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reus, an Irishman, at the head of six hal- pieces of Schiller, Wallenstein's Lager, Die berdiers, was intrusted with the execution Piccolomini, and Wallenstein's I'ocs are of the emperor's order on Wallenstein, among the finest productions of modern who, surprised in his bed-chamber, re- poetry. Some of the personages (Thekla ceived in silence, with outstretched arms, and Max) are the mere creations of the pothe thrusts of the halberds in his breast, et's imagination. (See Thirty Years' War.) and expired without a groan. He was not WALLER, sir William, a military officer, yet fifty-two years old. Not an arm was who distinguished himself in the civil raised to avenge his death ; and he was wars between Charles I and the parliaentombed, without pomp, in the Carthu- ment, was born in 1597, and was a consian monastery, founded by himself, at nexion of the poet. He studied at OxGitschin. He was mourned only by his ford and Paris, and began his military widow. His cold, imperious temper had career in the service of the confederate prevented him from gaining friends. The princes against the emperor, where he aclarge sums of money found in his posses- quired the reputation of a good soldier. sion fell into the hands of the conspira- Upon his return home, he received the tors and their associates. All his papers honor of knighthood, was elected a memwere seized; but none have come to the ber of the long parliament for Andover, public knowledge, that prove his treach- and, having suffered under the severiery. His extensive possessions were con- ty of the star chamber, acquired a fiscated by the Emperor,and given, in part, to predilection for the Presbyterian discithose who had assisted in his destruction. pline. He soon became strenuous in his Wallenstein was of a large, strong frame; opposition to the court, and, when hostilihis small, black eyes had a fire which all ties commenced, was appointed second in could not endure; bis mien was always command of the parliamentary army, unserious, cold and repulsive ; his activity der the earl of Essex. The west of Engwas extraordinary. Though his table was land was the principal theatre of his exalways richly filled, he was himself mod- ploits, where he obtained several signal erate, and resisted all the allurements of advantages, but ultimately sustained desense, seeking only the gratification of his feats by the king's forces at Roundway ambition. He spent, however, a great Down, near Devizes, and at Cropready deal in splendid buildings, and in a du- bridge, in Oxfordshire. The blame was merous and stately household. His own thrown by him on the jealousy of other dress was generally marked by some sin- officers; and soon after, having refused to gularity. He possessed much prudence, fall in with the views of the Independents, knowledge of mankind, and cunning, es- he, among others, was removed by the pecially the art of fathoming the inten- self-denying ordinance. Being deemed a tions of others and concealing his own. great support to the Presbyterian party, Towards those who were dependent on he was one of the eleven members imhim, he was severe, and not unfrequently peached of high treason by the army, and cruel. He was lavish to those whom he finally expelled the house of commons, wished to gain over to his purposes, but and committed to prison. He was again possessed not the art of winning the heart. taken into custody, on suspicion of being With personal courage, he united confi- engaged in sir George Booth's insurrecdence in himself, and was not destitute tion, but was released upon bail. He of military talents, though he cannot be died at his seat in 1668. He published compared with the great tacticians who Divine Meditations, which were written were opposed to him (Gustavus Adol- during his retirement, and give a faithful phus and Bernard of Weimar). All his picture of his sentiments and failings. military undertakings were based on nu. He also left behind him a manuscript, merical superiority of troops; and his published in 1793, under the title of Vinmanner of wagiog war showed rather dication of Sir William Waller, explanapolicy than military ability. He had no tory of his Conduct in taking up Arms respect for religion, and was the professed against King Charles. Written by himenemy of the clergy, who, on their part, self. hated him in an equal degree. He was WALLER, Edmund; an eminent English unable to rise above the prejudices of his poet, born at Coleshill, in Warwickshire, age. His usual companion, who left him in March, 1605. His father died during his only a few moments before his death, was infancy, leaving him an ample fortune. the Italian astrologer Seni, who, as was He was educated at Eton, whence he was suspected, was bribed by the imperial removed to King's college, Cambridge. court to mislead him. The dramatic He was chosen member of parliament in

