Imatges de pÓgina

were no heavier than a feather. When one of the bearers performs his part ill,

V. by making the inhalation out of time, the part of the body which he tries to raise is lefi, as it were, behind. Among the

VACANTIVI. (See Schools, I. remarkable exhibitions of mechanical page 251.) strength and dexterity, we may enumer

Van der Does. (See Dousa.) ate that of supporting pyramids of men.

Vanglo. (See Sesamum Orientale.) This exhibition is a very ancient one. It Velchi. (See Acheron.) is described, though not very clearly, by

VERBANUS. (See Lago Maggiore.) the Roman poet Claudian; and it has de

VERD ANTIQUE. (See Marble.) rived some importance in modern times,

VIJAYA Puri. (See Bija-pur.) in consequence of its having been per

Vilvao. (See Bilboa.) formed in various parts of Great Britain VINE-FRETTERS, or APHIDES. (See by the celebrated traveller Belzoni, be- Ants.) före he entered upon the more estimable

VIPER'S GRASS. (See Salsafy.) carrer of an explorer of Egyptian an- Virtues, Cardinal. (See Cardinal tiquities. The simplest form of this feat

Virtues.) consists in placing a number of men upon

VITalians. (See Apollinarians.) each other's sboulders, so that each row

VITRIOL. (For Green Vitriol, see Cop consists of a man fewer, till they form a peras ; for Blue Vitriol, see Copper.) pyramid terminating in a single person,

Voltaic Pile. (See Galranism) upon whose head a boy is sometimes VOULGARIANS. (See Bulgarians.) placed with his feet upwards.

Vulcanian HYPOTHESIS. (See GoodSTRIPED SNAKE. (See Serpent.) ogy.) SYCAMORE. (See Plane-Tree.)



Wahoo. (See Elm.)

Wairs. (See Estrays.) TacamaHAC. (See Poplar.)

WAKE. (See Late Wake.) Tallevas. (See Shield.)

WAKEFIELD, Priscilla, died in August, TARABOSAN. (See Thebisond.)

1832, at the age of eighty-two years Tautog. (See Black-Fish.)

WARDSHIP, Feudal. (See Teruruz.' TENTERDEN, lord, died in November, WARNEFRID. (See Paul the Deacon, 1832.

WATERLANDERS. (See Anabaptista, TERGOUW. (See Gouda.)

WATER SNAKE. (See Serpent.) Tessel. (See Terel.)

Ways. (See Ship.) Testimony. (See Evidence.)

WEATHERCOCK. (See l'ane.) Thorax. (See Chest.).

Werst. (See Measures.) Thorn, Egyptian. (See Acacia.) WHARRA-TREE. (See Screw-Pine.

THUG. (See Phansygurs, in this Ap- WHISPERING GALLERIES. In whisper pendix.)

ing galleries, or places where the low TIERRA DEL FUEGO. (See Terra del whispers are carried to distances al wurde Fuego.)

the direct sound is inaudible, the sound Tin Glass. (See Bismuth.)

may be conveyed in two ways, other by Tofana. (See Aqua Tofana.) repeated reflections from a curved surtas Tombac. (See Copper.)

in the direction of the sides of a party cum Topaz. (See Quartz.)

inscribed in a circle, or where the winn Torino. (See Turin.)

perer is in the focus of one retecting TRUSTEE PROCESS. (See Attachment, surface, and the hearer in the focused Foreign.)

another reflecting surface, which is piard TUMBLE Bug. (See Beelle.)

so as to receive the reflected sounds Thr TURKEY BUZZARD. (See Buzzard.) first of these ways is exemplified in the TURMAGAUNT. (See Termag aunt.)

whispering gallery of St. Paul's, and in tim octagonal gallery of Gloucester catbeatral

which conveys a whisper seventy-five U.

feet across the nave, and the sed in the baptistery of a church in Pisa, where

the architeci Giovanni Pisano is saad > vs. (See Ulans.)

