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through the unfrequented district of the | Additional Particulars of Combats between a Buffalo and Tigers. Mahagampattoo, and hoped reaching Palturpane, the first post from Batticalao on the 12th. The greater part of his Excel-nist, lency's tour round the island has been made in a one Horse Chaise, being the only instance, but one, of any wheeled carriage having been used on the northern roads for many years, and in fact, they were generally cousidered impassable.
The roads have lately been very generally widened and improved, and it is hoped that in the course of a few years they will become if not equal to the fine road from hence to Galle, the greater part of which rivals the turnpikes of England, perfectly practicable and easy for travellers. The several rest houses have in like manner been put into good order, and new ones are building, where the same are considered necessary.
ISLAND OF JAVA.
The following does honour to the liberality and feelings of the town of Batavia: it must be added to the good done by exertions in Europe, though it does not assume the shape of contribution to the assistance of any European Institution.
The sum of 1000 rupees was voted as the subscription of the Society, in aid of the undertaking of the Auxiliary Bible Society in Calcutta, to print a new tion of the Malay Scriptures in the Roman character, for the use of the Native Christians at Amboyna and the Eastern Islands.
The Tiger seemed to dread his antago and made several efforts to escape, by springing up with almost incredible agility against the paling; the Buffalo pursued him round the enclosure, pushing at him with the utmost force, but was generally foiled by the crouching of the Tiger, he succeeded however in two or three attempts, tossed him from the ground, wounded him mortally, and rendered him incapable of further exertion, while the Buffalo sustained but a few trifling wounds A second royal in the neck and legs. Tiger, more powerful than the last, was now admitted, the Buffalo attacked him with the same spirit, and would have had the same success, but the Tiger avoided him by creeping close along the feet of the paling, from whence he could not be drawn, although every effort was made to irritate him by fire, pointed Bamboos, swords, &c. he was consequently permitted to enter his cage again, and reserved for another exhibition.
WILD BEASTS: COMBATS OF
In our last number we gave some account of the combats of wild beasts, Tigers especially, exhibited by the Emperor of Java, for the amusement of his guests, the Hon. Lieut. Governor, his lady, and suite: as further particulars are come to hand, we now insert them; they contribute to the better understanding of the former. What relation do these bear to the combats anciently exhibited in Rome, and other places, in the days of heathen antiquity? It would not, perhaps, be saying too much to affirm, that contrivances of the same nature as those here described, were employed in the combats exhibited before the Roman
Method of conducting Combats between
The visitors proceeded to the distance of a few yards, and ascended a stage elevated sufficiently to command with a full view, a square of about a hundred yards each way, formed by about three thousand men carrying spears of from twelve to fifteen edi-feet in length; in the centre of the square were placed four cages. containing three royal Tigers of uncommon size, and one Leopard; also two cages made by strong bamboo network, without bottoms, in each of which were several men, whose office was to move about the square, under the protection of their covering (which they conveyed with them) to irritate the Tigers with poles which they pushed at them through the interstices of the cages, whenever they seemed inclined to be inert.
The square was cleared of all persons excepting those above-mentioned, and three others, who were destined to the dangerous office of opening the cages, and setting fire to the combustible substance with which they were covered to prevent the Tigers remaining in them. This service they performed, and reared beyond the line of spears, at a slow pace, which they dared not accelerate in the presence of the Emperor, although the Tigers should have quitted their cages the instant they were opened, and proceeded to attack them.Emperors; and that those classical specta-This danger, however, they fortunately escles might be illustrated from these Oriental sports.
caped, as three of the Tigers did not quit their shelter till driven out by the flames,
the privilege of selling it to the best bidder, and also (for a given period) of exporting it free of duty,
3d.--And in order that the want of the necessary funds may be no obstacle to those who may wish to embark in the un◆ dertaking, government is willing to make suitable advances for the cultivation of the plant, upon reasonable security.
and the other happily made his charge to a different quarter. The charges of three of the Tigers against the spearmen were desperate, but they were received with the utmost intrepidity, and were almost instantly destroyed. The other shewed no inclination to approach the line of spears, but continued crouching nearly in the centre of the square; the net work frames then advanced, but the utmost exertion of the people within them was insufficient to rouse the animal to attack; the Emperor then ordered a chosen band of about 20 men to advance, which they did with pre-explained, after May 1815, in order that. sented spears, and almost instantaneously government may be enabled to take up a put the Tiger to death in despite of his vio-sufficient quantity of tonnage for the same, lent efforts to escape. Those individuals who may wish to avail themselves of these offers on the part carrying into effect, the above desirable of government, for the encouraging and object, are desired to make application through the Secretary to government.