his sixteenth or seventeenth year, and him. He was also restored to his estate, evinced bimself a poet almost as soon as although now reduced to half its value ; a politician, his verses On the Prince's and he fixed his abode at a house he had Escape at St. Andero being written in built near Beaconstield. He next paid his eighteenth year. What is more re- his court to Cromwell, to whom his mothmarkable, they exlıibit a style and versifi- er was related ; and the very noblest tribute cation as perfectly formed as those of his of his muse was oftered to the protector. more mature productions. He continued On the restoration, he was equally comto employ his muse on courtly topics, plaisant to Charles II, but not so success. and augmented bis fortune by a marriage ful; which being remarked to him by the with a rich city heiress. Being lett a king, he replied, “ Poets succeed much betwidower at the age of twenty-five, heter in fiction than in truth.” In a reign became the suitor of lady Dorothea Sid- of oblivion for past offences, and no reney, eldest daughter of the earl of Leices- gard for character, his wit and poetry ter, whom he has immortalized under the soon made him a favorite at court and in poetical name of Sacharissa. He de- the highest circles; and he had also inscribes her as a haughty and scornful terest to obtain a seat in all the parliabeauty ; and, his addresses being unsuc- ments of the reign. In 1665, he was cessful, he acted as poetical, and other emboldened to request the provostship of lovers, under such circumstances, frequent- Eton college, which was given him; but ly act, and married somebody else. In Clarendon refused to set the seal to the the parliament of 1610, he was again grant, which produced a rupture of the chosen to represent Agmondesham, and friendship that had long subsisted betook a decided part with those who tween them; and he joined Buckingham thought that a redress of grievances ought and the enemies of that minister. On to precede a vote of supply. He also sat the accession of James II, Waller, then for the same borough in the long parlia- in his eightieth year, was chosen reprement, and joined Hampden, who was his sentative for Saltash ; and he appears to uncle, in his opposition to ship-money. have taken advantage of his intimacy with He continued to vote with the opposition, that monarch to give him very sound adbut did not fall in with all their measures, vice. He now turned his thoughts to deand absented himself from the house of votion, and composed Divine Poems commons on the commencement of open He died at Beaconsfield, in 1687, in the hostilities. He is also thought to have eighty-third year of bis age. His intelsent the king some pecuniary aid at Not- lectual powers were of a superior order : tingham. He was one of the commis- he was at once a prompt, elegant and sioners employed to treat with Charles at graceful speaker, while the wit and pleasOxford, who treated him with great kind- antness of his conversation made him a ness. His mind being then entirely dis- favorite, even with those whoin his abject posed towards the royal party, he entered pliancy must have disgusted. English verinto a plot with his brother-in-law, nam- sification is much indebted to him; and for ed Tomkyns, clerk of the council to the ease, gallantry, gayety, brilliancy and wit, queen, who possessed considerable in- his amatory poetry has not been surpassfluence, to produce a rising in the city. ed. The dignity which he assumes in When arrested, there was little to con- some heroic themes he not unfrequently vict them of the desigu; but Waller, ac- attains; and his thoughts are often worthy cording to lord Clarendon, to save himself, of the sonorous versification in which betrayed every body and every thing. they are clothed. He was not, however, The conclusion of this business, in which sufficiently natural for pathos, or elevated he displayed great baseness, was the exe- for sublimity; but he trifles with ingenuicution of Tomkyns and Challoner, with ty, and is serious with an air of grandeur; his own expulsion from the house; after nor will he ever be entirely neglected by which he was tried and condemned; but the student of English poetry. He leit on paying a fine of £10,000, he was allow- several children by his second wife, one ed to leave the kingdom. He retired first of whom, a daughter, was married to to Rouen, and subsequently to Paris, doctor Birch; and Edward, who suewhere he lived on his wife's jewels, until, ceeded to the estate, ultimately became a after a lapse of ten years, perceiving him- Quaker. His descendants still reside at self getting to the end of his resources, he Beaconsfield, in great affluence. applied for permission to return to England, WALLINGFORD ; a borough and market which, by the interest of colonel Scroope, town of England, Berkshire, on the who had married his sister, was granted Thames. It has sent two members to

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parliament from the twenty-third year of Wallis ; the German name of the VaEdward I, but, by the reform act of 1832, lais. (See Valais.) is deprived of one of its members. The Walloons; the inhabitants of the dignunber of voters was previously about trict situated between the Scheldt and the 210, the right of election having been in Lys, to which belongs a part of the former the corporation, and inhabitants paying French Flanders and the present French scot and lot. Population, 2542.

