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Bedford Level.—The following is the copy of the petition from the owners of land in the Bedford Level, lately presented to the House of Commons. To the Hon, the Commons of the United Kingilom of Great Britain and Ireland, in Parliament assembled.
The humble Petition of the Governor,
that the interference of foreigners in the home markets is to be suffered in its present alarming extent, the expences of cultivating the above lands far exceeds the utmost value of the produce thereof, and is likely to continue so to do, notwithstanding the relief afforded by the expiration of duction take place in the amount of rents the Property-tax and even should a reand tithes, as they are ready to prove to this Honourable House, in detail, if permitted or required so to do. And your petitioners further state to this Honourable House, that the consequence of this state of things must inevitably be that large districts of the said Great Level of the Fens, in a great degree be abandoned, and returned to the situation of unproductive marshes, as they will not be able to bear any longer the pressure of the drainage taxes, and other local rates incumbent upon them; by which means the owners and occupiers of such lands, as well as the labouring and other classes concerned in the preservation and cultivation thereof, will be reduced to the greatest distress: and as great numbers of them with their families will be thrown upon the already over-burthened poor rates: which the land will then no longer be able to furnish to the extent required; a great part of the population of this extensive and improving country will be reduced to absolute want and beggary. titioners further state to this Honourable And your peHouse that it is well known that the abovementioned lands and grounds within the Bedford Level and its neighbouring dis tricts, have hitherto supplied a large proportion of the consumption of oats in this part of the United Kingdom, and that they are capable under proper protection, and with the aid of the produce of Scotland and Ireland, to continue to do the same to the fullest extent. All which is most humbly and most earnestly submitted to the serious consideration and deliberate wisdom of this Honourable House.
That your petitioners are the owners of 95,000 acres of fen land, lying interspersed in the Great Level of the Fens, commonly called the Bedford Level, which contains about 400,000 acres of the same kind of land, the staple produce of which is oats, and that the occupiers of the Level are generally in great distress, occasioned by the loss they suffer from the present price of that article, and from being exposed to a most ruinous competition with foreign importation, as now allowed by the existing laws relating to corn. And your petitioners beg to represent that the occupiers of the Bedford Level, and the Fens of Lincolnshire adjoining, and which comprise in addition many hundred thousand acres of land, suffer more than other growers of oats in the united kingdom, in consequence of the great and unavoidable expences of drainage, without which the whole would be overflown and lost: and in consequence of the low average price of oats in the market where they are sold, and which your petitioners beg leave to state, from six weeks return ending the 11th day of February last, at Wisbech was 15s. old. a quarter; at Cambridge 16s. 4d. and at Lincoln 16s. 2d. a quarter, whilst the general average of the kingdom by the saine return was 21s. 51d. And your petitioners beg leave to represent to your Honourable House, that the said general average formed under the existing laws, having exceeded by 54d. the price at which the protecting duty now ceases, the occupiers of land throughout the Bedford Level and the Fens adjoining are, in consequence, brought into a most disadvantageous and ruinous competition with the growers of oats in foreign countries, especially those of Holland and the Netherlands, although the average price of the districts inhabited by the said occupiers, is, as above-mentioned, so much below, the general average of the kingdom, And your petitioners further beg leave to represent to your Honourable House, that calculating on the present price of oats and on a supposition
Your petitioners therefore most humbly pray, that such steps may be taken in their behalf, as in the wisdom of your flonourable House the urgency of the occasion may appear to require, and that they may be protected from the importation of foreign oats, by such an adequate protecting duty as the circumstances of the case may appear to require, and which they submit should not be less in any case than fully equal to the fair and just proportion it ought to bear to the protecting duties which may be imposed on the foreign importation of other sorts of grain.
And your petitioners shall ever pray, &c.
