Imatges de pÓgina

the right to bear arms, are called, in Mol- tress; and Veere; and numerous villages. davia and Walachia, Pandoors (a Moldavi- Middleburg is the capital. Lon. 30 29 an word, signifying frontier guards.), The E.; lat. 51° 34' N. The English attemptreligion of the inhabitants is Greek, and ed to land there in 1809. (See Napoleon, the upper classes speak the Greek lan- and Otranto.) guage, and in general have the manners WALCKENAER, Charles Athanasius, barof the Greeks. Walachia is under the on of, member of the royal French acadprotection of the Porte, which has the emy of inscriptions and belles-lettres, right of naming its hospodar or prince. was born at Paris, in 1771, and, after The hospodars were formerly appointed having studied there, made a tour, at the for seven years, during which time they period of the revolution, in the Nethercould not lawfully be removed ; but pre- lands and Great Britain, and prosecuted tences enough were always found for his studies for some time at Glasgow. suspecting them, and they were rarely Being in independent circumstances, he suffered to die a natural death. By the lived, after his return to France, on his treaty of Adrianople, in 1829, it was stipu- estate, eight leagues from Paris, devoted lated that the office should be held for to scientific pursuits. In October, 1813, life; that the inhabitants should enjoy he was chosen a member of the imperial the free exercise of their religion, freedom institute, of the class of history and anof trade, and a separate administration; cient literature. Louis XVIII conferred that no Mohammedan should be allowed upon him the cross of the legion of honor to reside in Walachia, and that the yearly in 1814, and, by the ordinance of March tribute to the Porte should be fixed at a 21, 1816, reorganizing the institute, named certain sum, beyond which that power him member of the academy of inscripshould claim no further contributions. In tions. In 1823, he received the place of the time of the Romans, Walachia formed maitre des requêtes, with the title of baron. a part of Dacia. In the twelfth and thir- Walckenaer has acquired reputation as teenth centuries, it was governed by an author in several departments of liteprinces dependent on the Byzantine rature and science. Among his works court, and, in 1421, was rendered tribu- are to be remarked the Faune Parisienne, tary to the Turks. It still, however, re- on the plan of Fabricius (2 vols., 1802); tained its own princes, and a separate ad- Géographie Moderne, a rifacimento and ministration, the Turks occupying only translation of Pinkerton (6 vols., 1804); the three fortresses of Brailow or Ibrail, Histoire naturelle des Àranéides ; ReGiorgiev and Thurnul. Still it was often cherches Géographiques sur l'Intérieur de plundered by the Turks, and subjected to l'Afrique Septentrionale; Notice sur la forced contributions; and the hospodars Vie et les Ouvrages de Don F. Azara ; made the best use of their precarious au- Histoire de la Vie et des Ouvrages de Lathority to pillage the people. In 1716, fontaine (2 vols.); and numerous other Mavrocordatus was appointed hospodar. geographical, archæological and scientific He was the first Greek who had received treatises in different publications. He this post, and, with his successors, who has likewise been a contributor to the were also Greeks, did much towards Biographie Universelle (Paris, 1811—1828, civilizing and improving the condition of 53 vols.), and the Dictionnaire Géothe country. The insurrection of 1821 graphique Universel, now publishing at (see Hetaireia, and Greece, Revolution of) Paris (ninth vol., 1832). was quelled, and only rendered the state WALDECK ; a sovereign principality of of the province more deplorable, until the Germany, bordering to the south and war of 1828, when it was occupied by east on Hesse-Cassel, and to the west and the Russians, and delivered from the iron north on the Prussian province of Westyoke of Turkish despotism.

