Imatges de pàgina
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manual labor, requiring very little skill; Phosphoric acid,

41.73 nor, if we could determine this propor- Fluoric acid,

6.50 tion, would it be practicable to establish Magnesia,

thub it. The law has interposed, in many in- Oxide of iron, .

5.00 suances, in diferent countries, to regulate Oxide of manganese, . the price of labor and commodities; but it is now universally admitted that any such It is found in veins of quartz, embraced interpositions are most usually ineffectual, in clay-slate, and occurs near Werten, in and always prejudicial. Bui though pos- Salzburg. itive regulations, in this respect, will nev- Wagons most probably originated from er remedy the evils of an unjust distribu- rude vehicles dragged on cylindrical logx, tion, yet a community may be so consti- which must soon have suggested the idea tuted, and so situaleil, thai the spontane- of the axis and solid wheel, even now ous operation of internal causes will effect used in Portugal by the peasants. Aca nearly just apportionment of the rewards cording to Moses, Egypt was the country ot' skill and industry among the various where wagons were tirst used. The Chic classes of the industrious. To ascertain Dese call the inventor Iliege-Yuepe. The what circumstances will have this ope- Greeks attributed the invention to Erichration, we must inquire what clans tirst suf- thonius, fourth king of Athens, and say fers from an inequality; and we find it to that he used them in consequence of be those who depend wholly on their labor laineness. Wagons with two wheels may for subsistence. This is the part of the pop- have been the first constructed; but lo ulation where misery begins; and thence mer mentions four-wheeled wagons, the il spreads and accumulates until it is felt invention of which was ascribed to the by the whole; for every part of the pop- Phrygians. Whoever first conceived the ulation will inevitably sympathize, more or idea of an axis was a inost ingenious less, with every other. It is utterly impos- man; and he who applied it to wheeband sible for aty class so to separate itself from wagons has become one of the greatest the rest as not to be atlected, directly or in- benefactors of mankind. Much ume directly, by theirenjoyments and sufferings. elapsed before wagons were used for llow, iben, can the wages of mere labor, pleasure carriages. The sedan chair asa requiring very little skill, be sustained at a horseback were long preferred. In war, Just rate, so that the laborer shall have his use was sooner made of the wagon. My fur proportion of the annual products ? ses mentions the war-chariots of Pharaoh.

This can be done only by ditfusing and Theseus is said to have introduced charms maintaining good habits, industry and in- among the Greeks. The horses were covertelligence among the poor class. It shoulded with iron seales. At the end of the parle be the policy of every society to make all lances were fastened, and at the side and the intluences moral, political, economical below were scythes. These chariots were and social, bear, with the greatest possi- driven into the ranks of the enemy. The ble enerzy, upon this point. It is not Greeks, besides, used two-wheeled char. practicable to sustain this class by exter- jots, each containing two penons, one of nal brips: when they have once become whom drove while the other threw degraded, it is scarcely posible to reno- sprans. The chariols were open brhunti, rate and restore them. The true doc. and had low wheel The Romans un Irine is that of presention.

them carly. In the twelve tables 14. 1.) WAGNER, Ernest; a German poet, born the arcera is mentioned. The Romans in 170w, and died in 1812. His poem, gave different names to the wagons, arcalled Wihlald's views of Life, is cele- cording to the purpose to which they pratrd. He complete works were pub- were applied, as carpentum, a two-w becslished in inn et seq., at Leipsie. ed vehicle, with a vaulted covering, unul

WAGNERITE; a mineral, found in com- particularly by the Roman ladies ; car. plicaud crystals, the primary form of rura, a kind of stair coach (q. 1.): cun. which is an oblique rhombic prism, um, essedum, &c. They had also inwhose lateral planes incline under an. umphal charints (currus triumphalus gles of 35 25 and 35. Lustre Wagons are drawn by men or basex, or Vitreous; color several shades of yellow, propelled by machinery. It is reported somrunns nearly omnge-yellow, otien in. that, at the panathenea, a galley was clining to gray ; strrah white; translu- moved through the city by intemal rru; hann* nearly that of fehlupar; wheel- work. From the time of Roger specific gravity 3.11. It consists of Bacon (in the thirteenth century) to our

