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poses that the atoms of bodies are spheri- altercations which took place during lord cal, and has invented certain symbols to Amherst's embassy, it was stated, on the represent the mode in which he conceives part of the emperor, that sir George they may combine together. (See his Staunton hảd built himself a house and Nero System of Chemical Philosophy.)- an aviary. That they were in use in There are several questions relative to England in Evelyn's time, is evident from the nature of atoms, most of which will, a memorandum entered in his diary, that perhaps, never be decided. Of this na- the marquis of Argyle took the parrots in ture are the questions which relate to the bis aviary at Sayes' court for owls.—The actual form, size and weight of atoms, canary, or singing-bird aviary, used not and to the circumstances which they unfrequently to be formed in the opaquemutually differ. All that we know with roofed green-house or conservatory, by any certainty is, that their weights do enclosing one or both ends with a partidifter, and by exact analysis the ratios be- tion of wire, and furnishing them with tween them may be determined. The dead or living trees, or spray and branches numbers which indicate the combining suspended from the roof for the birds to proportions of bodies, are, in fact, the rel- perch on. Such are chiefly used for the ative weights of their atoms.
canary, bullfinch, linnet, &c.—The parrot Auk. (See Pinguin.)
aviary is generally a building formed on Austen, Jane, a gifted novelist, was purpose, with a glass roof, front and ends ; born Dec. 16, 1775, at Steventon, in the with shades and curtains to protect it county of Hants, of which parish her from the sun and frost, and a flue for father was rector. Upon his death, his winter heating; In these, artificial or widow and two daughters retired to dead trees, with glazed foliage, are fixed Southampton, and ultimately, in 1807, to in the floor, and sometimes cages hung Chawton. During her residence in the on them; and at other times the birds alJast-mentioned place, Miss Austen com- lowed to fly loose.—The verdant aviary is posed the novels, which, for ease, nature, that in which, in addition to houses for and a complete knowledge of the features the different sorts of birds, a net or wire which distinguish the domestic life of curtain is thrown over the tops of trees, the English country gentry, are very and supported by light posts or hollow highly esteemed. The principal of these rods, so as to enclose a few poles or even productions are Sense and Sensibility; acres of ground, and water in various Pride and Prejudice; Mansfield Park; forms. In this the birds in fine weather and Emma. Two more were published sing on the trees, the aquatic birds sail on after her death, entitled Northanger Ab- the water, or the gold-pheasants stroll bey, and Persuasion, which were, how- over the lawn; and in severe seasons they ever, her most early attempts. The ob- betake themselves to their respective ject of Miss Austen, in all her works, was houses or cages. Such an enclosed space to advocate the superiority of sound prin- will of course contain evergreen as well ciple, unsophisticated manners, and unde- as deciduous trees, rocks, reeds, aquatics, signing, rectitude, to showy and artificial long grass for larks and partridges, spruce pretensions. Her discrimination was acute, firs for pheasants, furze-bushes for linnets, her humor easy and spontaneous, and her &c. An aviary, somewhat in this way, power of creating an interest in her char- was formed by Catharine of Russia, in acters by slight and reiterated touches, the Hermitage palace. These are the extraordinary. This amiable and accom- only sorts admissible in elegant gardens; plished lady, whose personal and mental since nothing, to one who is not an enthuattractions were of a high order, died of a sjast in this branch of natural history, can decline, on the 18th of July, 1817, in her be more disagreeable than an apartment forty-second year.