phalia. It has a superficial area of 455 WALCHEREN, or WALCHERN; an island square miles, with 56,000 inhabitants. of the Netherlands, the most important The soil is mostly stony, but yields grain and the most westerly of the Zealand in abundance, and affords good pasturage. islands, about thirteen miles from north The religion of the inhabitants, who are to south, and eight from east to west, industrious, but poor, is Lutheran. The situated in the German sea, at the mouth county of Pyrmont (q. v.) belongs to Walof the Scheldt. It lies low, protected deck, though territorially separated from froid inundation by strong dikes; is well it. The Waldeck estates are composed cultivated, but not healthy. It contains of certain landed proprietors, deputies three towns, Middleburg, the chief plaee, from the thirteen towns of the principality, with 13,200 inbabitants; Flushing, a for- and ten deputies of the peasants. "Waldeck, as a member of the German con- separate religious society. They were federation, has one vote in the general therefore excommunicated as hereuses, at assembly (plenum), and, in conjunction the council of Verona, in 1181; but thes with the Hohenzollern, Lippe, Reuss, and did not sutier a general persecution untai Lichtenstein houses the sixteenth vote the war against the Albigenses 9. r.. in the diet. (See Germany.) The chief atter they had spread and establiteet town is Corbach, with 2200 inhabitants. themselves in the south of France, under The residence of the prince is Arolsell, the protection of the counts of' Toulou 1750 inhabitants. The revenue of this and Foix. At that time (1:201-10 petty principality is about 8:200,000; many Waldenses tied to Arragon, Stavesy public debut'about $600,000 ; quota of and Piedmont. spain would not to troops to the army of the contederacy, 31* rate them. In Languedoc they were si men. The house is one of the most an- to maintain theniselves will 130; un cient in Germany. Waldeck was one Provence, under severe oppression, tu of the shambles, as Chatham appropriately 1515, when the parliament ni Air causeri called them, to which the British govern- them to be exterminated in the mess ment had recourse for purchasing troops cruel manner; still longer in Dauphiny: in the American war.

and not till the war of the Ceremnes were WALDENSES. This Christian sect, the last Waldenses expelled from France celebrated as the precursor of the refor. In the middle of the fourteenth century, mation, appears, from old manuscripts in single congregations of this sect went in the university of Cambridge, to have ex- Calabria and Apulia, where they were isted as early as 1100. According to the soon suppressed ; others to Bohemia, common opinion, it owes its origin and where they were called Grubenheimer, name to Peter Waldus (Waldo, l'aud), a because they used to conceal thenrelin rich citizen of Lyons, although some of in caverus. These soon became amaigatheir writers derive the appellation Wal mated with the Hussites: and from them denses from ralle (valley), and call them the Bohemian Brethren derive the apwa Vaudois, or dwellers in the valleys. tolical consecration of their bishop on About 1170, Waldo, from reading the the other hand, they found a retreat, fupe Bible and some pasages from the tatbers tified by nature, in the valleys of Western of the church, which he caused to be Piedmont, where they founded a distinct translated into his native tongue, came to church, which has remained, ulk the the determination to imitate the mode of present day, the main seat of their sert. life of the apostles and primitive Chris. Their doctrines rest solely on the greu la tians, gave his goods to the poor, and by which, with soni catechisins, they have his preaching collected numerous follow- in their old dialeci, consisting of a mixture ers, chietly from the class of artisans, of Freneb and Italian. In this languas who, from the place of Wirir birih, were their sinple worslip was performed, talle called Lyonists; or Poor Men of Lyons, their old Barbes (uncles, teacher berame on account of their voluntary poverty ; extinct, in 1003. They then recente Sabatati, or Insabatali, on account of preachers from France, and since that their wooden shoes or sandals (sabols); time their preaching has been in French. Humiliatists, on account of their humility; These teachers, however, torn no distine and were often confounded with the priesthood, and are suppived from the Cathari, Pataredes, Albigens, and other academies of the Calvinistic churches heretics, whose tate they shared. In their Their rites are limited to taptism and the contempt of the degenerate clergy and suppor, respecting which they entertaire their opposition to the Roman priesthood, the notions of (alvin. The con-uitution the Wableuses resembled other spets of of their congregations, which are curti the middle ages; but, going lyond the employed in tre cultivation of sine vande design of their founder, which was merely and in the brending of cattle, and wonde to improve the morals of men, and preach are connected by yearly sinodls, is repuestos the Word of God freely to every one in lican. Carh congregation is superintetuihus nanve innguage, they made the Bible ed in a consistory conipuorsa dt op eller anıt alone the rule of their faith, ani, rejecting deacons, under the presidency of the whatever was not founded on it, and code pamter, which maintains the stricirst mor. formable to apostoliai antiquity, they ai disipline, and adnists wmall ditt renes gave the tinut unpluse to a reform of From the line of their ongin, the Waithe whole (linsin church, renouneed dens lase ! *** dingusid trum thirr entirely the dortbes, usages and inuts Cathole trichlo so by their pure morais QUEIM of the Roman churri, and forined a and their az dus ņ, and havet enesteenved is the best subjects. After they had 1823, by W. St. Gilly, an English clerentered into a religious communion with gyman–Narrative of an Excursion to the the Calvinists, in the sixteenth century, Mountains of Piedmont, and Researches they were also exposed to the storm among the Vaudois, Protestant Inhabitwhich was intended to sweep away the ants of the Cottian Alps, &c. (second reformation, the doctrines of which they edition, London, 1825, 4to.). Also see had already cherished for upwards of Hugh Dyke Akland's Sketch of the Histhree centuries. This was the cause of tory and present Situation of the Waltheir extirpation in France, and their denses in Piedmont (London, 1826), and chequered fate in Piedmont. Those who the same author's History of the glorious had settled in the marquisate of Saluzzo Return of the Vaudois to their Valley, in were totally exterminated by 1733; and 1689 (from the original accounts of their those in the other valleys, having received pastor, H. Arnaud), with a Compendium from the court of Turin, in 1654, new of the History of that People, &c. (Lonassurances of religious freedom, were don, 1827, 1 vol.). treacherously attacked in 1655, by monks Waldis, Burkard. (See Burkard Waland soldiers, treated with brutal cruelty, dis.) and many shamefully murdered. The WALDSTEDTE (i.e. the Forest Towns), or rest of their male population took up ViERWALDSTÆDTE (1. e. the Four Forest arms; and their bravery, aided by the me- Towns); a name given, in Switzerland, to diation of the Protestant powers, finally the cantons of Lucerne, Uri, Schweitz, procured them a new, though more lim- and Unterwalden, probably on account ited ratification of their freedom by the of the number of forests found in them. treaty concluded at Pignerol, August 18, (See the articles.) 1655. New oppressions, in 1664, gave