departments of the North and of the ChanWallis, John, a celebrated mathema- nel (pas de Calais). In a more general tician, born in 1616, at Ashford, in Kent, sense, Walloons are the inhabitants of the where his father was minister, was edu- former Henault, Namur, Luxemburg, cated for the church at Emanuel college, Limburg, and of part of the former bishCambridge, and, having regularly taken opric of Liege, who speak Walloon or his degrees, entered into holy orders, and, old French, considered by some as a in 1641, became chaplain to a Yorkshire relic of the ancient Gallic language, baronet. In 1643, he obtained a living in mixed, however, with Spanish, German, London, and, the following year, was one &c. words. In the old geographical of the secretaries to the assembly of di- works we find a Walloon Flanders, and vines at Westminster. He was one of the a Walloon Brabant. The name either first members of the scientific association comes from Wall (water or sea), as these which gave birth to the royal society, tribes in Germany lived on the sea-coast, and, in 1649, was appointed, by the par- or from the old German word Wahle, liamentary visitors, Savilian professor of which signifies a foreigner, especially an geometry at Oxford. In 1653, he pub- Italian (hence walnuts); and Wälschlished a grammar of the English tongue, land, in German, signifies Italy. (In the written in Latin, for the use of foreigners. same way the Polish word for foreigner He was admitted to the degree of doctor is used to signify, particularly, a German.) of divinity in 1654, and, on the death of The Walloon guards, which formerly Langbaine, was chosen custos archivorum constituted part of the Spanish household to the university. He was particularly troops, were so called, because, as long as skilful in the art of cryptography, or de- Spain was the mistress of the Netherciphering; and having by this means lands, these guards were recruited from been enabled to render considerable ser- the Walloon part of Flanders. The vice to the royal cause, he was, on the Walloons, in the thirty years' war (q. v.), restoration of Charles II, very favorably were distinguished for valor, and for their received at court, and made one of the savage spirit. royal chaplains. In 1661, he was one of WALMODEN, Louis, count of; Austrian the divines appointed to review the book lieutenant field-marshal, born in Vienna, of Common Prayer ; and, as he complied in 1769, where his father, John Louis, earl with the terms of the act of uniformity, of Walmoden, a natural son of George II, he continued a steady conformnist to the was British minister. He was at first in established church till his death. When the Hanoverian, then in the Prussian, and the royal society was founded, in 1663, the at length entered the Austrian service, Dame of doctor Wallis was included in in which he distinguished himself from the list of the earliest members; and he 1796. In the campaign of 1813, he was added much to the reputation of that victorious over the French on the Görde. body by his valuable contributions to the In 1817, when count Nugent entered the Philosophical Transactions. After a long Neapolitan service, he took his place as life devoted to science and to the duties commander of the Austrian troops in the of his clerical profession, he died at Ox kingdom of Naples. ford, in 1703. `Among his mathematical Walnut (juglans). The walnuts difworks, the most important are Arithmetica fer from the hickories, in many respects, Infinitorum ; Mathesis Universalis, sive in the structure of their flowers and fruit; Opus Arithmeticum ; Mechanica, sive de and the last have been formed into a disMotu Tractatus geometricus ; De Sectioni- tinct genus under the name of carya. (See bus Conicis Tractatus ; and his Algebra. Hickory.) The foliage and general habit He also published some of the writings of the trees are very similar, but a differof Archimedes, Ptolemy, Aristarchus, and ence is again perceived in the properties Porphyry. His works, including various of the wood. The true walnuts are easily treatises on theology, were published at recognised by the fruit, the outer rind beOxford, 1692—99 13 vols, folio); and a ing destitute of valves, and the external volume of his sermons, printed from the surface of the nut rugose and irregularly original manuscripts, appeared in 1791. furrowed.