Imatges de pÓgina

Charles pow projected an attack, en eché- seem to be peculiar to the eastern conlon, from his right, against the French tinent. They differ from the wartıbxpo lett. Thus it was hoped that the Austrian only in their longer legs, more slender ariny might relieve itself from the ex. form, and longer tail. They never pereh treme pressure upon its left wing. At on trees or shrubs, but frequent the marfirst, this attack was successtul: the gins of ponds and water-courses, and are French were forced back as far as En- continually elevating and depressing the zersdorf. The Austrian centre was not so tail; hence the name. The common Eufortunate: it could not advance equally ropean wagtail (.M. alba) is a familiar bin! with the right wing, and thus a danger- which seems to seek the society of man ous extension of the Austrian forces took and domestic animals, and is even sen place. Napoleon knew how to keep them frequently to rest upon the backs of ratin this situation, and thus to obstruct their tle while they are grazing. The vicinity further atiаcks; and soon after, having of mills is observed to be its favorite res tumed the Austrian lett wing, he began sort. The plumage is a mixture of black, to act on the offensive, and endeavored to white and gray. It is widely diflusal decide the battle by destroying the enemy's throughout the eastern continent. centre. Massena attacked Aderklaa most Wanabees, WAHABITES, or Wechsviolently; and, had he succeeded, all bites, is the name of several Arab tribu would have been lost ; but the Austrians who profess the religious faith which fought with great bravery against the Sheik Mohammed, son of Abdel Wahah. cavalry, artillery and guards, and repeat- taught in the middle of the eighteenth ed attacks were repulsed. llad the arch- century, and, like the founder of the reitduke John arrived at this time on the left gion of the Koran, sought to wing, as he was ordered to do, a favora- by art and courage. Sheik Mohair'. ble result might have been obtained ; but med, belonging to the great tribe of the he did not come up, and the French 'Tamini (bom in 174, in the town ot" troops spread far to the right. l'pon the Ajen, situated near the desert, in the die third attack, they occupied the height of trict of Al Ared), had acquired great leamMarkgrafen-Neusiedel, and the Austrian ing in Bassora, Bagdad and Damascus. right wing was deprived of the advan- He taught at first in Ajen, and soon mar tages which it had gained. The Austri- proselytes of the inhabitants of the die ans retreated. The archduke John, it is trict of Al Ared. Claiming divine insptsuul, was detained near Presburg in col ration, he taught, like the Koran, the dorlecting his corps. It was not until late in tripes of which he but partially received. the evening, that he heard from the field the existence of an only God, the Author of battle that every thing was decided. of the world, the Rewinder of the good, To save his own troops, he again retreat- and the Punisher of the laul; but be me el from the Marchfell. Both armies had jected all the stories contamed in the hndisplayed great valor. The loss of the ran, especially those concerning Moliam · Austrans may have amountert w 27,000 med, whom he considered merely a man men killed and wounded they had taken, beloved of God, but branded the worstiga however, 7000 priser, twelve eagles of bim as a crime directly opposed to the and colors, and resen rannoul The true autoration of the Divinity. lle als loss of the French cannot be reckoned at prohibited the wealth and splendor whır. k. bre. On the 7th, 9th and 10th, the arch- are found in the mosques of the Mohan duke refratul, constantly fighting, to the medans. All who should oppose this pris heights of Znaym, where Marmont and doctrine were to be destroyed by fire and Maxwnlı rrarbed him. On the Ilih, a sword. Mohammed fint converted to la battle was fought, which, however, was rewdoctrines the sovereign of Derayihana! intritupted by the armistice offered by Lahna, Ebn-sehud, whom he proclaime! Austria, ant concluded, July 13 at prince iemir and protector of the news Znayan, atter which the negotiations for of which he declared himself high-pret, tware commoneel. For information re- thus separating the spiritual and ruir speeting the whol: campaign, see general authorities, which were atirruants hem! Pelet's axd-de-ramp op Marwna . Memorte tary in the families of Con-sa hud aral per la Guerre de 1-1, en Illemagne, (rrec Shri Mohammed. "The principal sra! Les per uns particulieres des Corps dla of the Wahabees was the city of Devayet, lie, de Podome, de sire, de Vaples, et de in the province of Nedard, and Jamaria. Wsledere i Parzy 1-2, seq., 4 vols, with 250 miles west of Bassora. As the vie. a'y mtla.

