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Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1831, by

CAREY AND LEA, In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

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Greece, Axcent. The name of Gre- mountains are covered with the plants of cia originated in Italy, and was prob- the polar regions. In Athens, the therably derived from Pelasgian colonies, mometer very seldom falls below the who, coming from Epirus, and calling freezing point, or rises above 25° Reautheinselves Grecians, from Græcus, the mur (88 Fahrenheit). In the islands, eveson of their ancestor, Thessalus, occa- ry evening, at a particular hour, a gentle sioned the application of this name to all sea breeze sets in, which tempers the heat the people who spoke the same language of the day. But in the plains of Thessawith them. In earlier times, e. g., in the ly, which lie 1200 feet above the level of time of Homer, Greece ha no general the sea, and more especially in the mounname among the natives. It afterwards tains of Arcadia, the winter is as severe received the name of Hellas, and still lat- as in England. The fruits of the soil are er after the country was conquered by as abundant as they are various. Even the Romans, the name of Achaia, under where it is not adapted for the purposes of which Macedonia and Epirus were not husbandry, it produces thyme, marjoram, included. The Grecian tribes were so and a number of aromatic herbs, which widely dispersed, that it is difficult to de- afford a rich pasturage. Greece produces termine, with precision, the limits of eight kinds of corn and ten kinds of Greece, properly so called. The name olives. It is, perhaps, the native country was sometimes applied only to that coun- of the grape, particularly of the small ty which was surrounded on three sides sort, from which the currants of comby the Mediterranean sea, was separated merce are made. The name of these is from Macedonia by the Cambunian moun- a corruption of Corinth, the chief plantatains, and contained about 42,000 square tion having formerly been on the isthmus miles; sometimes it was taken in a wider of this name. There are 40 kinds of Gresense, including Macedonia and Epirus, cian grapes known. The honey of this having mouut Hæmus and the Ægean country is very famous. (See Hymettus./ and Ionian seas for its boundaries, and Greece produces all the necessaries of comprising the islands of these two seas. life, and there is no country whose coast Greece consists partly of continental, is so well supplied with bays and harbors and partly of insular regions. A chain for commerce. The main land is now of mountains, extending from the Ambra- divided into Northern Greece, Middle cian gulf, i the west, to Thermopylæ, on Greece, Greece Proper, or Hellas, in its the east, separates Northern Greece from narrower sense, and the Peloponnes Southern. The climate is alternately se- (Morea). 1. Northern Greece includes, vere or mild, as the mountains or valleys i. Thessaly (q. v.) (now Janna); 2. Epipredominate, but it is agreeable and rus (q. v.) (now Albania); 3. Macedonia

People are not unfrequently (now Macedonia, or Filiba-Vilajeti), acfound here, whose age is over 100 years. counted a part of Greece from the time The soil of the valleys and plains is favor- of Philip and Alexander, and making a able to the growth of the finest tropical link in the chain between Greece and fruits, while the summits of the high Thrace, of which, in earlier times, Mace

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healthy.