It will be necessary for those who cultivate the Cotton, to give notice to government, for a year before hand, of the quantity, they intend to deliver on the terms
By order of the Honorable the Governor in Council. J. COUSENS,
Dep. Sec. to Govt. Fort Cornwallis, the 25th June, 1814. This must be admitted, among many other facts, in proof that Government intends to turn its most distant possesions to advantage; and we hope that the plan will be pursued with spirit, whatever events may take place in other parts of the world. The properties of this cotton remain to be known; but we know no reason why it should not equal any in the world; and afford additional supply to the British market.
On the night between Saturday and Sunday last, the shock of an Earthquake was sensibly felt in Batavia and its environs. It commenced between 11 and 12 o'clock, and the severest shock was felt a little before midnight.-The back part of a house on the Jacatara road, was thrown down by the violence of the motion.-The rumbling noise which generally accompanies these convulsions of nature, appeared to be much louder in that quarter than towards Ryswick and Weltevreeden, and the agitation of the earth proportionably greater. We are glad to state that no lives were lost, nor have we heard of any further damage beyond that before mentioned. We understand the motion was perceived at and beyond Buitenzorg.
CULTIVATION OF COTTON.
Penang, July 9, 1814.
The Honorable the Governor in Council, adverting to the facilities afforded by this island, for the produce of Cotton, and wishing to give every encouragement to those individuals who may be willing to cultivate that highly useful and beneficial article of trade, is pleased, to make public in this advertisement, the following offers of government:
1st. To those who shall be willing to cultivate the Cotton, Government will allet and portion out, in such quantities, as may be applied for, the waste and mountainous or unoccupied lands of the Honorable Company, on terms which will hold out a reasonable and fair prospect of emolument to the individual.
2d. As a further important encouragement, government will bind itself to purchase cotton, at 13 Spanish dollars per Pecul, when cleared, and in a state fit for exportation, for the space of five years; allowing the cultivator at the same time,
We are glad to learn that the Aqueduct which Government had ordered to be constructed at Anjier for the purpose of bringing water from the hills to supply the ships touching at that place, is in a very advanced state of progress, and bids fair to prove of considerable advantage, the water being remarkably fine and clear, and conveyed by means of earthen pipes, quite close to the landing place on the beach, so that boats may receive it with great facility. Meritorious exploit against desperate Pirates.
By a letter from Banka of the beginning of April, we learn that a most gallant action was fought on the 29th of March, off Pulo Pangan, by Captain Hall, and the crew of the Honorable Company's Cruizer Antelope, who with the ship's boats, as
sisted by two armed prows, attacked and | Shereef alone, so as to accomplish their purdispersed an immense fleet of Malay pirate boats, at least 80 in number, taking thirty, of which four sunk after they had struck. The engagement lasted from 9 a. m. to 4 p. m. and so desperate was the resis ance made by the Malays, that only 14 prisoners were taken alive out of the 30 boats which had been captured. Each of the pirate boats had four small brass guns mounted, and a numerous complement of men. When we recollect the severe loss which ships of war have frequently sus tained in taking and destroying vessels of this description, we are at a loss to express our admiration of the skill and gallantry which could have enabled so small a force as that of Captain Hall, to engage successfully with such desperate odds. We are informed that Captain Hall speaks in warm terms of the conduct first Lieutenant Mr. Smith, as well as of the rest of his officers and ship's company.
SHEREEF OF MECCA: WAHABEES.
In a late number we hinted at the cap-has ture of the Shereef of Mecca, and of his approach toward Constantinople under the care of a Pacha of the Ottoman Sultaun's Court; the particulars of this exploit, with the means employed to effect the capture, deserve notice.
"Mahommed Ally Pashah, the Hakeem of Egypt, in the service of the Emperor of Constantinople, having come to Mecca on a pilgrimage, in the month of Zekaudah 1228, formed a design to seize the Shereef Galub. His object was, to take the Shereef alive, and without wounding him; for any violence would have been productive of much bloodshed on both sides. Meanwhile, another Pashah, with divers followers, who had been dispatched to Mecca by the Emperor of Constantinople, arrived at the holy city; and the two Pashahs set to consult and plot together, how they could best effect the seizure of the Shereef; but they could not for some time find the
Now, the Shereef Galub was in correspondence with Suwod Wahabee, and his letters addressed to the Wahabee chief, were intercepted on the road to Durisab, and came into the possession of Mahommed Ally Pashah. After this, the Shereef Galub went one day to the house of God; and Mahommed Ally Pashah, with the other Pashah, and a number of adherents, went there also, and there they saw the Shereef Galub with his three sons. As the latter were coming out of the mosque, they were seized by the Pashahs, who instantly sent them off to Egypt, from thence to be conveyed to Constantinople. The above news became public, on the 6th of Zeihejah.