ries of the Dew faith were all inspired Wagtail maciilal; small birds which with the hughest enthusiasmn, prepared for

all trials," indefatigable, brave and cruel more than three days in Mecca, and not (conversion or death being their watch- to interfere in the contest of the brothers word), their dominion spread with incred- respecting the sherifate. After the deible rapidity among the surrounding Arab parture of the caravan, the Wahabees tribes, of which, in a short time, twenty- took the holy city without resistance, six were subjugated, incorporated with murdered many sheiks and Mohammethe original Wahabees, filled with hatred dans, who persisted in their religious of Mohammedanism, and tauglit to de- faith, and reinstated, indeed, Abd-Allight in plundering the treasures of the Mein, but destroyed all the sacred monumosques, Sehud's son and successor, ments, and carried off immense treasures. Abd-Elaziz, could bring into the field Leaving behind only a small garrison of 120,000 cavalry. Well provided with 100 men, Sehud next attempted, in vain, camels and horses, and armed with sword the conquest of Jidda and Medina, after and spear, the Wahabites, though resem- which he returned to Derayeh, where, bling the Bedouins (q. v.), and destitute of meanwhile, his father had been murdered, any considerable artillery, which they ob- in 1803, by a Persian. Sehud was now tained only by conquest, were dangerous prince of the Wahabees. Their highenemies. The nature of the country, their priest was Hussein the Blind, the eldest mode of life, and their religious creed, son of Sheik Mohammed. The mistorformed their character, which, from the tunes which they suffered were soon remountainous regions of their original paired. In 1806, the Wahabees appeared seal, is even more savage and bold than more numerous than ever; plundered the that of the first followers of Mohammed. caravans of pilgrims going to the holy sepThe disorders which prevailed in all parts ulchre; got possession of the Mahmel (a of the dominions of the Porte, including splendid box, in which the grand seignior the Arabian countries under its protec- sends, every year, the presents destined tion, was especially favorable to the en- for the tomb of the prophet); and conterprises of the Wahabees, who, from quered Mecca, Medina, and even Jidda, their seat between the Persian gulf and marking their path by bloodshed and conthe Red sea, had reached several parts of versions, among which, that of the mufti Asiatic Turkey, before the slightest meas- of Mecca excited the most astonishment. ures were taken to put a stop to their The fear of the Wahabees spread throughdevastations and conversions. In 1801, out the East, and even the British were the pacha of Bagdad first received orders apprehensive that their commerce would to proceed, with the tribes which had ad- be endangered, several bands of warriors hered to Mohammedanism, against the having proceeded to the Persian gulf, Wahabees, who, however, by great pres- formed a junction with the pirates, and ents, bribed the generals sent against disturbed the communication between them to retreat, and then attacked the Bassora, Mascat and India. The British, town of Iman Hussein, destroyed it, and, therefore, took the imam of Mascat, afier acquiring much plunder, fled back against whom his brother had rebelled in to their deserts. On this occasion, they the country of Oman, under their protecalso pillaged the mosque of Ali, which tion, and, io defend him against the Wawas highly venerated by the Persians. habees, sent him, from Bombay, in 1809, The Persian monarch, Fath Ali, threat- a fleet and army. The chastisement of ened them with his vengeance, but was their common enemies was fully effected prevented from executing his purpose by in several battles on the sea and coasts, civil wars. The daring Wahabites now and especially by the demolition of their turned an eager gaze upon the far greater chief place of assembling, Ras el Elyma treasures of Mecca, the holy city, Here (Kherim), where 3200 inhabitants were Ghaleb, a younger brother, had deprived killed, and 1600 taken prisoners. On the his elder brother, Abd-Al-Mein, of the other hand, the British, as a condition of sherifate. On pretence of avenging this their further assistance, stipulated with the wrong, Abd-Elaziz sent his son Sehud, imam for the islands of the Persian gulf, with 100,000 men, io Mecca, where he put Bahrein and Zebora, celebrated for their Ghaleb to flight, but was prevented, for a rich pearl fisheries. In 1810, the sublime while, from conquering the city, by the Porte summoned Mohammed Ali, pacha arrival of the great caravan, under the of Cairo, and the pachas of Damascus and escort of the pacha of Damascus, who, Acre, to undertake an expedition against however, entered into a treaty, not to stay the pacha of Bagdad, Jussuff Pacha, and