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days, many trials of locomotive wagons rated, it is certain that the Austrian force have been made, of which the steam- was not half as great. From July 2, the wagon, lately brought to such perfection, French attempted, at several points on is the most important. The wind has the islands, to establish a secure commualso been frequently used to propel wag- nication with the opposite bank, without ons. Simon Stevin, of Bruges, invented being prevented by the fire of the Austria sailing wagon for twenty-eight persons, ans; and on July 4, Napoleon concenwhich, on even ground, is said to have trated the greatest part of his troops on travelled fourteen Dutch leagues in two the island of Lobau. At ten o'clock in hours! Mr. Slater, an Englishman, trav, the evening, the first troops, in small numelled in a sailing wagon from Alexan- bers, passed in boats over the Danube, and dria to Bassora.—Respecting the inven- established themselves on the left bank, tion of wagons, harnesses, &c., among the during a tremendous storm, and supportancients, see the work of Ginzrot (Mu- ed by a warm fire from all the batteries, nich, 1817, 2 vols.). Kites have also directed against Enzersdorf and the Ausbeen used to propel wagons. (See Ve- trian redoubts erected on those spots locipede, and Steam.)

where a landing was expected. EnzersWAGRAM, BATTLE OF, on July 5 and 6, dorf was in flames, and shed a brilliant 1809, gained by Napoleon over the arch- light on the Danube. With great skill duke Charles. It decided the fate of and promptness, excellent bridges were Austria, on the same field on which Ro- thrown over the river, and as early as two dolph of Hapsburg (9. v.), in 1278, had o'clock, the whole army had reached the been victorious over the proud Ottocar, left bank. It seems to have been in conand laid the foundation of Austria's pow- sequence of a settled plan, that Charles er. The severe loss which Napoleon had did not endeavor to prevent the passage sustained in the battle of Aspern (q. v.), of Napoleon, and that the Austrians imon the occasion of his unsuccessful at- mediately made a retrograde movement. tempt to pass the Danube, made repose On the morning of the 5th, the French necessary for his army. He also needed army extended itself in the Marchfeld (a reinforcements. These he received in plain many leagues in length, on the left the army of the viceroy of Italy, who bank of the Danube, and containing the had forced the Austrians, at last, from that town of Wagram). A numerous artillery country to Hungary. Bernadotte was al- along the whole French line played inso approaching with the Saxons; and cessantly. The Austrians were slowly other divisions were on the way. The forced back during the day. In point of archduke Charles, on the left bank of the fact, the archduke Charles had at this Danube, was in a less fortunate situation. time but three divisions to oppose to the His loss, also, had been severe; and his French forces. It was not till towards army consisted, in a great measure, of night that his other forces could be raw troops hastily levied. Napoleon re- brought into action. It is impossible for mained in Vienna, and prepared every us to give the details of the battle, or to thing for a decisive struggle, whilst his describe the repeated assaults on Wagram antagonist appeared to stand merely on by the Saxons. The French army bithe defensive; at least nothing was done vouacked on some places very near the by him to disturb the French in their enemy. Some have believed that the repreparations on the islands of the Dan- treat of Charles, on July 5, was in orube. Heavy ordnance was carried from der to place the French troops between the arsenals of Vienna to the well-con- his forces and those which were apstructed works on these islands. Materi- proaching, under the archduke John, from als for bridges were provided, and every Hungary. But the army of the archduke precaution taken to prevent a second fail- John was much too weak to produce a ure in the attempt to pass the river. The decisive effect, and, moreover, would position of the antagonists permitted the have been opposed by the disposable most accurate knowledge of all the move. French divisions, and the 10,000 Bavariments of both armies. July 1, Napoleon ans under Wrede. Early in the morning concentrated his forces, and fixe bis of July 6, the extreme left wing of the head-quarters at Lobau. Presburg had French, under Bernadotte and Masséna, been occupied by Davoust a few days was extended to Hirschstätten; the centre, previously. Vandamme guarded the Dan- comprising the guards and the Italian ube as far as Lintz. The whole number army, was at Raschdorf; to the right were of the French forces has been estimated Marmont and Oudinot; and Davoust was at 180,000; and if this number is over- on the extreme right. The