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superstitions they had countenanced, and in the Eucharist, they would conduct aimed to restore the church to the sim- towards each in the spirit of Christian plicity of primitive times. His views charity. In 1531, an open war broke out
. were on some points peculiar, particularly between Zürich on the one side, and the in regard to the real presence, and on Catholic cantons of Lucerne, Schweitz, some less important matters relative to the Uri, Underwalden and Zug on the other ; liturgy. In order to remove this wall of and Zwingli was commanded to take the partition from between the two parties field, bearing the banner of the canton, which adopted the new doctrines, a meet- which it had been usual for an ecclesias ing between the Saxon and Swiss re- tic to support. A battle ensued on the formers was held at Marburg (Oct. 1-3, 5th of October, and Zwingli called upon 1529), at the suggestion of Philip the his countrymen “to trust in God." But Magnanimous, landgrave of Hesse. The the enemy were more than twice a former were represented by Luther and strong as the Zurichers, and under beter Melanchthon, the latter by Zwingli and officers: the latter were therefore deteaiEcolampadius. The conference was ed, and Zwingli was among the slain. conducted with moderation, and the The Reformed church (q. v.) afterwards otherwise violent Luther treated Zwingli received from the hands of Calvin (4. v.) with a brotherly kindness. Although a its present organization. See Hess, Fie complete union was not effected, yet a de Zwingli (Paris, 1810), and Rotermund, convention was agreed upon, the thirteen Life of Zwingli (in German, Bremen, first articles of which, containing the most 1818). An edition of his works appeared important matters of religious faith, were at Zürich in 1819 seq., 4 vols. ; and a recognised by both parties; and the four- more complete one has been published at teenth declared that, though they could the same place more recently (1828 sep. not agree as to the real presence of Christ
CONTAINING, BESIDES THE ARTICLES REFERRED TO IT FROM THE PRECEDING PART OF THE VOLUME, A NUMBER OF SUPPLEMENTARY ARTICLES, AND NUMEROUS REFERENCES TO ARTICLES
CONTAINED IN THE BODY OF THE WORK.
ABERNETHY, John, an eminent English tying the iliac artery for aneurism, consurgeon, was born about 1765; but wheth- taining, as it did, striking examples and er in Ireland or in Scotland he was him- lucid descriptions of that bold experiment, self ignorant. It appears, however, that attracted especial notice and admiration. he received his elementary education in As a lecturer on surgery, anatomy and England, and commenced his profession- Pathology, Abernethy held the first rank al studies (1780) at St. Bartholomew's in London. In his mode of teaching, he hospital, in London, under the direction was not very minute on anatomy, which of sir Charles Blick, one of the surgeons he thought could only be learned in the of that institution. Young Abernethy was dissecting room; but the energy of his at this time more remarked for the oddi- manner, and the allusions he was accusties of his conversation and manners than tomed to introduce, gave a great interest for any indications of superior genius, and to what he delivered, and attracted the passed, among his fellow students, by the attention of his pupils. He was particuname of the ostler, on account of his at- larly earnest in urging upon them that tending the lectures in the dress of a the education of a surgeon is never comgroom. Having become the pupil of the plete, and that his whole life should be a celebrated John Hunter (q. v.), Abernethy course of study. He also opposed the was appointed, through his influence, as- division of surgery into distinct departsistant-surgeon to Bartholomew's hospital, ments, as that of the oculist, of the aurist, and, not long after, became lecturer on &c., considering the whole as essentially anatomy and surgery in that establish- connected, and that no mau, properly ment. He continued assistant-surgeon of educated, can be ignorant of the diseases the hospital for nearly forty years, until which those divisions embrace. His the death of sir Charles Blick, when treatment of his patients was marked by he was elected senior surgeon. in 1793, many eccentricities, which often took the he first appeared as an author, by the character of harshness and rudeness, alpublication of his Surgical and Physiologi- though some anecdotes are related of his cal Essays (3d part, 1797), which was benevolence and kindness towards those followed by Surgical Observations (part in destitute circumstances. His death Ist, 1804, 24, 1806). New editions of the took place in 1830. Besides the works latter appeared in 2 vols., 8vo., 1809–11, already mentioned, Abernethy published with additions. These publications, par- an Inquiry into Hunter's Theory of Life ticularly bis Observations on Local Dis- (1814); the Introductory Lecture for 1815, eases and Indigestion, and on Tumors exbibiting some of Mr. Hunter's Opinions and Lumbar Abscess, established his rep- respecting Diseases; Physiological Lecutation not only at home but in foreign tures (1817), &c. countries. His account of cases of his ABHORRERS. (See Jeffreys, George.)