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donia made a part. II. Middle Greece, (Tine), Andros, Gyaros, Ceos (Zia), Syros, or Hellas (now Livadia), contains, 1. Acar- Cythnus (Thermia), Seriphos, Siphnos, nania, inhabited by a rough and warlike Cimolis (Argentiere), Melos (Milo), Thepeople, with no_remarkable rivers or ra (Santorin), los, where Homer is said to mountains; 2. Ætolia (q. v.); 3. Doris, have been buried, Naxos (in more ancient or Doris Tetrapolis (formerly Dryopolis); times, Dia), Paros (Paria), &c. To the 4. Locris (9. v.), with the pass of Ther Sporades belong Cos (Stanchio, Stingo), mopylæ ; 5. Phocis, watered by the Ce- Parmacusa, Patmos (Palmo, Palmosa), phissus, and containing mount Parnassus, Samos, Chios (Scio), with many smaller under which lay Delphi (q. v.); 6. Bæo- surrounding islands, Lesbos (Mitylene), the tia (9. v.); 7. Attica (q. v.); 8. Megaris, surrounding islands called Hecatonnysoi, with the city of Megara, the smallest of i. e., the hundred islands, Tenedos (Bogdsall the Grecian states. III. The penin- cha, Adassi), Lemnos (Stalimene), Imbros sula of the Peloponnesus, to which the (Lembro), Samothrace, Thasos, and, nearisthmus of Corinth led through Megaris, er the Grecian coast, Scyros and Eubea contained, 1. the territory of Corinth (Negropont). Ancient Macedonia was, (9. v.), with the city of the same name, in its interior, rough, woody and barren, called, in earlier times, Ephyra; 2. the and produced wine, oil and fruit-trees small territory of Sicyon, with the ancient only on the coast. The same is true of city of the same name; 3. Achaia, an- Epirus. But Thessaly was a fruitful and ciently called Ægialos, and, afterwards, well watered country, and produced the Jonia, contained 12 cities on the coast finest horses. Bæotia was likewise fruitwhich stretched along the Corinthian ful, and abounded in fine herds of cattle. gulf to the river Melas; 4. Elis, divided The soil of Locris was moderately good; into two parts by the river Alpheus, that of Doris was more fruitful, and that stretched from Achaia, south-west, to the of Phocis still more so, producing, in sea-coast; it contained the celebrated abundance, good wine, fine oil and madcities of Cyllene and Olympia (q. v.); der. The rough mountains of Ætolia 5. Messenia, with the river Pamisus, ex- were neither suited to pasturage nor to tending from the southern part of Elis agriculture. Acarnania, the sea-coast of along the sea to the ext ity of the con- Attica, and the mountainous parts of tinent, with the city of Messene, and the Megaris, were as little remarkable for ferfrontier towns of Ithome and Ira; 6. La- tility as Achaia. Argolis had a fruitful conia, Laconica, Lacedæmon, a moun- soil; and in Laconia, Messenia and Elis, tainous country traversed by the Tayge- both agriculture and pasturage flourished. tus, and watered by the Eurotas, bounded Arcadia was a mountainous country, well on three sides by the Messenian, the La- adapted for the raising of flocks. The conian and the Argolic gulfs ; Sparta Grecian islands lie under a fortunate sky, (q. v.) was the capital ; 7. Argolis (q. v.); and are most of them very rich in wine 8. Arcadia (q. v.). The islands which and in wild and cultivated fruits.* belong to Greece, lie, I. in the lonjan sea, on the west and south of the main land. rian Account of Ancient Greece and its Colonies,

* See Hellas, or a Geographical and Antiqua1. Corcyra (Corfu); 2. Cephalonia ; 3. As- with a View of the Modern Discoveries made in teris ; 4. Ithaca (Teaki); 5. Zacynthus that Country, by F. K. G. Kruse, professor (Zante: St. Maura is the ancient peninsu- (Leipsic, 1820), two volumes, with an Atlas. A la of Leucadia, formerly connected with Journal of a Tour through Greece and Albania the main land of Acarnania); 6. Cythera of Ancient Greece, particularly in a military

(Berlin, 1826), contains very satisfactory accounts (Cerigo); 7. the group of islands in the point of view. Gell and Dodwell bave written Argolic gulf; 8. the island of Pelops, near on the geography, topography and history of the territory of Træzene, and, not far Greece in ancient and modern times, with the off, Sphæria, Calauria (Poros); 9. Ægi- well's companion, Pomardi, has given some ad

writings of the ancients in their hands. Dod. na; 10. Salamis (Coluri), and many sur- ditional information (Rome, 1820), Chandler, rounding islands; 11. Crete .(Candia). Stuart, Revett, have given accurate descriptions II. In the Ægean sea, now called the of the remains of the architecture and sculpture Archipelago, on the south and east sides of of the ancient Greeks. Spohn and Wheeler, Le the main land, lie, 1. Carpathos (Scarpan- Turner have furnished aceurate accounts of parts

Chevalier, Choiseul-Gouffier, and Clark and to); 2. Rhodes; 3. Cyprus; 4. the Cycla- of the country previously little known. See also des, i. e., Delos, and the surrounding Horner's Picture of Grecian Antiquities, or an islands on the west ; and, 5. the Sporades, Account of the most celebrated Places and i. e., those scattered over the eastern Ar most important Works of Art of Ancient chipelago. To the Cyclades belong De- Hughes, Holland, Vaudoncourt, Leake, Douglas,

Greece, (Zurich, 1824, et seq.). The journals of los (Sdilli), Rhenæa, Miconos, Tenos Castellan, and also Galt's Letters from the Le

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