archduke Charles now projected an attack, en eché- seem to be peculiar to the eastern conlon, from his right, against the French tinent. They differ from the wartpes lett. Thus it was hoped that the Austrian only in their longer legs, more slender ariny might relieve itself from the ex. form, and longer iail. They never perch treme pressure upon its left wing. At on trees or shrubs, but frequent the marfirst, this attack was successtul: the gins of ponds and water-courses, and are French were forced back as far as En- continually elevating and depressing the zersdorf. The Austrian centre was not so tail; hence the name. The common Eufortunate: it could not advance equally ropean wagtail (.M. alba) is a familiar bun!, with the right wing, and thus a danger. which seems to seek the society of man ous extension of the Austrian forces took and domestic animals, and is even seen place. Napoleon knew how to keep them frequently to rest upon the backs of ratin this situation, and thus to obstruct their tle while they are grazing. The vicinity further attacks; and soon after, having of mills is observed to be its favorite rin turned the Austrian lett wing, he began sort. The plumage is a mixture of black, to act on the ottensive, and endeavored to white and gray. It is widely ditius decide the battle by destroying the enemy's throughout the eastern continent. centre. Massena attacked Aderhlaa most WANABEES, WAHABITES, or W ECIIAviolently ; and, had he succeeded, all BITES, is the name of several Arab tribs would have been lost; but the Austrians who profess the religious faith which fought with great bravery against the Sheik Mohammed, son of Abdel Wahat cavalry, artillery and guards, and repeat- taught in the middle of the eighteenth ed attacks were repulsed. Had the arch- century, and, like the founder of the reiduke John arrived at this time on the left gion of the Koran, sought to wing, as he was ordered to do, a favora- by art and courage. Sheik Mobary ble result might hare len obtained; but med, belonging to the great tribe of the he did not come up, and the French Tamini (hom in 1728", in the town as troops spread far to the right. I'pon the Ajen, situated near the desert, in the dis third attack, they occupied the height of trict of Al Ared), had acquired great learnMarkgrafe'n-Neurjedel, and the Austrian ing in Bassora, Bagdad and Damascuis. right wing was deprived of the advan- He taught at first in Ajeu), and soon tautr lagrs which it had gained. The Austri- proselytes of the inhabitants of the dreans retreated. The archduke John, it is iriet of Al Ared. Claiming divine inspisand, was detained near Presburg in col ration, he tauglit, lihe the Koran, the dors breuing his corps. It was not until late in trines of which he but partially receivedt. the evening, that he heard from the field the existence of an only God, the Auth: » of batile that every thing was decided of the world, the Rewnnder of the gixd. To save his own troops, he again retreat- and the Punisher of the law; but be reed from the Marchell. Both armies had jectel all the stories contained in the he displayed grvat valor. The loss of the ran, especially those concerning Molan Austrans may have amounted to 27.000 med, whom he considered merely a ha!. men kille i and wounded they had taken, beloved of God, but branded the worst pa however, 7000 prisoners twelve eagles of him as a crime directly opposed to the and colors, and eleven cantons! The true storation of the Divinity. lle ale loss of the French cannot be reckoned at prohibited the wealth and splendor who t. I On the 7th, 9th and 10th, the arch- are found in the mosques of the Mobar duke refratre, constantly fighting, to the medans. All who should oppose this foru hrights of Znam, where Marmont and doctrine were to be destroyed by fire arras Maxwna reached him. On the Ilih, a sword. Mohammed tint converted to his hattle was fought, which, however, was new doctrines the sovereign of Deray band intestupted by the armatice offered by Lahna, Ehn-Sehud, whom he proclam! Austria, and concluded, July 12, at prince i emir and protector of the new mer Znaym, atter which the negotiations for of which be declared himself high-pre, [wair commenced. For information re thus separating the spiritual and ruins perting the whol: campaign, see general anthonties, which were afterwants her, Pelet's axd-de-camp of Maxwena Ve morretary in the families of Elm-s hud aral

la Guerre de l-ik), en Illemagne, aree Sheih Mohammed. The principal srai los peridunt particulieres des Corps d Ita- of the Wahabees was the city of Deraren, lie, de Ponte, de Sire, de Vaples, el de in the province of Wedsed, and Jamaria. #cheren i Paris, 194], seq., { vols, with 200 miles west of Baxvora. As the Bixa an Atla

ries of the new faith were all insyurved Wagrail (molacijia; small birls which with the highest enthusiasm, prepared for