filled with the dirt and discordant music Aviary. The aviary was common to of innumerable birds ; such, for example, the country-houses of the Romans, but as the large aviary at Kew. Birds from used principally, as it would appear from the hot climates are sometimes kept in Pliny, for birds destined to be eaten. hot-houses among their native plants, as Singing-birds, however, were kept by the in the large conservatories at Vienna. In Persians, Greeks, and also the Romans, this case, the doors and openings for givin wicker-cages; and these utensils, no ing air must be covered with wire cloth, doult, gave rise to the large and fixed and the number must not be great, othercage called an aviary; but in what coun- wise they will too much disfigure the try, and in what age, appears uncertain. plants with their excrement.-GallinaThey are highly prized in China. In the ceous aviary. At Chiswick, portable netted enclosures, from ten to twenty feet BALIZE. (See Honduras.) square, are distributed over a part of the Bamba. (See Cuenza.) lawn, and display a curious collection of Bannier, John. (See Baner.) domestic fowls. In each enclosure is a Bakante, Prosper Bruguiere de, a small wooden box or house for sheltering French politician and man of letters, » the animals during night, or in severe born at Riom, in Auvergne, in 1783, and weather, and for breeding. Each cage or descended from an old noble fanily. 10enclosure is contrived to contain one or der Napoleon, he was appointed auditor more trees or shrubs ; and water and food of the council of state. He was then set are supplied in small basins and appro- as sub-prefect to Bressuire ; some time priate vessels. Curious varieties of aquatic after, was made prefect of the Vendre, fowls might be placed on floating aviaries and, subsequently, of the still more imon a lake or pond.
portant department of the Loire. His Axle. (See Mechanics.)
brother was sub-prefect of Luxemburg, and his father had been prefect of the de partment of Leman. In 1809, Baranar married a Miss Houdelot, grandehuld of
Mad. d'Houdelot, celebrated in the C'est B.
fessions of Rousseau. When Louis XVIII
returned, after the hundred days, Barunte BABYROUSSA. (See Hog.)
came into special favor. He received the BADGE. (See Device.)
lucrative post of superintendent of the BAHOBAB Tree. (See Baobab.) indirect taxes, having been previously Baillion. (See Baliol.)
made counsellor of state. The deparBalas Ruby. (See Spinelle.)
inent of the Puy-de-Dome elected ha Balbi, Adrian, born in Venice, was deputy; and he supported the ministen appointed professor of natural pbilosophy of Louis. He retained his post until the and geography in his native city, and, downfall of Decazes (q. v.), but was sub about the year 1820, went to Portugal. sequently made peer. lle now and Here he became acquainted with the with the moderate party, and opposed most influential politicians and literary several measures under Charles X, w men, and collected, in the archives of the were contrary to the spirit of the charter, government and elsewhere, materials for His speeches contained many wise of his Essai statistique sur le Royaume de vations As soon as the house of (n Portugal et d’Algarve (Paris, 1822, 2 vols.). leans was raised to the throne, Barat This excellent work contains, among oth- was sent as minister to the count of Turit, er things, a chapter on Portugal in the where he was still in the spring of in time of the Romans. The political part He published, in 1809, a work on French of the work is the least complete; but literature in the eighteenth century, azal Balbi expressly says that there are partic- contributed to the Biographie (nierat! ular causes for this. In 1826 appeared some important articles, as Froissart, atat at Paris his Atlas Ethnographique, in one Bossuet. While prefect in the line folio volume, and an octavo volume, con- be became acquainted with the fans as taining illustrations. This useful work madame de la Rochejaquelein. He orto contains a great deal of new information ed her his assistance in the priyaratan obtained from men like A. von Humboldt, of the history of the war in the leader, Freycinei, Remusat, William von Hum- and to bim is ascribed the Vennoires & boldt, Champollion, Hase, Jomard, Kla- Madame de la Rocheja puelcin, a proth, Malte-Brun, Ritter and others. went through several editions. He as The chapter on the different inodes of contributed to Ladvocat's Theatre Erens writing among various nations is peculiar- and translated soine of the product us to ly interesting. Balbi has also published, in Schiller. He seems, likewise, to Paris, statistical tables on Russia, France, contributed to Broglie and Guex's Rim the Netherlands, &c. which he in- Francaise. In 1829, he published an es tends to use for a great work. He has say on the government of the commun written several excellent articles in the when this question was agitated urRerue Encyclopédique, the Revue des deur Martignac. This essay shows a very Monies, and the Rerue Britannique. He perfect knowledge of foreign laws and is now publishing a geographical manual, stitutions. From 1224 to 12 appeared and, after the publicntion is completed, will ten octavo volumes of his Histere era return to Italy, where a professorship of Ducs de Bourgogne. It comprises a po geography awaits him.