ABRANTES. (See Junot.)
other substances with which they are misABYSSINIAN ERA. (See Epoch.) ed, and which have been called alkaloids, ACADEMY FIGURES. (See Drawing.) because they resemble the proper alkalies ACTYNOLITE. (See Hornblende.) in their mode of acting on vegetable colAdams, John. (See Pitcairn Island.) ors, and in their power to neutralize acids, ADJOURNMENT. (See Prorogation.). and to form with them salts. Besides Æneas Sylvius. (See Piccolomini.) these characteristics, which are essential
AGRICULTURAL System, in political to constitute them alkaloids, most of economy. (See Physiocratic System.) them have also the following properties:
Aguado; a Portuguese Jew, known in they contain azote, have a white color in consequence of the Spanish stocks which their pure state, a bitter taste, a power of bear his name, his rapid success and great crystallizing, an ability to evaporate unfortune. He first attracted notice after til dissolved, difficult solubility in water, the late campaign of the French in Spain easy solubility in alcohol, and precipitate (called in France promenade en Espagne), their solutions by an infusion of gall-nuts; às financial agent for the Spanish govern- get some of them have not all these qualment in Paris. He has not, as far as is ities; for instance, the conüin, lately exknown, contracted now loans, but has tracted by Geiger from hemlock, is distinconverted the old Spanish vales into new guished by its volatility and easy solubility stocks, now known as Aguados. The in water. The alkaloids have become of liberals reproach him with having procur- great importance in medicine, enabling us ed credit for a government which does to use the effective principles of plars not acknowledge the obligations of the free from all foreign admixture, and in cortes. The apostolic party will hear accurately-measured doses, particularly nothing of credit, debts or interest: the the alkaloids of opium and Peruvian bark king, according to them, ought to live The following alkaloids have been estabupon the hounty of the priests; and the lished: Brucine, found in the false Angus European contractors have not much con- tura bark, nux vomica, and several other fidence in Aguado's paper, because they strychnos, cinchonin and quinine in Peru. say that its issue is unlimited, and that vian bark, coniin in hemlock, corydaline in even the interest on the same is discharg- the root of corydalis tuberosa, emetine in ed by means of new Aguados. Yet the the various species of ipecacuanha, morinterest, thus far, has been paid with great phia in opium, nicotine in tobacco, solaniepunctuality. The king of Spain has re- in the various species of solanum, strychwarded the services of Aguado by making nia (generally together with brucine) in him a marquis, and heaping honors upon the St. Ignatius bean, dux vomica, and him. Aguado has not been able to effect upas-tieute, veratrine in the seeds of tbe even a conditional acknowledgment of the cevadilla, and in most plants of the family loans of the cortes. He was the soul of colchiceæ. (See the separate articles the financial movements of the moderate The narcotic herbs henbane, thora-apple. royalists, at the head of whom was Bal- deadly nightshade, and some other herts lesteros. The pride of the Spanish gran- and barks, seem also to contain alkaloids dees, and other circumstances, induced The establishment of the class of alkalonis him to lay down his agency in 1830. He dates from 1816, when Sertürner first den is about fifty years old, and is considered clared morphia to be a substance allied to to be worth about twenty millions of the alkalies. More information will be francs. He resides in Paris, and is per- found in late chemical works, particularis sonally not popular.
Magendie's Directions for preparing ani Aids. (See Tenures.)
applying some new Kinds of Medicines Al; the Arabic article. (See El.) AllOCHROITE. (See Garnet.) ALBAN's, DUCHESS OF St. (See Coutts.) Alluvial Way. (See Ridge Road ALBEMARLE, DUKE OF. (See Monk.) ALTHORP, Viscount. (See Spencer. ALEWIFE. (See Herring.)
AMENTI. (See Hieroglyphics.) ALEXANDRA. (See Cassandra.)
AMERISCOGGIN. (See Androscoggin.) ALEXANDRIA, ERA OF. (See Epoch.) AMMONIURET OF COPPER. (See Cof
Aliment is accidentally placed after per.) AU-Souls.