have constructed the cupola on purpose

The cupola has an elliptical form; and conjunction with Mr. Fox, made up when a person whispers in one focus, the administration well known by the it is distinctly heard by the person placed designation of “all the talents.” In this in the other focus, but not by those who short-lived cabinet Mr. Windham held are placed between them. The sound the post of secretary of war and colonies, first reflected passes across the cupola, in which capacity he carried into a law and enters the ears of the intermediate bis bill for limited service in the regular persons; but it is too feeble to be heard, army. His death took place in 1810, in till it has been condensed by a second re- consequence of a contusion of the hip, flection to the other focus of the ellipse. A produced by a fall. The eloquence of naval officer, who travelled through Sicily Mr. Windham was forcible, pointed, and in the year 1824, gives an account of a peculiar, and he produced considerable powerful whispering place in the cathe- impression, both as an orator and a statesdral of Girgenti, where the slightest man, although, perhaps, rather by the whisper is carried, with perfect distinct- honest ardency of many of his strong ness, through a distance of 250 feet, from opinions, than by their political or philothe great western door to the cornice sophical accuracy. He was a sound scholbehind the high altar. By an unfortunate ar, and highly esteemed in private life. coincidence, the focus of one of the re- WINNEBAGOES. (See Indians, Ameriflecting surfaces was chosen for the place can.) of the confessional; and, when this was WITHERITE. (See Barytes.). accidentally discovered, the lovers of WITHERSPOON, John, is at the end of secrets resorted to the other focus, and this Appendix. thus became acquainted with confessions WOODBINE. (See Honeysuckle.) of the gravest import. This divulgence WOODCHOCK. (See Marmot.) of scandal continued for a considerable WORCESTER ; capital of Worcester time, till the eager curiosity of one of the county, Massachusetts, 40 miles northdilettanti was punished by hearing his north-west of Providence, 40 west by wife's avowal of her own infidelity. This south of Boston, 420 from Washington ; circumstance gave publicity to the whis- population in 1830, 4271 ; valuation, pering peculiarity of the cathedral; and $2,357,896. It is a neat and flourishing the confessional was removed to a place town, with considerable trade and manuof greater secrecy. (See Brewster's Nat- factures. Among the public buildings ural Magic.)

are a court-house, jail, county penitentiaWHITEBACKS. (See Duck.)

ry, lunatic hospital, town-ball, four meetWHITEWOOD. (See Tulip-Tree.) ing-houses, three for Congregationalists Wild Boar. (See Hog.)

and one for Baptists. There are three Wilmot,John. (See Rochester, Earl of.) printing-offices, from which four news

WINDHAM, William, a senator and papers are issued weekly. The Ameristatesman of some eminence, was the son can antiquarian society, founded and of colonel Windham, of Felbrigge, in endowed by the late Isaiah Thomas, Norfolk. He was born in London, in LL. D., have a handsome hall, a valuable 1750, and educated at Eton, whence be cabinet, and a library of about 8000 volwas removed first to the university of umes, containing many ancient and rare Glasgow, and subsequently to University books and works on American history, college, Oxford. He entered parliament to which strangers are freely admitted. in 1782, as member for Norwich, at which The Blackstone canal extends from Wortime he was secretary to the earl of cester along the valley of the Blackstone Northington, lord-lieutenant of Ireland. river, forty-five miles, to Providence. A He sided with the opposition, until the rail-road from Boston to Worcester bas celebrated secession from the whig party been commenced. The town, called Quinin 1793, when he followed the lead of sigamond by the natives, was granted, in Mr. Burke, and was appointed secretary 1668, to major-general Daniel Gookin and at war, with a seat in the cabinet. This others. The first planting was begun in office he retained until the resignation of 1674. The inhabitants having been twice Mr. Pitt, in 1801, and distinguished him- driven away by the Indian wars, the third self by his opposition to the ephemeral and permanent settlement was comtreaty of Amiens. On Mr. Addington's menced in 1713. The town was incorbeing driven from the helm, in 1805, a porated in 1722, and on the erection of new administration was again formed by Worcester county, in 1732, became the Mr. Pitt, which was terminated by his capital. death in 1806, when lord Grenville, in Wou-wou. (See Ape.)