riod of little more than a hundred years
Little is said of Burgundy in particular, Namaqua, in the neighborhood of the the work being principally taken up with western coast, and made a second jourFrance and Flanders. It is not of much ney into the country of the Caffres. His value in point of historical research, fol- work-Account of Travels into the Intelowing only the French printed chronicles; rior of Southern Africa (London, 1801—4) but, in point of execution, it has great-gives a new view of Southern Africa merit. The style is simple and clear; and its inhabitants, and remains, together and the author does not add a single re- with those of Lichtenstein and Thompmark of his own. This way of writing son, the safest guide for travellers in that history, in which he took the old chroni- region. In 1804, he published his Obsercles for models, as he says in his preface,was vations on China, which excited so much something new in France, and has found interest in France that the son of the celimitators. In 1826, he was elected mem- ebrated orientalist De Guignes wrote a ber of the French academy in the room particular treatise on it-Observations sur of Desèze, and, in his eulogy on his pred- les Voyages de Barrou à la Chine. Two ecessor, attacked the revolution. He is years after, appeared his journey to Conow writing a history of the parliament chin-China, to which is added an account of Paris.
of travels to the residence of the chief of BARBERINI VASE. (See Portland Vase.) the Bushwanas, in 1801—2, the farthest BARK. (See Plant.)
point to which any European had peneBARBÉ-MArbois. (See Marbois.) trated in Africa from the south. MalteBarozzi. (See Baroccio.)
Brun translated the whole into French in BARROW, John, member of the royal 1807. In this year, Barrow published society of London, and secretary of the Memoirs of lord Macartney; but these admiralty, from his youth has been de- are considered to be much biased by voted to the study of geography, mathe- personal friendship. The most elaborate matics and astronomy. From 1786 to work which he has published is his His1791, he taught astronomy at Greenwich. torical Account of Voyages into the ArcWhen lord Macartney, in 1792, went on tic Regions (London, 1818). Having been, his famous embassy to China, he took for a number of years, under-secretary to Mr. Barrow with him as his private sec- the admiralty, he has been able to do retary, and sir George Staunton (9. v.) as great deal for the advancement of geogsecretary of legation. These gentlemen, raphy and natural history. No scientific as well as Macartney's other companions expedition, for about twenty years, has -Anderson, Holmes and Alexander- been undertaken from England for which each published, in a separate work, an he has not made the plan,
or selected the account of what he had seen. Barrow's persons, or prepared questions to deteris the most satisfactory. He describes, mine the points to which their activity minutely, Cochin-China, whither he had should be directed. Parry, Ross, Bucban, gone, while the other members of the em- Franklin, Richardson, &c., have benefitbassy remained with the Chinese courtin ed by his instructions. He is a member the Mantchoo country. Soon after his of most geographical societies, and bis return to Europe, he published, in 1794, correspondence extends over the globe. descriptions of various sorts of pocket- May 24, 1830, he proposed, in the Raapparatuses of mathematical instruments, leigh traveller's club, the foundation of a for which he had already collected mate- geographical society, such as had already rials during his residence in Oxford been formed by Malte-Brun, Eyriès, and Greenwich. The fame of Mungo &c., in Paris, and by Ritter and BergPark (q. v.) excited in him a desire to haus, in Berlin. July 16, the society travel in Africa ; and he wished to pene- was instituted ; and Barrow, its vice-presitrate into the interior of this continent dent, is the soul of it. from the south. He travelled through Barth, Jean. (See Baert.) the desert of Karroo, and through the BARTHÉLEMY AND MÉRY; 'two French mountain chains of Zwartberg and Nieu- poets, who have coöperated in their proweldt, and at last arrived at the village of ductions, like Beaumont and Fletcher. Graaf-Reynet, where he joined a mission Both were born towards the end of the to some Čaffre chiefs. He penetrated to last century, at Marseilles. Their educathe Sneuwberg, and made himself ac- tion was almost monastic. The authors quainted with the Hottentots, Caffres, of Rome à Paris learned Greek and Latand the wild Bushmen. Having returned in in the school of the fathers of the orato Cape Town, he went, without any com- tory (pères de l'oratoire). In their fifteenth panion or servant, into the territory of year, when they left' this school, they could read Homer and Virgil; but Racine Tremblans, privés d'appui, bannis, persécutes, and Voltaire were unknown to them. Genés par la censure ou par nos libertes, They studied with zeal to supply the de- Nous trouvons à la fin pour unique refuge