From Judda, there is this further intelligence; that above six or seven crores of Rupees in money, besides jewels and other valuables, the property of Shereef Galub, have fallen into the hands of Mahommed Ally Pashah; and that the Pashah
dispatched twenty of his followers, to take possession, immediately on fier arrival, of the Shereef's ship, which is expected at Judda from Calcutta.
"Osman Muzaufee, of Taef, who was
the principal Sirdar in the service of Suwod Wahabee, had been also taken, and sent under custody to Constantinople.
Lastly, Mahommed Ally Pashah, havlarge force, and marched for Durisah, ing completed his pilgrimage, collected a where he arrived after a journey of four days; and, please God, we hope soon to receive news of the capture of Durisah, which is the principal stronghold of the Wahabee.
Subsequent to the above period, accounts have reached Muscat by the way of Bussorah, which report, that the unfortu nate Suwod Wahabee, chief of the Wahabees, died on the 9th of Suffer 1229: that the ceremonials of his funeral had been performed at Durisah; and that his son Abdoollah had been raised to the father's dignities. After what happened, Mecca and Medina will remain at peace."
ISLAND OF MAURITIUS,
BANK CLOSED: STATE OF CREDIT.
"Port Louis,, March 10, 1814. "The state of mercantile credit here, has recently received a severe check, from the sudden abolition of the Government Bank, in consequence of orders from home. This Bank, by the facility which it afforded to all ranks of persons in negociating their bills, encouraged many, with very limited capitals, to trade to an extent probably
much beyond what they would otherwise have done, and certainly out of all proportion to the quantity of specie actuaily circulating in the colon. Another Bank, it is true, has been set up; but the only two or three capitalists here, having declined to take any concern in it, or to give currency to its notes, its operations have been necessarily so confined, as to afford very little relief to the community. The cousequence is, that the best notes in the place are tying over unpaid; and that, when a bill now becomes due, a man offers you another bill or goods in payment. There is little or no silver to be seen. Such at present is the state of things here."
other. We presently perceived a human being walking on the beach, and thinking it might be some unfortunate cast away, hoisted out the boat, and sent her on shore, to find out who the man was,-in the mean time I laid too with the vessel: in about four hours the boat returned, they found the island inhabited by a Frenchman and his family from the Isle of France, with eighty slaves for the purpose of making cocoanut oil, which they do in great quantity, one hundred and ten wetts per day, and a vessel comes from the Isle of France every three months with necessaries, and takes away the oil. The Frenchman informed the people in the boat, that a small in-harbour was on the other side of the island, that is on the east side of it, and if we would come there with the vessel, he would give us good water and stock if we wanted it; accordingly, I made sail to go most island, but found a very strong curround the North-west part of the Northerrent setting to the South-west, it was impossible to gain any ground, and although
was only about half a mile from shore, I had no bottom with a fifty fathom line. About 2 P. M. I sent the boat to proceed found the current so strong against them, to the Frenchman's habitation, but they during the night I expected the boat, and that they did not reach it until midnight: kept making signals every hour: at day light, on the 30th, saw nothing of the boat, I became very uneasy thinking she might have passed me in the night. I kept all sail on the vessel in order to keep to windward under the lee of the island, but found we still lost ground, at noon I saw the boat coming round the North point of the island, and a Canoe along with her-we received wood, water, fowls, eggs,and cocoanuts, and in returu, sent him some pieces of Bengal beef, one dozen of Cape wine, a basket of sugar-candy, &c.
Such are conveniences, and such the conveniencies of Banks: up to a certain degree, their aid and assistance is useful, and even important: beyond that, they tempt speculation, and the consequences are heavily injurious,
Slave Trade Suppressed Considerable agitation prevailed at Bourbon, in consequence of the resolute measures adopted by the Government for the suppression of the Slave-trade. Many negroes recently imported, had been released by the interposition of the public
ISLANDS BETWEEN MAURITIUS AND CEYLON. SIR, If you think inserting in your publication, the undermentioned extract taken from the Brig Hope's Log book, will be worth the notice of any of your nautical readers, you have my concurrence for so doing.
