vatican grayish or yellowish-white color, with chapel. In 1812, he was appointed chapsome shade of green or brown ; hard- el-inaster in St. Peter's, and, soon after, ness equal to apatite; specific gravity director of the new conservatory in Na4.1 to 4.4. It is composed of oxide of ples. Zingarelli has composed much zinc 65.2 and carbonic acid 34.8. Before church music; and his works are highly the blow-pipe, it is infusible, but loses esteemed for their expression. about thirty-four per cent. by ignition. It Zingis, Gengis, or Jenghis Khan. dissolves with effervescence in muriatic (See Gengis Khan.) acid. It is very abundant in England, in ZINZENDORF, Nicholas Louis, count Siberia, and in several countries of Eu- von, the restorer of the Moravians, or rope. Localities of it exist in the U. founder of the society of United Brethren States, in Missouri. It is an ore which is (see Bohemian Brethren, and United Brethhighly prized, on account of the facility ren), was born May 26, 1700, at Dresden, with which brass may be manufactured in Saxony, where his father was one of from it.-5. White vitriol occurs massive, the elector's ministers of state, and much stalactitic, botryoidal, reniform and in- esteemed. He died early, and the son vesting. The structure of the massive is was educated by his grandmother, Mad. fibrous and radiated. It is shining, soft, von Gersdorf, a pious and learned lady, brittle and translucent; specific gravity 2. who published a collection of hymns and

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