• The use of coffee and tobacco, as well as of his allies, the Wahabees. The pacha of silk clothing, was forbidden by their law. Acre obeyed this command with equal activity and bravery, and conquered Bug- med Ali, in the beginning of 1815, at dad, the pacha of which, deprived of his Bassila, not far from the city of Tarabe. treasures, fled to his father, the pacha of It was, nevertheless, difficult to attack Cairo, who had been ordered to take part them in the centre of their power. Ibraagainst him, and with whom he found a him, the son of the pacha, finally sucfavorable reception. Thus the quarrels ceeded, in 1818, in inflicting a total defeat and jealousies of the Turkish pachas, and on the Wahabees, under their sovereign, of the Persian khans, greatly favored the Abdallah Ben Sund, and in blocking them progress of the Wahabees. Soon after up in their fortified camp, four days' the massacre, perpetrated, by Mohammed march from their capital, Derayeh. The Ali, among the beys and mamelukes at camp was stormed September 3, eighty Cairo, the Wahabees formed a junction pieces of artillery taken, 20,000 soldiers with the relics of them who had fled to put to death, and' Abdallah himself made Upper Egypt. Mohammed Ali now pros- prisoner. The inhabitants of the city now ecuted, with indefatigable energy, his surrendered, but demanded an amnesty, preparations for the annihilation of the and that their lives and houses should Wababees. He conquered Yambo and be spared; but the conquerors declared Nahala in 1811, and, as the fruits of three that the sultan alone could grant or revictori sent three sacks of Wahabees' fuse these terms. Meanwhile, the arrival ears to Constantinople. No subsequent of the prisoner, who, both as a rebel and progress, however, was made: on the an apostate, was of great political imporcontrary, Jussuff Pacha, who now fought, tance to the sublime Porte, was celebrated with his father, Mohammed Ali, on the in Constantinople as a national triumph. side of the Turks, was forced to retreat With his mufti and treasurer, he was (he died soon after of the plague). But then carried in chains before the sultan, the Wahabees, betrayed by their ally, the tried by the divan, and beheaded, with his sherif of Mecca, and abandoned by sev- fellow prisoners, December 17, 1818. Deeral Arab tribes, suffered new defeats in tached bands of Wahabees are still said the defiles of Sofra and Judeyda, and were to rove through the desert; and the heroje altogether driven from the route to Me- daughter of the founder of the sect is dina. This holy city was weakly garri- said to be their leader; but the sultan, soned, and, therefore, easily conquered by having left the conquered to the pleasure the Turks. Mecca, also, soon after feil of the pacha of Egypt, he entirely deinto their power. The solemn delivery stroyed their principal seat; and the inof the keys of the regained cities of the habitants, after the loss of their property, faith, was celebrated with great rejoicings were dispersed.* The severity of 'Ibraat Constantinople. These victories had bim, who is remembered as the scourge done much for the security of Mohamn- of Arabia, and the curse of Derayeh, did medanism, which finds one of its chief not, however, put an end to the Wahabite supports in the possession of Mecca and reformation, nor to the spirit of resistance Medina, and the uninterrupted pilgrim- by which its abettors were animated. The ages of the faithful to those cities. This war was renewed in 1824, with as much formidable sect was as yet, however, far ferocity as ever, and apparently with infrom being suppressed. Mohammed Ali

, creased means, on the part of the insurpacha of Egypt, therefore, renewed his gents, of bringing it to a successful issue. preparations; but he lost, by surprise, a It was protracied during the three followfortified place called Kumsidal, contain- * Derayeh, in the Arab province of Nedsjed, ing great stores of arms and ammunition, protected by deserts and mountains, was situated which the Wahabees took by surprise. in 420 14 E. lon., 26° N. lat. (in the great valley The Persian disturbances were also very gardens and orchards

, twelve days journey from favorable to them; and they found oppor. Bagdad, and 130 leagues east of Medina, 1(0 tunity to form a new union with several leagues south-west of Bassora, and 160 leagues Arab tribes. But their daring was not south-east of Jerusalem. It was two leagues accompanied with prudence. They un- !ong, half a league broad, exposed to frequent dertook the boldest predatory excursions, 28 mosques, and 30 schools. The former rulers

inundations, and contained 2500 houses of sione, while their enemy, the pacha of Egypt, resided in the suburb of Tereif. According to adopted judicious measures for their en- some accounts, the Wahabees were divided into tire overthrow. After the death of their three classes soldiers, field laborers, and artisans ; sovereign, Sehud II, in 1814, when quar- but since, like the other Arabs, every able man rels arose on the subject of the succes.

was destined for predatory excursions, it is more sion, they suffered several defeats. A de- slaves. According to late accounts, the sector

correct to divide them into priests, soldiers, and cisive victory was obtained by Moham- the Wahabees is still very numerous in Arabia.