AMPHIGENE. (See Leucite.) ALKALOID. Certain plants, of powerful AMURATH, or MURAD I, in biography operation as medicines or poisons, owe and history, sultan of the Turks, was the this quality to the possession of peculiar son of Orchan, and the brother of Sorringredients, which modern science has man, and succeeded his father, A.D. 130 succeeded in separating entirely from the In pursuing the conquest of the Greek empire, he subdued, without resistance, tributed his death to a Croat, who is said the whole province of Romania, or to have stabbed him in his tent; and this Thrace, froin the Hellespont to mount accident was alleged as an excuse for the Hæmus, and the verge of the capital, and unworthy precaution of pinioning, as it made choice of Adrianople for the royal were, between two attendants, an ambasseat of his government and religion in sador's arms, when he was introduced to Europe. He afterwards marched against the royal presence. Amurath died in the the Sclavonian nations, between the Dan- seventy-first year of his age, and thirtieth ube and the Adriatic, namely, the Bulga- of his reign, A. D. 1389. rians, Servians, Bosnians and Albanians ; AMURATH, or Murad II, succeeded his and having vanquished these hardy and father, Mahomet I, in 1422, at the age of warlike tribes, be converted them, by a eighteen years. His reign commenced prudent institution, into the firmest and with the capture and death of an imposmost faithful supporters of the Ottoman tor, who pretended to be Mustapha, the greatness. Being reminded by his vizier son of Bajazet, and who was supported that, according to the Mohammedan law, by the Greek emperor. He then invested he was entitled to a fifth part of the spoil Constantinople; but his attention was diand captives, and that the duty might be verted by the rebellion of Mustapha, his easily levied, by stationing vigilant officers younger brother, who was imprisoned at Gallipoli to watch the passage, he se- and strangled in his presence. In 1424, lected for his use the stoutest and most be restored the discipline of the janizaries, beautiful of the Christian youth, and edu- and reformed the abuses of the spahis; cated many thousands of the European and, in 1426, he laid waste the isle of captives in religion and arms. This new Zante, belonging to the Venetians. In militia was consecrated and named by a the next year, he invaded and subdued celebrated dervise, whe, standing in the the Morea, and obliged the Grecian emfront of their ranks, stretched the sleeve peror to pay him tribute; and, having of his gown over the head of the fore- taken Thessalonica, or Saloniki, he commost soldier, and pronounced his blessing pelled the Venetians to make peace. In in these words: “Let them be called jan- 1434, be suppressed the rebellion of Kaizaries (yenghi cheri, or new soldiers). raman-Ogli; and, when a war broke out May their countenance be ever bright; between the Ottoman empire and the their hand victorious; their sword keen. king of Hungary, in which the famous May their spear always hang over the Hungarian general John Hunniades gained heads of their enemies; and, wheresoever several victories, Amurath crossed the they go, may they return with a white Danube, and laid siege to Belgrade; but face.” Such was the origin of the jani- Hunniades obliged him to raise it. He zaries. By the assistance of these troops, also invaded and subdued Servia, which Amurath extended his conquests in Eu- was restored in the peace between Hunrope and Asia ; and be succored the em- gary and Poland; and, on this occasion, peror John Palæologus against the Bulga- it was stipulated that neither party should rians. When a rebellion was concerted cross the Danube in a hostile manner into by the eldest sons of these two sovereigns the dominions of the other. In 1443, at against their fathers, Amurath punished the age of forty years, perceiving the vanhis own son by depriving him of his ity of human greatness, he resigned the sight, and insisted on the same penalty empire to his son Mahomet, and retired being inflicted on the son of the emperor. to Magnesia, where he joined the society After a prolonged course of success, Am- of dervises and hermits, and adopted urath was opposed by a formidable league all their austerities and fanatic rites. of the Walachians, Hungarians, Dalma- From this dream of enthusiasm he was tians, Triballians and Arnaouts, under the soon roused by the Hungarian invasion ; command of Lazarus, prince of Servia. and Amurath, urged by the earnest enIn the battle of Cossova, Lazarus was treaty of his son, and the wishes of the defeated and taken prisoner; and the people, consented to take the command of league and independence of the Sclavoni- the army. Advancing, by hasty marches an tribes was finally crushed. But, as the from Adrianople, at the head of 60,000 victor walked over the field, viewing the men, he met the Christians at Varna. slain, and triumphing in his success, a The Turks were victorious, and 10,000 Servian soldier started from the crowd Christians were slain. This battle hapof dead bodies, and pierced Amurath, at pened on the 