(See Vierwaldrise to a new contest and treaty. The städtersee.) persecution exercised in 1685, through WALDSTEIN-WARTEMBERG; a BoheFrench influence, obliged thousands to mian family, known since the thirteenth Pmigrate into Protestant countries. In century, and from which sprung the faLondon, they united with the French mous Wallenstein. (q. v.) There are at Huguenots ; in the Netherlands, with the present two lines, with large possessions, Walloons; in Berlin, with the French in Bohemia and Moravia, containing congregations: nearly 2000 went to Swit- 90,000 inhabitants. The late Francis zerland. Some of these returned by force Adam, count of Wallenstein, after having to Piedmont, in 1689, and, with those served in several wars, travelled for seven who bad remained, maintained them- years in Hungary, to study the plants of selves, under many oppressions, to which the country, and published, in 1812, Delimits were finally put, in 1725, in conse- scriptiones et Icones Plantarum rariorun quence of Prussian mediation. They Hungaria (Vienna, folio), which procured now enjoy religious freedom and civil him the membership of several learned rights in their old valleys of Lucerne, societies. Wildenow (9.v.) called a plant, Perusa, and St. Martin, in westeru Pied- after bim, Waldstenia, in bis Species fuont, where they have thirteen parishes, Plantarum Linnæi. He died in 1813. containing about 20,000 souls. Their Wales; a principality in the west of church service is under the direction of a Great Britain, washed on the north and synod. After long negotiations, in the way west by the Irish sea, and on the south of which great difficulties were thrown and south-east by the Bristol channel. It by the religious zeal of the Tübingen is from 130 to 180 miles in length from theologians, several hundred of the above- north to south, and from 50 to 80 in mentioned fugitives settled in Würtem- breadth, comprising an area of 8125 square berg, in 1699, where their descendants miles. The population, in 1811, was have ten parishes, and are 1600 in num- 611,788; in 1821, 717,438 ; in 1831, ber. They are next to the Calvinists in 805,236. It is divided into North and the simplicity of their worship, and in South Wales, containing twelve counties, their ecclesiastical constitution, but in in- Anglesey, Caernarvon, Denbigh, Flint, tellectual cultivation, they are behind the Merioneth and Montgomery in the forother Protestants. In later times, Eng- mer, and Brecknock, Cardigan, Caermarland and Prussia have afforded aid to the then, Glamorgan, Pembroke and Radnor Waldenses. By contributions which they in the latter division. The general aspect collected from all Europe, in 1824, they of Wales is mountainous, affording nurected an hospital. The latest accounts merous views of wild scenery, interspersof them were collected on the spot, in ed with delightful valleys. The loftiest summits in North Wales are Snowdop by the British Ordovices and Silures, and (3579 feet), Plinlimmon, and Cader Idris. was anciently called Cambria. In the Numerous small lakes are scattered among ninth century, it was divided into three the mountains; and there are several nav- sovereignties, called North Wales, South igable rivers, such as the Severn, the Wales, and Powis Land. In the thirteenth Coye, the Conway, the Towy, and the century, it was subdued by Edward I, its Dee.' The climate is colder than in Eng- last prince Llewellyn ap Gryffyth having land, and humid; but the air is, in gen- fallen in battle in 1285. Since that time, eral, salubrious, and the country healthy. it has been annexed to the English crown, The Cambrian goat is found here in a and gives his title to the eldest son of the wild state; and goat-hunting is a favorite king of England. It was not completely diversion of the people. The mineral united with England until the reign of kingdom is rich in silver, copper, lead, Henry VIII, when the government and iron and coal. The agriculture of Wales laws were formed agreeably to those of is, in general, much behind that of Eng- England. (For the judicial administraland, though, of late years, the imple- tion, see Assizes.) ments of farming, and the management Wales, New; a name given to a part of