ing years, with alternate advantage; hav- the West Riding of Yorkshire, on the ing been, during the latter portion of that river Calder. The parish church is a interval, allowed to slumber, owing to the Gothic structure: the spire is upwards of struggle made by the Greeks in the Mo- 237 feet in height. There is a handsome rea, to recover their liberty. In this war, stone bridge over the Calder, built in the Mohammed Ali (q. v.) first put in prac- reign of Edward III, in the centre of tice his improved system of tactics, on which is a chapel, in the richest style of the European method; and his success, as Gothic or Saracenic architecture, ten in his recent campaigns in Syria, was ow- yards in length, and about eight in breadth. ing to his being provided with soldiers Wakefield is one of the greatest corn disciplined by European officers.—See markets in England, and contains imPlanat’s Histoire de la Régénération de

corn warehouses, Population, l'Egypte (Geneva, 1830), for an account 12,232 ; nine miles south of Leeds. By of these campaigns against the Wahabees. the reform act of 1832, Wakefield is con

WAHLENBERG, George, lecturer on bot- stituted a borough, returning one member any in the university of Upsal, and super- to parliament. intendent of the museum of the society WAKEFIELD, Gilbert, a distinguished of science in that place, was born in the scholar and critic, son of the reverend province of Warmeland, in 1784. While George Wakefield of Nottingham, was & student at the university, he distinguish- born in 1756, and entered, in 1772, Jesus ed himself by his progress in scientific college, in Cambridge, where he pursued studies, and, soon after leaving the univer- his studies with great ardor, in 1776 gradsity, was enabled, by the assistance of the uated bachelor of arts, and was soon after Swedish patriot baron Hermelin, and of elected a fellow. In the same year, he the scientific societies of Upsal and Stock- gave the public a small volume of Latin holm, to enter upon a course of botanical poems, with a few critical notes upon Hoand geological inquiries, which led him mer. In 1778, he received deacon's orto make excursions into the remote parts ders, and, on leaving college, engaged in of the Scandinavian peninsula, through a curacy at Stockport, in Cheshire, and Swedish and Norwegian Lapland, and to subsequently at another near Liverpool. Gothland. Having examined Scandinavia, The dissatisfaction which he entertained he set out upon similar scientific expedi- at the doctrines and liturgy of the church tions to foreign countries. In 1810, he of England progressively increasing, ho visited Bohemia and Hungary, examined determined to take the first opportunity of the Carpathian mountains, travelled in resigning his situation in it; which design Switzerland, and, after visiting the princi- he fulfilled in 1779, and accepted the office pal German universities, returned to Upsal, of classical tutor at the dissenting acadein 1814. His Flora Lapponica, Flora Car- my at Warrington. He had early formed pathorum, Flora Upsaliensis, and Flora a design of giving a new version of the Suecica (2 vols., 1824), take a high rank New Testament, and published, in 1782, among works of this nature. Wahlen- his New Translation of the Gospel of St. herg bas likewise written some geological Matthew, with Notes Critical, Philological essays of value.

and Explanatory (4to.). On the dissoluWAHLSTADT; a generic German term tion of the Warrington academy, he refor field of battle (from Wal, which means moved to Bramcote, in Nottinghamshire, fight, and also dead body; hence Walhal- with a view of taking private pupils. la, or Valhalla). As a geographical name, Here he published, in 1784, the first volit belongs to a large village in Silesia, ume of an Enquiry into the Opinions of near Liegnitz (q. v.), on the Katzbach the Christian Writers of the First Three (q. v.), where Henry II, duke of Silesia, Centuries concerning the Person of Jesus fought a bloody battle, April 9, 1241, Christ, a work which he never concludagainst the Tartars, in which he lost his ed. He subsequently removed to Richlite, and the latter were victorious. In mond and Nottingham, until, in 1789, he memory of this battle, the place and vil- commenced his Silva Critica, the object lage were called Wahlstadt. In the same of which was to illustrate the Scriptures place, Blucher (q. v.) was victorious over by the philology of Greece and Rome. the French, Aug. 26, 1813 (see Katzbach), of this learned performance, five parts and, in reward of this and other victories, appeared in succession, until 1795, the was made prince of Wahlstadt.

three first from the Cambridge press. In Wahoo. (See Elm.)