10th of November, A. D. the moment of his exultation, in the belly, 1444, and was followed by the retirement with a mortal wound. Others have at- of Amurath a second time to the stillness and devotion of private life. In 1446, he placed horizontally by the side of each was again called forth to public service other, the pipes of both being inserted ib. by an insurrection of the janizaries, who to the same tue-iron, and directed to blow filled Adrianople with rapine and slaugh- to the same focus, in the centre of the fire. ter. Having quelled this tumult, he turn. These bellows are exactly like those in ed his arms against the famous Scander- use for domestic purposes, which only beg, prince of Epirus, who had revolted, throw out air when the upper board is and followed him to Albania, at the head pressed down. The two are worked alof 60,000 horse and 40,000 janizaries. ternately by means of levers and weights The conquests of the sultan were confin- The parts of the anchor are all made sep ed to the petty fortress of Sfetigrade; and arately, and afterwards united together. he retired with shame and loss from the The first step, in making the parts, is to walls of Croya, the castle and residence assemble or fagot the bars. For the of the Castriots. Amurath, by the alter- centre of the mass, which is to make the native of death or the Koran, converted shank, four large bars are first laid togethall the Epirots to his own faith. The er; then upon the flat sides of the square Hungarians renewed their invasion of the so formed, smaller bars are arranged to territories near the Danube; and Amu- make it up to a circle. The number is rath fell in with them near Cossova, the various; but, in large anchors, six or place where Amurath I had been victori- eight bars are laid on every side: this cirous. The result of many partial but cle is surrounded by a number of bars arbloody actions was the rout of the Chris- ranged like the staves of a cask: as many tian forces, and the capture and imprison- as thirty-six are often used, and form a ment of Hunniades, the supreme captain complete case for the others. The ends and governor of Hungary, in his retreat. are made up by short bars to a square Amurath returned to Adrianople. On figure: the fagot is finished by driving his arrival, he was seized with a disorder iron hoops upon it at sufficient distances; in his head, which terminated his life in and it is suspended from the crade in the forty-seventh year of his age, and the such a manner that it can be moved and twenty-ninth of his reign. According to turned in any direction by only one or Cantemir, the historian of the Ottoman two men, even when it weighs three tons. empire, be lived forty-nine, and reign- The fire is made up hollow, like an oven ed thirty years, six months and eight To effect this form, the fireman fire days.
spreads the coals evenly upon the hearth. ANACONDA. This species of serpent is and, with his shovel or slice, makes a tiar described under the head Boa.
surface about the level of the tue-hole: ANAGLYPHS. (See Hieroglyphics.) he then arranges some large einders or Anatase. (See Titanium.).
cakes round in a circle upon this surface. Anchor MAKING. Referring to the and by other cinders builds it up like a body of the work for a short history and oven or dome, leaving a mouth to introdescription of this important instrument, duce the iron. The oven is adapted in in its common form, we shall here give an size to the magnitude of the mass of iron, account of the method hitherto commonly and must be brought forwards upon the practised of making anchors. Some im- hearth, to leave a space between its interprovements on the process here described, or cavity and the orifice of the tue-ima, have been lately introduced in the royal in which space a passage is made from dock-yards of England. Anchors are made the tue-hole to the fire, and filled up with by welding small bars of iron into solid large lighted coals, and then covered up masses. This mode is preferable to mak- by small coals. The blast from the bel. ing a single bar, of sufficient size, by the lows passes through these hot coals in forge hammer, in the original preparation order that the cold air may not enter the of the iron, because the compounded bar fire at once, and blow on the iron, but be is not liable to internal flaws, at least first converted into flame, which is urged not transversely; for the bars are all forcibly into the oven, and is reverberated examined before uniting them: if, there- from the roof and sides upon the iron placed fore, after the welding, any cracks are in the centre. As the floor of the oven is left between the bars, they must be in nearly upon a level with the tue-hole, the the length of the anchor, and will not de- flame from the coals between it and the duct so materially from the strength of fire also plays upon the bottom, and thus the whole. The bellows are not like heats the iron on all sides. The outside those which ordinary smiths make use of; of the dome is covered over with a conbut two large pair of single bellows are siderable thickness of small coals, which