the land, have been much improved. of North America, situated south-east and The roads have also been, until recently, south-west of Hudson's bay, and divided in a bad state. The Ellesmere, Mont- into North and South : the former name gomery, Brecknock, Cardiff, and other is lost in the more general term of Labracanals, facilitate the internal intercourse. dor. New South Wales is situated nonh(See Canals.) The woollen manufac- west of Canada, and extends along the tures are extensive; the commerce incon- south borders of Hudson's bay, 450 siderable. The common Welsh still re- miles, from lon. 85° to 90° W., lat. 54° to tain many peculiar superstitions and cus- 58° N. toms, and, in many parts, their peculiar Wales, New South. (See New South language. The gentry, however, are, at Wales.) present, educated in England; and the Wales, PRINCE OF; the title of the influence of their example is gradually heir apparent of the British throne, first exterminating the old Welsh peculiarities. conferred by Edward I on his son (afterMany remains of the ancient literature wards Edward II), at the time of his conare yet extant, and societies have been quest of that principality. (See Eduard I. forined for preserving such relicts. (See The heir apparent is made prince of Bard.) The Welsh are descendants Wales and earl of Chester by special creof the ancient Britons, who, being driven ation and investiture, but, as the king's out of England by the Anglo-Saxons, eldest son, is, by inheritance, duke of Corntook refuge in these fastnesses, or fled to wall, without any new creation. To comthe continent of Europe, where they gave pass or conspire the death of the prince their name to Brittany. (See Gael.) The of Wales is as much high treason as to Welsh language is Celtic. (See Roberts's conspire the death of the king. The eldCambrian popular Antiquities (London, est daughter of the king is styled the prin1815), and Collectanea Cambrica. Wales cess royal, unless there are no sons, when formerly sent twenty-four members to par- she is created princess of Wales. The liament, one for each county, and one for arms of the prince of Wales are the royal each of twelve boroughs. By the reform arms, with the addition of the motto Ich act of 1832, the number is increased to dien (I serve), said to have been adopted twenty-nine, two from each of the coun- by the Black Prince, from a prince of ties of Caermarthen, Denbigh and Gla- Bohemia, whom he slew at Cressy. Anmorgan, one froin each of the other nine, other account says Edward I presented bis and fourteen from as many boroughs, of infant son to the Welsh, who had agreed which Merthyr Tydvil and Swansea are to accept a native prince from him, with the two created by the act. It belongs to the words Eich dyn (This is your man. the province of York in ecclesiastical WALKER, John, a philological writer, matters, and has four bishoprics, St. Da- born in 1732, joined with a Mr. l'sher. vid's, Bangor, Llandaff, and St. Asaph. about the year 1767, in setting up a school Wales was long an independent and sep- at Kensington; but the speculation not arate sovereignty from England. Its di- succeeding to his wishes, he settled in mensions have been contracted by taking London, where he gave lectures on ela from it the whole county of Monmouth, cution, having, it is said, in the earlier and a part of several of the adjacent Eng- part of his life, studied the art with a lish counties. It was originally peopled view to making the stage his profession, although his ill success on the boards had neth, on the banks of the Forth, where induced him to adopt another calling the English were defeated with great Mr. Walker died in 1807. He is known slaughter; and their commander fled, with as the author of several useful elementary the remains of bis army, into England works, such as a Rhetorical Grammar Wallace was now declared regent of Scot(evo.); a Pronouncing Dictionary (8vo.); land, under the captive king, John Baliol. Elements of Elocutiou ; Key to the cor- The English monarch, alarmed at the rerect Pronunciation of Greek, Latin and verses which his partisans had experiSeriptural Names (8vo.); and a Rhyming enced, hastened from Flanders to oppose Dictionary.