1790, he quitted Nottingham, in order to Waifs. (See Estrays.)

accept the office of classical tutor at the WAKEFIELD ; a town of England, in dissenting college at Hackney. Here his services were highly esteemed, until he sides the works already mentioned, and a advocated the superiority of private to few more of minor importance, a Collerpublic worship, and wrote a book in sup- tion of Letters, in a correspondence beport of his opinions, which tended to dis- tween him and the right honorable C. J. solve the connexion. In 1792, he gave Fox, has been published since his death, the world bis Translation of the New Tes- chiefly relative to topics of Greek literaturt. tament, with Notes Critical and Explanato- WAKEFIELD, Mrs. Priscilla ; well known ry (in 3 vols., 8vo.) and, in 1795, published for the ingenious works which she has wri:Memoirs of his own Life (2d ed., 1804, ten for the instruction of youth, and as the 2 vols., 8vo.), a characteristic performance. original promoter of banks for the saving He next defended revealed religion by of the poor, which are now become si his Evidence of Christianity, in answer to general. She has published Juvenile InPaine's Age of Reason, and planned a provement (1793) ; Leisure Hours (2 vols. new edition of Pope's Works, in which 1796); an Introduction to Botany, in a he was anticipated by doctor Warton. series of letters (1796); Mental ImproveHe, however, proceeded so far as to pub- ment (3 vols., 1797); Reflections on the lish a first volume, and a volume of Notes present Condition of the Female Sex, on Pope; as also an edition of his ver- with Hints for its Improvement (1798); sions of the Iliad and Odyssey. He fol- the Juvenile Traveller (1801); a Familiar lowed up this labor with editions of Select Tour through the British Empire (1804; Greek Tragedies; of Horace; of Bion Domestic Recreation (1805); Excursions and Moschus; of Virgil; and, finally, of in North America (1806); Sketches of Lucretius (in 3 vols., 410.), a work which Human Manners (1807); Variety (1809): has ranked him among the most erudite Perambulations in London, &c. (1810): and industrious of critical cditors. He Instinct Displayed (1811); the Traveller soon after entered the path of politics, and in Africa (1814); an Introduction to the censured the policy of the war against Knowledge of Insects (1815); and the France, produced by the French revolu- Traveller in Asia (1817). tion, in a pamphlet written in 1798, en- WALACHIA, or WALLACHIA; a province titled a Reply to the Bishop of Llandaffos under the protection of the Porte, lying Address to the People of Great Britain; on the northern bank of the Danube, with for which he was subjected to a crown Moldavia and Transylvania on the north, prosecution for libel, which terminated in and Servia on the west. Its area is equal a trial and conviction in February, 1799, to about 25,000 square miles, with a popwhen he was sentenced to two years' ulation of 950,000 souls. The capital is imprisonment in Dorchester gaol. He Bucharest. The other principal towns are endured the whole of this sentence, Brailow, the key of the Danube, Tergowhich was, however, alleviated by a sub- vista, and Giorgiev. The face of the scription amounting to £5000, that took country is considerably diversified: in the away his anxiety for the future support north it is mountainous ; the central and of his family. On his restoration to lib- southern parts are less uneven, consisting erty, he opened a course of lectures upon chiefly of fertile valleys and extensive Virgil, in the metropolis, but, in August plains. Few countries are more indebted of the same year, was seized with a typhus to nature; but the bad government and infever, whichi terminated his life, Sept. 9, security of property have left it nearly a 1801, in the forty-sixth year of his age. waste. Corn, tobacco, flax, horses, sheep Mr. Wakefield was a zealous and indus- and salt abound; but the rich soil is little trious scholar, who followed what he cultivated, and the mineral treasures of deemed truth, without regard to conse- the country are undisturbed. The inquences, wherever it might lead him: habitants are chiefly Walachians and gyphence his abandonment of the church, sies. The former, the original inhabitants, and of public worship, and forination of are a mixture of different nations-Daa system of divinity of his own; for he cians, Bulgarians, Sclavonians, Goths and never formally joined any body of dis- Romans. They call themselves Romans, senters. His classical emendations occa- and speak a corrupt Latin. Their summer sionally exhibit strange singularities of dress also resembles that of their ancestaste and opinion; and, in conjectural crit- tors in the period of the Roman empire, icisin, indeed, he evinced much of the as appears by the figures on Trajan's colbold character of Bentley and Markland. umn, in Rome. They are rude, ignorant His private character was amiable and esti- and stupid. The gypsies, who are very mable, and far removed from the asperity nuinerous, resemble those found in other of his controversy and his criticism. Be- countries. The mountaineers, who have

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