all trials, indefatigable, brave and cruel more than three days in Mecca, and not (conversion or death being their watch- to interfere in the contest of the brothers word), their dominion spread with incred- respecting the sherifate. After the deible rapidity among the surrounding Arab parture of the caravan, the Wahabees tribes, of which, in a short time, twenty- took the holy city without resistance, six were subjugated, incorporated with murdered many sheiks and Mohammethe original Wahabees, filled with hatred dans, who persisted in their religious of Mohammedanism, and tauglit to de- faith, and reinstated, indeed, Abd-Allight in plundering the treasures of the Mein, but destroyed all the sacred monumosques. Sehud's son and successor, ments, and carried off immense treasures. Abd-Elaziz, could bring into the field Leaving behind only a small garrison of 120,000 cavalry. Well provided with 100 men, Sehud next attempted, in vain, camels and horses, and armed with sword the conquest of Jidda and Medina, after and spear, the Wahabites, though resem- which he returned to Derayeh, where, bling the Bedouins (q. v.), and destitute of meanwhile, his father had been murdered, any considerable artillery, which they ob- in 1803, by a Persian. Sehud was now tained only by conquest, were dangerous prince of the Wahabees. Their highenemies. The nature of the country, their priest was Hussein the Blind, the eldest mode of life, and their religious creed, son of Sheik Mohammed. The misforfonped their character, which, from the tunes which they suffered were soon remountainous regions of their original paired. In 1806, the Wahabees appeared seal, is even more savage and bold than more numerous than ever; plundered the that of the first followers of Mohammed. caravans of pilgrims going to the holy sppThe disorders which prevailed in all parts ulchre; got possession of the Mahmel (a of the dominions of the Porte, including splendid box, in which the grand seignior the Arabian countries under its protec- sends, every year, the presents destined tion, was especially favorable to the en- for the tomb of the prophet); and conterprises of the Wahabees, who, from quered Mecca, Medina, and even Jidda, their seat between the Persian gulf and marking their path by bloodshed and conthe Red sea, had reached several parts of versions, among which, that of the mufti Asiatic Turkey, before the slightest meas- of Mecca excited the most astonishment. ures were taken to put a stop to their The fear of the Wahabees spread throughdevastations and conversions. In 1801, out the East, and even the British were the pacha of Bagdad first received orders apprehensive that their commerce would to proceed, with the tribes which had ad- be endangered, several bands of warriors hered to Mohammedanism, against the having proceeded to the Persian gulf, Wahabees, who, however, by great pres- formed a junction with the pirates, and ents, bribed the generals sent against disturbed the communication between them to retreat, and then attacked the Bassora, Mascat and India. The British, town of Iman Hussein, destroyed it, and, therefore, took the imam of Mascat, afier acquiring much plunder, fled back against whom his brother had rebelled in to their deseris. On this occasion, they the country of Oman, under their protecalso pillaged the mosque of Ali, which tion, and, io defend him against the Wawas highly venerated by the Persians. habees, sent him, from Bombay, in 1809, The Persian monarch, Fath Ali, threat- a fleet and army. The chastisement of ened them with his vengeance, but was their common enemies was fully effected prevented from executing his purpose by in several battles on the sea and coasts, civil wars. The daring Wahabites now and especially by the demolition of their turned an eager gaze upon the far greater chief place of assembling, Ras el Elyma treasures of Mecca, the holy city. Here (Kherim), where 3200 inhabitants were Ghaleb, a younger brother, had deprived killed, and 1600 taken prisoners. On the his elder brother, Abd-Al-Mein, of the other hand, the British, as a condition of sherifaie. On pretence of avenging this their further assistance, stipulated with the wrong, Abd-Elaziz sent his son Sehud, imam for the islands of the Persian gulf, with 100,000 men, io Mecca, where he put Bahrein and Zebora, celebrated for their Ghaleb to fight, but was prevented, for a rich pearl fisheries. In 1810, the sublime while, from conquering the city, by the Porte summoned Mohammed Ali, pacha arrival of the great caravan, under the of Cairo, and the pachas of Damascus and escort of the pacha of Damascus, who, Acre, to undertake an expedition against however, entered into a treaty, not to stay the pacha of Bagdad, Jussuff Pacha, and