It will be a satisfaction to the public to learn that since June last, when the Norfolk Lunatic Asylum was first opened for the reception of patients six persons have been discharged, completely restored to their
On Apple Trees.—It is a general complaint, that the finest apples of this coun try have degenerated, and that many of the best sorts have entirely disappeared from our gardens and orchards. It would not be difficult to shew that every successive grafting deteriorates the fruit engrafted; or to point out an effectual method of retaining good apples in this country, without the pains of grafting, as in every perfectly ripe apple there will be found one, and sometimes two round seeds; the others will have one or more flatted sides. The round ones will produce the improved fruit from which they are taken, and those flatted sides will produce the fruit of the crab upon which the graft was inserted. It requires not a long time to ascertain the difference; for if a circle is drawn in rich ground, and the flat-sided seeds planted therein, and the round seeds in the centre, the variation of quality will be discovered in two or three years. The first will throw out the leaves of a crab, and the latter the leaves of an improved tree, distinguished shape, fibre, and with a woolly appearance; and in due time the fruit of each will put every thing beyond doubt. It is to be observed, moreover, that the seeds of crabs (being originals) are mostly if not altogether round.
Venerable Brothers, as we cannot sufficiently express: so fully did that letter abound in the choicest sentiments of love and duty to us, and the Apostolic See. We therefore desire you to be persuaded, that the respectful part which you lately performed, on the happy termination of our great sufferings, has proved to us most acceptable in every sense. Moreover, our Venerable Brothers, the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, and the Bishops of Italy, as well as the entire body of the Clergy of this capital, are indebted in deep and lasting acknowledgements to you, for those high expressions of praise, in which you mention the fortitude, constancy, and allegiance of them all. Although it is to the interposition of the Divine Power we should wholly ascribe the silencing of the storm, which, cruelly and fearfully was beating against us and the Catholic church; yet, amongst the natural causes of that unexpected and wonderful Revolution, Britain, beyond a doubt, obtains the commanding place; as with her treasures, by her armies and fleets, and by that confederation of warfare which she effected amongst the Allied Sovereigns, she scat. tered the impious designs, and wore down the resources of a tyrant, who was desolating Europe from end to end. May the Good and Great God bestow on that people, so illustriously the benefactors of the world, a reward in those blessings, by which they may attain to happiness, at once genuine, solid, and perfect! We doubt not that the Catholics, intrusted to our charge, correspond well to their duties towards the Government to which they are superfluous to urge, where great alacrity subject; and, generally speaking, it were is shewn. However, you will persevere still, Venerable Brothers, unremittingly in exhorting them to avoid, at all times, every improper act, for which they might be with equal zeal and spiritual success, you justly blamed by that Goverument. Since, support every part of the pastoral office, we remain assured, that you will also scru the mean time, and as the pledge of our` pulously acquit yourself of this duty. In paternal and singular affection to you, we impart most lovingly to you, and to our flocks, the Apostolical Benediction.
"Pius the Seventh, Pope, "Venerable Brothers, Greeting and Apostolical Benediction. The pleasure which we received from your letter to us, in date of the 28th of May, has been such,
"Given in Rome, at St. Mary Major,
under the Signet of the Fisherman, the 27th day of July, 1814, of our Pontificate the 15th year,
Panorama Office, March 27th, 1815. The Allied Powers will not lay down their arms, until they have attained this great and beneficial result.-A state of PEACE, which by a wise partition of strength, by a just equilibrium, may henceforward preserve their people from the numberless calamities which have overwhelmed Europe for the last twenty years.They will not lay down their arms, until the political state of Europe is RE-ESTABLISHED ANEW,-until our immore principles have resumed their rights over vain pre'ensions, until the sanctity of treaties shall at last have secured a REAL PEACE to Europe. Declaration of the Allies. Frankfort, Dec. 1, 1813.
Rash and presumptuous were the hand that could attempt to wield the thunders of the Almighty; or could affect to direct the bolt whether to fall here—or there-at the will of a frail mortal. Infinite Wisdom knows well how, when, and where, to meet the crimes of men with punishment; but nothing short of Infinite Wisdom dare assume that knowledge. About this time last year, the writer of the PERISCOPE took occasion to warn his readers that the scenes approaching would harrow up the soul; and that compassion would find itself forced to seek a kind of shelter in apathy, and fate. Most happily, as was then the general persuasion, the expected calamities were prevented: the world, at large, rejoiced: and none rejoiced more heartily than those who from their situation knew the value of peace, and from their disposition desired that inestimable blessing with all their souls:-we mean the Panoramic board.