as the remote cause may have been more Y.

or less active or concentrated. They may also be influenced by individual

habits or constitutions, or by the force Yack. (See Or.)

of the occasional or exciting cause; and YELLOW Fever.' This fever is one of hence we find it run its course rapidly specific character, and confined to situa- sometimes; that is, in from two to five tions in which great moisture is joined days, a part of the cases terminating in with great heat. It prevails in the West black vomit. In this form of the disorder, Indies, certain parts of Asia, South Ameri- the symptoms are generally less feron ca, occasionally in the northern parts of cious, and less distinctly marked, though North America, and pretty constantly in more certainly and speedily fatal ; or i the southern. It is endemial in many may run on to the fifth or to the seventh portions of the globe, and especially in day; and though the sufferings are of a the tropical climates, and is occasionally more acute kind, the danger is less & epidemic in certain of the higher nonh- more time is given for the application of em latitudes, as at Baltimore, Philadelphia remedies; or it may present, like a reguand New York. It is most common in larly-formed remitteni, regular exacerbeseaports, and on large bodies of water, tions and remissions. If it assume thus but is occasionally found in inland sittia- form, it may run on to the ninth or eler tions. It differs materially from the en- enth day. The first form observes ne demial remittent of tropical climates, and very regular period of attack, though the is of course, not merely an exalted form evening is the most common. The see of the bilious remittent of such places. It ond generally takes place after noon; and differs from the endemial remittent of the the third, most frequently in the morning. West Indies, in its attacking strangers The mode of attack, however, is premy to such climates only. The natives, and generally 'marked by the same train of even such as have been born or lived symptoms, differing more in force than in long in similar situations, are altogether character, if we except the first, which exempt from its attacks; and, should the often has the peculiarity of betraying itself stranger survive the dangers of an attack, by scarcely any outward signs, exceput he remains free, for the most part, subse- weakness, slight headache, or bausta quendy, though not exempt from the This insidious character lulls the patient endemial remittent of the place. This and his friends into a fatal security. The inmunity, howerer, may be forfeited by patient has been known to walk about the stranger living for a vear or two in a until within a few minutes of dissoludon. northern latitude: should the stranger The unmasked or violent attack of yelky escape for a year or two, he becomes ac- fever is therefore, less to be dreaded than climated, and is no longer liable to be the seemingly mild form, as the derang attacked by yellow fever. This disease ment of the system is more palpable, has been looked upon, by some, as con- though it is always highly dangerous. This tagious; but this notion is now altogether disease differs in its attack froin almas abandoned by far the greater part of the erery other form of fever, as it is seldoer protession ; and especially such as bave ushered in by a well-defined chill, though had opportunities to observe its phenome- the sensation of cold, and a reduced temna, and ascertain its habits for themselves. perature of the skin, will remain sometimes That it spreads rapidly sometimes, is a long time before reaction will take place. admitted ; but this is owing to the causes Much languor is always experiemed: which make it an epidemie, and not to for the most part, intense headache, dis any contagious quality. This disease tress about the precordia, and tbe eves are varies in its mode of attack, as well as in of a peculiar red. The heat of the skin the violence of its symptoms. In almost is seldom great in the beginning, but erery other febrile disease, as a general soon increases in intensity, conveying rule, the risk is in proportion to the rio- to the mind the sensation of pungeder. lence of the symptoms; but the masked The pulse is rarely open and strong: inor insidious form of yellow fever, is most deed, it usually appears rather more feecommonly the most difficult of manage. ble than natural to the inexperienced men, and, consequently, the most dan- practitioner, which sometimes betrays gerous. Hence the walking cases" are him into dangerous errors. The puke ir almost sure to prore fatal. There are this state is termed the oppressed or de oppe moules of attack in vellow ferer; pressed pulse by authors; and, instead