Wallace, against whom he led an army WALKYRIAS, or VALKYRIAS.

(See of 90,000 men. Jealousy at his elevation Northern Mythology.)

had already thinned the ranks of the Wall. (See Architecture, vol. i, p. Scottish hero, who, having resigned the 331.)

regency, retained his command only over Wall-FLOWER (cheiranthus cheiri); a his particular followers. The Scottish cruciferous plant, which grows in the army, under the steward of the kingdom, clefts of rocks and old walls, in most parts and Comyn, of Badenoch, waited the apof Europe. The stem is naked, hard, and proach of Edward at Falkirk (q. v), where almost woody at the base, dividing above an engagement took place in the summer into leafy branches. The flowers are of 1298, in which the English were comlarge, of a fine golden-yellow in the wild pletely victorious. Wallace retired to the plant, and agreeably scented. In the cul- mountains, resumed hissystemof predatory tivated plant, the flowers are of various warfare, and maintained his independence and brilliant colors, and attain a much at the head of those who still continued larger size. Double and semi-double va- attached to him. King Edward at length rieties are common in gardens. It is a obtained possession of the person of his beautiful and favorite ornamental plant. formidable adversary, through the treachBeing an acrid and hardy evergreen, it is ery of sir John Monteith ; and the delivsometimes sown in pastures, together with erer of his country, being conveyed to parsley, thyme, &c., as a preventive of London, suffered the death of a traitor, the rot in sheep. About thirty species of Aug. 23, 1305. His memory is still highcheiranthus are known, almost exclusively ly revered in Scotland, and his deeds have confined to the eastern continent, several been the frequent theme of the poet and of which have been long cultivated in the historian. gardens.

WALLACHIA. (See Walachia.) WALLACE, sir William ; a celebrated WALLENSTEIN, Albert, count of (propScottish patriot and warrior, who was the erly Waldstein); duke of Friedland, genson of a small landholder of an ancient eralissimo of the Austrian army in the family in the west of Scotland. Possess- thirty years' war, a man whose name exing great strength of body and undaunted cites mingled emotions of admiration and courage, as well as a warm attachment to abhorrence; for, though his achievements his native country, he beheld its subjuga- were great, he knew no motive but ambition by the English king, Edward I (9.v.), tion, and scrupled at no means of gratifywith the utmost impatience, and resolved ing it. He was the terror of his contemto undertake the task of liberating Scot- poraries, and, in the short period of land from a foreign yoke. Having col- 1625—34, exercised a powerful influence lected a small band of followers, he com- on events, and has therefore met with mamenced an irregular warfare with the ny historians. But the veil which hangs English troops left to secure the conquests over the last scene of his life has not of Edward; and his enterprising spirit been wholly removed by any of them.and local knowledge soon rendered him a Albert of Waldstein, born at Prague, in formidable foe. In 1297, he planned an 1583, was descended from a distinguished attack on the English justiciary at Scone; Bohemian family, which was attached to but that officer and his colleagues eluded the Protestant religion. For the instructhe danger by flight. Many of the barons, tions which he received under the paterencouraged by this success, joined the nal roof, and in the celebrated Protestant standard of Wallace, or secretly favored school at Goldberg, in Silesia, he had no his designs. Earl Warenne, the govern- taste. His restless, impetuous disposition or of Scotland, under king Edward, as- was hostile to discipline, and, in all missembled an army of 40,000 men, with chievous exploits, he was the leader of which he marched against the Scottish his fellow scholars, over whom he exerchampion, who retreated to Cambusken- cised a certain supremacy. He behaved



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