Un arrét pour salaire et pour critique un juge ficiencies in their education. In 1823, shortly before the campaign in Spain, But neither his harmonious verses, ner they went to the capital. The political Merilhou's eloquent defence, could save struggle had ended favorably for the ul- the poet: he was sentenced to three tras; and the vanquished revenged them- months' imprisonment, and to pay a fine selves by speeches in the chambers, and of 1000 francs. In the next year, he and sarcastic attacks in the journals. The poet- Méry published, together, another satire, ical twins caught the spirit of the time, Waterloo au Général Bourmont, and Barand their satire, though more sportive than thélemy alone produced a less spirited bitter, assailed individuals by name. The Satyre Politique. Both took an active Sidiennes, Épitres-Satyres sur le dir-neuvi- part in the revolution of 1830. L'Insurème Siècle (1825), addressed to Sidi Mo- rection, a triumphal song, was finished hammed, ambassador of the bey of Tu- within a few days after. Barthélemy renis, who was present at the coronation of ceived a pension from the new goveroCharles X, were not received with undi- ment, which, however, he soon gave up, vided applause. They long sought in as subjecting him to unpleasant restraint. vain for a publisher; and for their next His latest poems are Douze Journées de la satire, La l'illéliade, they were 'offered Révolution, which have appeared in pomonly 100 francs. They therefore printed bers, since March, 1832. The Twelve it at their own expense, and sold sixteen Days begin with June 20, 1789 (the oath editions, amounting to 50,000 copies in the tennis court at Versailles), and end From 1825 to 182, appeared Les Jé- with the 18th of Brumaire. The poem suites ; Rome à Paris ; La Peyronnéide ; on the 10th of August, 1792, is entitled La Corbiéreide ; Le Congrès des Minis- Le Peuple-Roi. The periodical Nemesis
, tres ; l'ne Soirée chez Peyronnet; and La which was received with much approbe Censure. Four days before the dissolu- tion, came to an end on April 1, 182; tion of Villèle's cabinet, the Adieux aur and Barthélemy returned to Marseilles Ministres appeared. Under Martignac The Nemesis was written in verse, genthe satirists found little matter for their erally of a satirical character, and treated lash. With Vapoléon en Egypte (1828), of the persons and events of the time they entered a new field, and gave to Méry is now a librarian in Marseilles. He French literature the most successful assisted his friend in editing the Nemesis poem in the historical style which it yet Mery has written two novels-Le Bonnd possesses. While Méry made a journey Vert (which reminds the reader of Victor to Greece, Barthélemy went to Vienna to Hugo's Dernier Jours d'un Condamné), and offer this poem to the duke of Reichstadt, L'Assassinat (Paris, 1832) a dramatic par but could not succeed in getting access to ture of the royalist reaction in the south the young duke. After his return, he de- of France, in 1815. A complete collecscribed the history of this unsuccessful tion of the works of both has lately bees attempt, and the feelings which agitated published in Paris, under the title of his soul when he saw the prince in the Curres de Barthélemy et Mery, with an theatre, in his poem La Fils de l'Homme, ou introduction by Rey baud. The portrauts Sourenirs de l'ienne. The police imme. in this edition are m serable. diately laid bands on it; bur an edition, BASAR. (See Bazar.) published in Brussels, which supplied some passages omitted in the edition of Bata, Earl of. (See Pulteney, Paris, got into circulation before the legal liam.) prosecution of the poet and the printer BATH METAL (See Copper.) began. On the trial, Barthelemy read a BAT. (See Laurel.) detence in verse, in which, preciseli a BAISHAN, William, surgeon, son of year before the decisive days of July, 1830, doctor John Baynham, of Caroline cour he says with bitter sarcasm, thai four- ty, Virginia was born in December, 174% teen years of tranquillity bad given stabil. To complete bis education, he went to ity to the monarchy, and that nothing was London, in 1709, where he entered as to be feard at a time when the nation a student at St. Thomas's hospital was tranquillized, and the king without Here he devoted himself particularly to suspicion.