se phenomena of either may vary, of requiring the aid of stimuli, ss has

been too often supposed, calls loudly for fluids discharged are, for the most part, the proper use of the lancet. The face nothing but the drinks which the patient assumes a peculiar, or, rather, a specific has swallowed ; for these, even in the flush, which is totally distinct from the beginning, are rarely tinged with bile. redness of ordinary fever. This redden- But a threatening change soon follows ; ing gives a very marked character to the the fluids become thicker, and somewhat countenance, and can never be mistaken, ropy, and are now found to have mixed by an eye experienced in this disease, for, with them a flaky substance, of a dark a symptom of common fever : on the con- color. These flaky substances, there is trary, it always denotes a high degree of reason to believe, are portions of the yellow fever. The tongue is usually villous coat of the stomach, detached, moist and clammy; but rarely dry, rough and made to mix with the ejected fluids, or red, in the commencement, though by the effort of vomiting. The urine, at these conditions of this organ are sure to this time, is usually very scanty, or may follow in a short time. The skin is dry be even suppressed; the bowels are tardy, and harsh, for the most part; though oc- or yield a blackish, tarry-looking subcasionally it is found wet, with hot per- stance, of considerable tenacity. The spiration. This sweat is sometimes early whole surface of the body, with the in its appearance, and, at times, extreme- exception, perhaps, of the abdomen, ly profuse in its quantity; but it neither is colder than natural ; sometimes dry, abates the action of the heart and arteries, sometimes moist; the hands and feet nor mitigates the local sufferings—as deathly cold, mottled with stagnating headache, pains in the limbs, or oppres- blood; the pulse feeble, fluttering, or exsion in the lungs. It is therefore not tinct; or it may be slow, composed, and critical, but, on the contrary, rather might, by the inexperienced, be even probetrays malignancy. There is rarely so nounced natural. Sleep forsakes the great an abatement of symptoms, at any patient, or he dozes, to suffer more; his period of the day, as to amount to a re- respiration is burried, or preternaturally mission, though there frequently is an slow. His mind may wander, but deliriexacerbation that is every way alarming, um is not a very usual symptom in yellow from its intensity; and this may happen fever. Indeed, the patients, in this distwice, or even thrice, in the twenty-four ease, often possess the entire use of their hours. When this happens, the disease faculties to the very last moment of life. proceeds, with hasty strides, to its fatal Some die most tranquilly, declaring, with termination; for should not remedies at almost their latest breath, that nothing this time, especially bleeding, abale the ailed them; while others die in great severity of the symptoms very soon after agony. When this happens, it is genetheir application, more fatal symptoms rally when delirium is present, and when quickly supervene ; the eye becomes the brain, from sympathy, seems to susmore sad ; lividity is added to the deep- tain the great force of attack. The patoned color of the cheek; the tenderness tient may now become more tranquil, is much increased by pressure over the from an evident mitigation of all the region of the stomach ; nausea and severer symptoms; and this short-lived vomiting commence or increase ; the pa- truce gives rise, in the inexperienced, to tient tosses himself into every position ; hopes that are never to be realized; for delirium ensues ; the urine becomes in- now the yellowness of the skin, which tense in color, and small in quantity; the gives its pame to the disease, begins to extremities lose their heat; the gums be- show itself, and becomes the harbinger come swollen and livid; the tongue red, of the dreaded and fatal “ black vomit.” or brown, and dry; thirst insatiable; and This matter is thrown from the stomach, the drinks rejected, perhaps, as fast as sometimes in incredible quantities, and swallowed. After a continuance of these of various shades of color, from darksymptoms for a few hours, the system brown to the color of coffee-grounds, or seems to make a compromise with the blackness. It is ejected with very little disease, and passively yields itself up to effort, and the patient, for the most part, its ravages; for there is no diminution of denies the existence of pain. Black vomthe danger at this moment, though the it, however, does not always precede system seems less morbidly excited ; for death ; it is occasionally absent. But if the suffering be less, danger is increased. when this is the case, its place is supplied Now the stomach gives way; the most by the eructation of prodigious quantities tormenting nausea and thirst, with almost of gas, rapidly and constantly secreted incessant vomitings, take place. The by the stomach. The gums, and other nortions of the body, at this time, yield be taken as a guide ; for it has been considerable quantities of blood, which known to resemble a pulse in health, renders the aspect of the patient truly when dissolution has been near at band; hideous. The teeth become incrusted while, again, it has been known to cease, with sordes; the tongue black and dry; yet the patient recover.