—The common European walnut, improperly called with us English It is especially necessary to protect amwalnut (J. regia), was discovered by Mi- putated limbs from the weather, by nicely chaux the elder, growing wild in the adapting a covering of clay to the exprovince of Ghilan, which lies on the posed surface, so as entirely to exclude Caspian sea, between lat. 35° and 40°. It the rain. This valuable tree would be a was introduced into Europe at a remote desirable accession to the U. States. Its period, and is now common in the central timber is, indeed, inferior to our own black parts of that continent, but flourishes most walnut, but the excellence of the fruit, in Italy, Spain, and the south-western and the decided superiority of the oil in departinents of France. It is a lofty and the preparation of colors, strongly recombeautiful tree. The fruit, in the wild mend it to American cultivators. It has state, contains a small, hard nut, of infe- succeeded perfectly in many parts of the rior quality; but in the cultivated varieties, country; but we are not aware that planthe nut is much larger, the shell becomes tations on a large scale have been any thin enough to be easily crushed by the where attempted.—The black walnut (J. fingers, and the kernel is very agreeably nigra) is found in most parts of the U. tasted. These nuts are highly esteemed, States, the extreme north and east exand are often served up at desserts, and cepted, and the low district of the Southform an article of commerce. The oil ern States, where its absence seems to be expressed from them is in general use as owing to the nature of the soil, which is an article of diet, in those districts where either too sandy or too wet. It requires a the tree abounds, and serves a still more deep and fertile soil, and in favorable situaimportant purpose in the preparation of tions the trunk often attains the diameter of fine colors: it is preferred on account of the six or seven feet. It is one of our largest complete and rapid manner in which it trees, and yields to none in the majesty of dries, and the facility of obtaining it per- its appearance. The nuts are sold in the fectly limpid, by diffusing it upon water markets of our principal cities, and are in large shallow vases. In copper-plate often served upon table. The shell is very printing at Paris, it is considered indis- hard, and the kernel is divided by firm pensably necessary for a fine impression, woody partitions, but has a sweet and either in black or colors. By boiling the agreeable flavor, though inferior to the husks when beginning to decay, and the European. The wood is very strong and bark of the roots, a substantial dark-brown very tenacious, when thoroughly seasoncolor is obtained, which is used by dyers ed is not liable to warp and split, and refor woollens, and also by cabinet-makers mains sound a long time, even when exto stain other species of wood in imitation posed to the influence of heat and moisof walnut. The fruit, in a green state, ture: the grain is sufficiently fine to before the shell hardens, is much used for admit a fine polish, and it is, besides, sepickling, and also as an adulteration of cure from the attacks of worms. In soy sauce. The leaves, strewed on the Kentucky and Ohio, it is split into shinground, annoy worms. Before mahoga- gles, and sometimes enters into the comny was imported so abundantly into Eu- position of the frames of houses, but is rope, the wood was employed, almost chiefly employed in cabinet-making exclusively, in cabinet-making, and is still wherever it abounds. By selecting pieces in general use in the interior; and the immediately below the first ramifications, furniture is far from being inelegant. It the furniture is sometimes rendered ex. is preferred for the stocks of muskets, as tremely beautiful, from the accidental it is lighter, in proportion to its strength curlings of the grain; but, as the color and elasticity, than any other wood. soon changes to a dusky hue, wild cherry Great quantities of wooden shoes are also is frequently preferred. It is employed made of it. Seven or eight varieties are for the stocks of muskets, and is said to cultivated. When propagated for timber, make excellent naves for wheels. At the nut is sown; but when fruit is the Philadelphia, coffins are exclusively made object, inarching froin the branches of of it. Black walnut is excellently adaptfruit-bearing trees is preferable. Budding ed to certain uses in Daval architecture, has also been tried with success, and the but should never be wrought till perfectly buds succeed best when taken from the seasoned, when it is said to be more base of the annual shoots : ordinary-sized durable, though more brittle, than the buds from the upper parts of such shoots white oak. In the ship-yards of Philagenerally fail. Trees that have not been delphia, it is often used for knees and grafied or budded, may be induced to floor timber ; but in the vessels built on produce blossoms by ringing the bark. the Ohio, it constitutes the principal part