True it is, that some of those insensate wretches who delight in the miseries of mankind, have been mean enough to taunt those most happily mistaken predictions, the non-fulfilment of which afforded inexpressible exultation to the writer;nevertheless, his confidence in his principles was unshaken; and the time of their vindication appears to be approaching, with hasty strides. Is it possible, to doubt, the recurrence of a most sanguinary and distressing period? Beyond hope, some event inscrutable to human foresight, may again intervene; but, the question is not the less warranted, nor the less distressing. Is it possible, not to anticipate and evils of no ordinary occurrence magnitude? — whole generations swept See the PERISCOPE for February, 1814.
away at once: carnage without limit, and miseries exceeding calculation! Is it possible, not to shudder at the contemplation of those accumulated sufferings, of which the vial of wrath that glimmers in the distracted atmosphere, is the terrific sign?
We have never doubted, but what the French Revolution, as it began in blood, would end in blood. How, or by what means, this termination should be produced, we never affected to foresee :-and even now, amidst all the anxiety that we feel, and the duty which it is our province to discharge-we will command our convictions; will silence, if we cannot suppress them.
The Declaration of the Allied Powers, which we have placed as a kind of motto to this paper, has never been rescinded: it is still binding, and in full vigour; in fact, every thing done since its date has been in virtue of its stipulations. The Congress at Vienna was one consequence of it; and the union of all the powers who were parties to it, is another.
The cessation of hostilities in France, by the abdication of Buonaparte, was given at length by us, as it occurred: it is now our duty to record his resumption of the throne from which he had been driven;-and of course the resumption of hostilities How many against the man of blood. myriads will be sacrificed-when one sacrifice would prevent them all!
Events are too recent to allow a just judgment to be made on them. Is it pos sible the would-be Emperor and King can renew the conscription in all its horrors, throughout France? Can he wring from the mother's bosom that last hope in which she had indulged for some few short months? Are the youths of France again to bestrew the roads, the heaths, the fields, the burying grounds, to use their own comparison, "like flies in autumn."? Hard is the heart can endure the thought: how hard then is that heart which can rejoice in it! "ALL THESE DIED FOR ME?"—I might have prevented all these miseries, had I remained quiet!No cities had then terrified the air with their conflagrations: no towns had been sacked: no provinces had been depopulated: no streams had run blood: no op pressions had been committed: none had fallen by the sword, or been carried off by disease, or by pestilence, or by famine: the world had been at Peace: but then
-I MUST HAVE BEEN PRIVATE! And what will be his resources? Foreign countries hate him, with the bitterest ha tred: they were sorely punished formerly, for the admission of French principles:
now, whatever is French is reprobated with | direct road through that town, and taking
On the 20th of last month, Buonaparte laid an embargo on all vessels in the ports of Elba, under pretence of having discovered some design to smuggle certain commodities out of the island. sembled his guards, about 1,100 men, and declaring his purpose, in which they concurred with cries of Vive l'Empercur, embarked on board four of the fastest sailing vessels on the 28th of February, anchored near Cannes, in France, March 1st. Here they lauded. Fifty men advanced the same day to Cannes, where they urged the Mayor to proceed to meet the person whom they called the "General in Chief," but the Mayor returned an absolute refusal. He immediately received orders to prepare $,000 rations the same evening. The same day fifteen men belonging to the expedition made their appearance before Antibes, soliciting permission to enter, as deserters from the isle of Liba, General Baron Corsin, the commandant, an officer of distinction, and covered with honourable wounds, received them by causing them to be disarmed. Shortly after, an officer came to summon the place in the name of Buonaparte; he was arrested and imprisoned. In fine, a third emissary presented himself before the commandant, to claim the fifteen men detained, and to invite him in the name of General Drouct, to repair with the Civil Authorities to the gulph of Juan; the only answer the emissary had was his arrest. Next day, the men who had disembarked, begun their march for Grasse; avoiding however, the
on the 4th.
The detachment which occupied Cannes consisted of 80 men, including three officers and a drummer: then arrived a General named Cambrone, who arrested the Prince of Monaco, who happened to be at Cannes, and who was proceeding to his principality. He conducted him to an inn, where he placed him under a corporal's guard; and then proceeded to make requisitions of provisions, ordering the fronts of the houses to be illuminated. At half an hour past midnight, Buonaparte arrived, preceding his troop by some paces. He fixed his bivouac close to the town. At one o'clock he caused the Prince of Monaco to be brought to him, and asked where he was going? and whether he would follow him? The Prince begged to be excused, and to be permitted to continue his journey, which was immediately granted. At three o'clock Buonaparte set off on horseback; his troop followed him, with drums beating and music at their head, preceded by four field pieces and a superb carriage. On arriving within a league of Grasse, he sent a General to sound the dispositions of the inhabitants; he found there great agitation, but did not deem it prudent to enter. He then took the road to St. Vallier, leaving his four field pieces, and his carriage, at the gate of Grasse.