—Treatment. The the pulse preternaturally slow and feeble; treatment of this disease is very far from or it may be, at the wrist, extinct ; the being as efficacious or certain as its dan skin and extremities cold; coma, or low, ger requires; yet it is not so fatal, usmuttering delirium, takes place; some- der favorable circumstances, as might, times convulsions ; then death. The at first sight, be supposed. In tropical prognosis in this disease must always be climates, it rages among strangers almost regarded, even in its commencement, as exclusively; and these, for the most unfavorable, though this fever is not in- part, are of a description unable to proevitably fatal. If the disease have com- cure the best means of mitigating suffermenced in an open, undisguised form, the ing or averting danger. In northerly chance is increased; but if it attack insidi- situations, where the disease is, as it were, ously, the danger is almost in proportion to accidental, the mortality, under the best the absence of prominent or decided symp- circumstances, is considerably less, though toms. If the disease assume, or can be still very much too great. We may almade to put on, a regular form, that is, have tribute some portion of the mortality its remissions and exacerbations in pretty to the discrepancy in the views that hare regular order, though the symptoms run been taken of the habits and nature of high, there appears a better chance to in- the disease. Some suppose it contacrease the one and moderate the other. gious in a high degree: this infallibiy But, on the other hand, if the disease dis- increases the mortality, by causing the cover no tendency to regular remission, or necessary means to be withheld from the if reaction be but feeble and transitory, the suffering, under the apprehension of perrisk is greatly augmented. If the patient sonal danger ; while others look upon its sigh deeply, immediately after waking, and nature to be the same as that of typhus, before he have recovered the powers of and fatally adopt a treatment conformaspeech, the presage is bad; or if he com- ble to such a view; and, consequently, plain of much soreness and pain, without thousands are sacrificed to a hypothesis the part having any morbid appearance, it The opinion is now, however, daily gainis equally unfavorable. Those whose arms ing ground, that yellow fever is essenbecome rigid seldom get well; and those tially an inflammatory disease, and one who have an entire suppression of urine which requires a vigorous and strictly never recover. Black vomit is always a antiphlogistic plan of treatment. But very unfavorable symptom, especially neither a correct pathology, nor the best when attended by hiccough, but is not concerted means, will avail, if the proper necessarily fatal, particularly in young peo- time for their application be lost. To be ple. The "puking of wind,” as it is called, successful in the treatment of yellow leis perhaps as deadly a symptom as black ver, no time must be spent in temporizing. vomit. 'On the other hand, should there Yellow fever, as has just been stated, be a general abatement of the symptoms, must, agreeably to the best authorities, be especially of headache, with a softened looked upon as an erquisite gastritis: a skin ; a general and equally distributed fact that should never be lost sight of: warmth ; less jactitation; diminution of it is for the relief of this condition of the thirst, without nausea or vomiting, and stomach, almost exclusively, that remethe tongue beginning to clean; less tender- dies are to be sought. It has been medness in the epigastrium; bilious fæcal tioned, that the pulse, from its similated discharges; a free flow of lighter colored weakness, and the feebleness of reaction urine (and particularly if it deposit a late- in its more dangerous forms, has misled ritious sediment); a moderate, and gene- the practitioner to the fatal use of stimurally-diffused perspiration, after the abate- lants. It is the depressed, or oppressed ment of the exacerbation,—the disease pulse, so called-a pulse that always acmay be considered as less desperate, and quires vigor by the abstraction of blood. as tending to a healthy solution. The The quantity to be taken at any given pulse, in this disease, betrays, from be- time, cannot well be defined; for this ginning to end, less concern, if we may so state of the arterial system may require

thanin almost any other with which the loss of a large quantity of blood to

quainted. Indeed, but little de- relieve it, or the pulse may become open s to be put upon it, if it alone and free by the abstraction of only a few

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