I am, Sir, your Obt. Hum. Servt, WM. MAFLIN, Commander of the Brig HOPE. I left Port Louis, Isle of France, on the 9th of March, 1814, intending to come the inner passage to Ceylon. I had variable winds and weather until the 28th, being then near an island laid down in the chart called Gallages, kept a very good look out all that night, and in the morning of the 29th at day light, saw the island on the lee bow, bearing North distant about five miles, bore away to the westward of it, that being the leeward side,asthe winds was from the North-east. I run down about a mile distant from the shore, and had no bottom with fifty fathom of line. The island was entirely covered with cocoanut trees towards the beach. I presently perceived there were two islands joined together by a coral reef, on which the sea broke very high; they appeared to be about a mile from each
As vessels from the French islands in the months of March and April, are almost certain of long passages, and as these islands are very near the Track, it would be worth their while to wood, water, and even to get stock; and besides the cocoanut is good food for every kind of stock, and likewise for the crew.
There is no anchorage, I believe, until you are very close to the Frenchman's house, on the east side of the Southermost island, and all vessels ought to be provided with au anchor chain, which take this route among these Coral islands and banks, as it might be the means of saving the vessels coming suddenly on them at night, or being driven upon them by adverse currents.
The shipping built formerly had, in gene
I make the latitude of these islands 120: 30: longitude 57: 55. I made the varia-neral, much larger scantling than what is tion 7 degrees West, but my azimuth com- built at present, and their planking, as well pass was not to be depended upon. The as every other part, was considerably island appeared to be about 15 or 16 miles stouter. in circumference, low and full of wood, mostly cocoanut trees, the beach is very white, composed of broken coral, as small as ground pepper.
SOME REASONS ASSIGNED FOR THE SPEEDY
The rapid state of decay into which the Royal Navy of Britain, has fallen of late years soon after building, with the very short duration of the most valuable vessels, on the average, has given anxiety to all true lovers of their country: the letter annexed affords some hints which may prove profitable on the subject. The different properties of the woods in India, and the opposite effects of the different processes used in preparing them, need no additional remark.
To the Editor,
In a late publication it is remarked how much more durable the ships constructed 70 or 80 years ago were, than those built in the present day are, and the numerous causes which have operated to hasten their decay, appear unknown, and hitherto disregarded; but as measures have been adopted to determine the cause which rendered the Royal William so lasting, I shall endeavour to explain the reason, although I never saw the ship alluded to; and as any suggestion which may tend to pre serve that great national bulwark, the British Navy, from decay, must ever be considered important and interesting, I beg to offer the following observations through the medium of your valuable work.
The practice of leaving them on the stocks, as it is termed, to season, for years, was not then adopted, a practice which has contributed, in no small degree, to ruin many of his Majesty's ships, and render them in want of continual repairs, from the successive decay of their different parts.
If the wood require seasoning, let it be done by the operation of fire, which, instead of hastening its decay, will tend to preserve it, under any exposure, but more particularly against the operation of water.
Another great cause for the rapid decay of modern built ships, is the pernicious practice of bending the planks by the previous operation of steam: in consequence deprived of that gummy resinous substance of which, the plank is literally boiled, and essential to its preservation, and nothing but the fibre is left. Its operation to excite decay is more or less on woods possessing acids than pil, and is consequently more injurious to oak timber than teak, as the acid of the oak produces an excessive degree of fermentation, which operates most powerfully to promote rottenness and decay,
The teak timber possessing a large portion of oil, is more capable of resisting the action of steam, and a much slighter degree of fermentation is excited; but it notwithstanding must operate injuriously even on the teak, and in some measure accounts for the superior durability of the ships constructed at Bombay and Surat, over those built at Bengal, as at the former place the planks are all bent by the action of fire, and being thus well charred, are much better adapted for situations under water, than they could possibly be without it; while the invariable practice of bending of plauks for shipping at Calcutta, is by the action of steam. One process tends to preserve the timber, and the other to promote its decay; we ought not to be surprised at the different consequences result
It would be absurd to imagine, that the British forests do not produce oak of as a good quality at present as formerly, al-ing from such a practice.
though it is very probable that much timber which had not arrived at proper growth and maturity, has been felled of late for naval purposes, and the timber so employed would no doubt, be found less durable. But the generally rapid decay of ships constructed at present, cannot be solely ascribed to such a cause, although it may have contributed to it on some Occasions.
Another circumstance which facilitated the decay of Bengal built ships was, the introduction of various kinds of timber, but more particularly the sissoo, of which the frames were principally composed; but the rapid decay of that wood having induced the builders to reject it in ships constructed at present, the shipping built at this port may be expected to prove equally durable with what is constructed at Bom