of the frame. On the Wabash, canoes came an active member of the whig parare made of it, which are highly esteem- ty. In 1702, he obtained his election for ed for their strength and durability. King's Lynn, which he also represented Planks, two inches in thickness, are ex- in several succeeding parliaments. In ported to England in small quantities.- 1705, he was nominated one of the counThe butternut (J. cinerea) is abundant in cil to prince George of Denmark, as lord the Northern, and especially in the West- high admiral of England; in 1708 was apern States. It is a much smaller tree pointed secretary at war, and, the followthan the preceding, rarely exceeding fiftying year, treasurer of the navy. In 1710, feet in height, with a trunk ten or twelve he was one of the parliamentary maninches in diameter. The fruit is elongat- agers in the trial of Sacheverel; but, on ed, covered externally with a viscid, ad- the dissolution of the whig ministry, he hesive substance; and the nut is hard, very was dismissed from all his employments, rough externally, and deeply and irregu- and, soon after, was voted, by the house larly furrowed. The nuts are sometimes of commons, guilty of a high breach of brought to market. The wood is light, trust, and notorious corruption in his of a reddish hue, and possesses little office of secretary at war; for which imstrength, but lasts long, and is secure puted offence he was expelled the house, from worins. It is sometimes used in and committed to the Tower of London. the construction of houses in the country, This severity, being a party proceeding, but never in cities. From its resistance little affected his character; so that, in to heat and moisture, it is esteemed for 1714, the borough of Lynn reëlected him; posts and rails, for troughs for the use of and he became a formidable opponent of cattle, and is preferred to the red maple the tory administration. On the accession for corn-shovels and wooden dishes, as it of George I, a new whig ministry was is lighter and less liable to split. At Pitts- formed; and Walpole, who had previousburg, it is sometimes sawn into planks for ly ingratiated himself with the family of the construction of small skiffs, which, Hanover, was appointed paymaster of the on account of their lightness, are in re- forces, treasurer of Chelsea hospital, and a quest for descending the river. At privy counsellor. Being nominated chairWindsor, in Vermont, it is used for the man of the secret committee formed to panels of coaches and chaises, and is inquire into charges against the late minperfectly adapted to this purpose. The isters, he drew up and moved the imbark affords one of the best cathartics peachment of lord Bolingbroke, the earl known, operating always with certainty, of Oxford, the duke of Ormond, and the and without pain or irritation even in the earl of Strafford. In the subsequent year, most delicate constitutions : it is not, how- 1715, he displayed so much energy and ever, in general use except in the country. vigor in support of government during A dark brown dye is also obtained from the rebellion, that he was raised to the the bark, which is employed in the important posts of first lord of the treasucountry for woollens; but that afforded ry and chancellor of the exchequer. In by the black walnut is preferred. By the course of the two following years, a piercing the trunk early in the spring, disunion took place in the cabinet on the sugar may be obtained, but of inferior question of supplies, to enable George I quality to maple sugar.

to vindicate his purchase of the duchies WALPOLE, Robert, earl of Orford, third of Bremen and 'Verden against Charles son of Robert Walpole, esquire, was born XII of Sweden; and Mr. Walpole resignat Houghton, bis father's seat, in Norfolk, ed. On the day of his resignation, he in 1676, and, in 1696, was admitted á brought in the sinking fund bill, which scholar of King's college, Cambridge. In he subsequently rendered 'nugatory by 1698, in consequence of the death of his misapplication. In the next session, he elder surviving brother, he became heir became a strenuous opposer of measures to the family estate, on which he resigned which, had he been in place, he would as his scholarship. He was then taken from certainly have supported, and mainly college by his father, and, in the jovial contributed to the rejection, by the comlife of a country gentleman, soon lost his mons, of the peerage bill of 1719. He inclination for literature. In 1700, he was the opposer, in 1720, of the South married the daughter of sir John Shorter, sea scheme for liquidating the national lord mayor of London, and, soon after, debt, on which subject he wrote a pamsucceeded to his paternal estate by the phlet. At length the earl of Sunderland, death of his father. He was also returned finding his ministry involved in great difrepresentative for Castle Rising, and be- ficulties, made overtures to Walpole, who

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