• The use of coffee and tobacco, as well as of his allies, the Wahabees. The pacha of silk clothing, was forbidden by their law. Acre obeyed this command with equal activity and bravery, and conquered Bug- med Ali, in the beginning of 1815, at dad, the pacha of which, deprived of his Bassila, not far from the city of Tarabe. treasures, fed to his father, the pacha of It was, nevertheless, difficult to attack Cairo, who had been ordered to take part them in the centre of their power. Ibraagainst him, and with whom he found a bim, the son of the pacha, finally suefavorable reception. Thus the quarrels ceeded, in 1818, in inflicting a to al defeat and jealousies of the Turkish pachas, and on the Wahabees, under their sovereign. of the Persian khans, greatly favored the Abdallah Ben Sund, and in blocking them progress of the Wahabees. Soon after up in their fortified camp, four days the massacre, perpetrated, by Mohammed march from their capital, Derayeh. The Ali, among the beys and mamelukes at camp was stormed September 3, eighty Cairo, the Wahabees formed a junction pieces of artillery taken, 20,000 soldiers with the relics of them who had fled to put to death, and Abdallah himself made Upper Egypt. Mohammed Ali now pros- prisoner. The inhabitants of the city now ecuted, with indefatigable energy, his surrendered, but demanded an amnesty, preparations for the annihilation of the and that their lives and houses should Wahabees. He conquered Yambo and be spared; but the conquerors declared Nahala in 1811, and, as the fruits of three that the sultan alone could grant or revictories, sent three sacks of Wahabees' fuse these terms. Meanwhile, the arrival ears to Constantinople. No subsequent of the prisoner, who, both as a rebel and progress, however, was made: on the an apostate, was of great political imporcontrary, Jussuff Pacha, who now fought, tance to the sublime Porte, was celebrated with his father, Mohammed Ali, on the in Constantinople as a national triumph. side of the Turks, was forced to retreat With his mufti and treasurer, he was (he died soon after of the plague). But then carried in chains before the sultan, the Wahabees, betrayed by their ally, the tried by the divan, and beheaded, with his sherif of Mecca, and abandoned by sev- fellow prisoners, December 17, 1818. Deeral Arab tribes, suffered new defeats in tached bands of Wahabees are still said the defiles of Sofra and Judeyda, and were to rove through the desert; and the heroie altogether driven from the route to Me- daughter of the founder of the sect is dina. This holy city was weakly garri- said to be their leader; but the sultan, soned, and, therefore, easily conquered by having left the conquered to the pleasure the Turks. Mecca, also, soon after feil of the pacha of Egypt, he entirely deinto their power. The solemn delivery stroyed their principal seat ; and the inof the keys of the regained cities of the habitants, after the loss of their property, faith, was celebrated with great rejoicings were dispersed.* The severity of Ibraat Constantinople. These victories had bim, who is remembered as the scourge done much for the security of Mohain- of Arabia, and the curse of Derayeh, did medanism, which finds one of its chief not, however, put an end to the Wahabite supports in the possession of Mecca and reformation, nor to the spirit of resistance Medina, and the uninterrupted pilgrim- by which its abettors were animated. The ages of the faithful to those cities. This war was renewed in 1824, with as much forinidable sect was as yet, however, far ferocity as ever, and apparently with infrom being suppressed. Mohammed Ali, creased means, on the part of the insurpacha of Egypt, therefore, renewed his gents, of bringing it to a successful issue. preparations; but he lost, by surprise, a It was protracied during the three followfortified place called Kumsidal, contain- * Derayeh, in the Arab province of Nedsjed, ing great stores of arms and ammunition, protected by deserts and mountains, was situated which the Wahabees took by surprise. in 42° 14' E. lon., 26° N. lat. (in the great valley The Persian disturbances were also very gardens and orchards, twelve

days journey from

of Wadybenisch, 300 miles long), surrounded by favorable to them; and they found oppor. Bagdad, and 130 leagues east of Medina. 110 tunity to form a new union with several leagues south-west of Bassora, and 160 leagues Arab tribes. But their daring was not south-east of Jerusalem. It was two leagues accompanied with prudence. They un- long, half a league broad, exposed to frequent dertook the boldest predatory excursions, 28 mosques, and 30 schools. The former rulers

inundations, and contained 2500 houses of sione, while their enemy, the pacha of Egypt, resided in the suburb of Tereif. According to adopted judicious measures for their en.

some accounts, the Wahabees were divided into tire overthrow. After the death of their three classes soldiers, field laborers, and artisans ; sovereign, Sehud II, in 1814, when quar- but since, like the other Arabs, every able man rels arose on the subject of the succes.

was destined for predatory excursions, it is more sion, they suffered several defeats. A de- slaves. According to late accounts, the sect of

correct to divide them into priests, soldiers, and cisive victory was obtained by Moham- the Wahabees is still very numerous in Arabia.

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