the study of anatomy and surgery, and Qies teus se choos! Ces practiques, soon acquired great proficiency in boch ikia länderrier des intes publiques, these departments. In 1772, he was eem
ployed, by the professor of anatomy at formation will be given under the heads Cambridge, to dissect and prepare the sub- Netherlands, Leopold, King of Belgium, jects for his lectures, and continued to as- and London Conferences. It is one sist bim in this manner for several winters, of the striking events of an age of a practising, during the remaining part of most peculiar character, that while an the year, very profitably, at Margate. He oppressed people on the Vistula, which, arterwards returned to London, and be- froin the beginning of modern Eurocame assistant demonstrator to Mr. Else, pean history, had formed a distinct naprofessor of anatomy in St. Thomas's tion, was suffered to be ground to the hospital. June 7, 1781, Mr. Baynham dust in its struggle to regain the inwas made a member of the company of dependence which force and fraud had surgeons of London (which is to the sur wrung from it—it is strange, we say, that, geon what the degree of doctor of physic while such a people was sinking, unaidis to the physician), and commenced the ed, like a hero covered with wounds, yet practice of surgery in that city, in which sword in hand, against the universal feelhe continued for several years. Having ing and interest of Europe, and against resided sixteen years in England, he re- the principles of humanity and justice, turned to his native country, and settled - at this very time, a population on the in Essex, where he acquired extensive Meuse and Scheldt, which had no pecureputation, and was often sent for to the liar history or language, which never large towns, and sometimes even into formed a distinct nation, and had nothing other states. There is scarcely any diffi, in its natural situation to give it such a cult operation in surgery which he did character, which had been prospering not perform, and with almost invariable under a constitutional government and a success. As a surgeon, Mr. Baynham conscientious king, has been raised to the had probably no superior; as an anatomist, rank of an independent state ; and, in the he certainly was unsurpassed. He like face of the fundamental treaties of the wise obtained great eminence as a physi- European powers, from the fear of a gencian. Whilst in Britain, he was, unques- eral war, Belgium, a district originally tionably the best practical anatomist there, belonging to Germany, then united with being unrivalled in the dissecting-room. the rest of the Netherlands and with BurHe continued practising in Essex county gundy, afterwards separated from them until his death, which occurred on the and belonging to Spain, then to France, 8th of December, 1814, in the sixty-sixth Austria and Holland, at length, for a year of his age.
few years, to France alone, and, at last, to BEAR and Bull. (See the article Stock- Holland alone, after having invariably Exchange.)
been the prey of foreign arms, and acBeech DROP. (See Cancer Root.) quired, through French conquests, the BEHEMOTH. (See Hippopotamus.) German province of Liege (q. v.), has, at
Belgium, SINCE 1830. When we re- length, become, in consequence of a revferred from the article Netherlands to the olution, and by means of sixty and more article Belgium, in the Appendix to the protocols of the plenipotentiaries of the concluding volume, we hoped to be able five great powers of Europe, a separate to give an account of the settlement of state ; and the Letto-Germanic, Wallonic, the dispute between Holland and this Flemish, German, Dutch and French new kingdom ; but the difficulties be- population, which is as heterogeneous as tween the two powers are not yet adjust- its dialects, its laws, and its successive ed. As the Belgic revolution, however, rulers, has received a separate constituis an event of great interest, and by many tion, a German king, and the guarantee but imperfectly understood, we shall now of French protection. It is promised give an account of it down to the latest perpetual peace or neutrality, while war information received. The statements, hangs over it like the suspended sword of as far as to March, 1832, are taken from Damocles. This independence-if such the article Belgium, in the new supple- it may be called—is burthened with an old ment to the German Conversations-Leri- and new public debt, and a deficit in the kon (Conversations Lexicon of the latest very cradle of its national existence, and Events and Literature, Leipsic, 1832); has been acquired at the expense of the and the degree of confidence which they mart of its industry, and its channels of deserve must depend on the degree of export. This state of things is the result fidelity with which that article is drawn up. of powerful causes, at work in other If, at some future period, a supplement to parts of Europe, aided by the total differthis work should be published, more in- ence of the Dutch and the Belgians, and