The news of his landing did not arrive in Paris till the 5th. Mousicur immediately set off for Lyons with Marshal Ney, who swore to bring Napoleon to Paris. The King convoked an extraordinary meeting of the Legislative Body, who voted addresses to his Majesty, assuring him of their loyalty and attachment.
He also issued a proclamation to the army, confiding in their loyalty: an ordinance of his Majesty contains the following decrees :
1. The General Councils of the Departments will be convened by the Prefects immediately on receiving this our decree. 2. They will remain in permanent sitting to execute the measures of public safety directed by our decree of this day, as well for the organization of the national guards as for the formation of corps of volunteers. 3. They will be authorised to take such further measures for the public tranquillity an local circumstances may suggest to them, on communicating their deliberations to the Prefects of Departments, who will give an account of them to our Minister of the Interior,
Another decree declares the Punishments
to be inflicted on deserters, and abettors, | The Prussian monarch, as the object of and instigators to desertion; also appoint- Buonaparte's first hatred, resumes his miing councils of war with every corps, to ad- litary attitude,-(that of his army; for the judge the sentences. sovereigns are now kept together at Vienua, instead of separating) all Germany is giving orders to its troops; and throughout Europe, resounds "the dreadful note of preparation."
The garrisons of Grenoble and Lyons deserted to the rebel standard. the former place, unfortunately, a large quantity of ammunition fell into the hands of Buonaparte, who pushed on at the head of only 600 horse to Lyous, from which place the dispositions of the troops had previously compelled Monsieur to retire.
The same bad disposition of the army, was manifested all the way to Paris: and thus, the world has a striking lesson of the evils attendant on a military government. France is so sunk, that the army gives her a Sovereign! Language has no terms in which to express the baseness of such degradation.
The following bulletin announces the latest authentic information. “Foreign Office, Downing Street, Saturday Night, March 25."
"Colonel Jenkinson arrived this evening with dispatches from Lord Fitzroy Somerset, dated at Paris on the 22d instant. Lord Fitzroy Somerset and his suite, with the Spanish, Swedish, and Russian Embassies, were, at the above time, detained in Paris, being unable to procure passports for post-horses.
Buonaparte entered Paris about halfpast eight on Monday night, in the most private manner. His suite occupied three carriages, each drawn by six horses. At ten next morning, he shewed himself at the window in the garden of the Thuilleries. About noon he reviewed the troops on the Place Carousel.
This might have been expected: but that the Sovereigns should thus early have announced their determination on the subject, is, perhaps, more than expectation might dare to trust to. They have issued the following
"The powers who have signed the treaty of Paris, assembled at the Congress at Vienna, being informed of the escape of Napoleon Buonaparte, and of his entrance into France with an armed force, owe it to their own diguity, and the interest of social order, to make a solemn declaration of the sentiments which this event has excited in them.
"By thus breaking the Convention which had established him in the island of Elba, Bonaparte destroys the only legal title on which his existence dependedby appearing again in France with projects of confusion and disorder, he has deprived himself of the protection of the law, and has manifested to the universe, that there can be neither peace nor truce with him.
"The Powers consequently declare, that Napoleon Bonaparte has placed himself without the pale of civil and social relations, and that as an enemy and disturber of the tranquility of the world, he has rendered himself liable to public vengeance.
"They declare at the same time, that, firmly resolved to maintain entire the Treaty of Paris of May 30, 1814, and the dispositions sanctioned by that Treaty, and those which they have resolved on, or shall hereafter resolve on, to complete and to consolidate it, they will employ all their meaus, and will unite all their efforts; that the general peace, the object of the wishes of Europe, and the constant pur-` pose of their labours may not be again troubled, and to guarantee against every attempt which shall threaten to re-plunge the world into the disorders and miseries
"And, although entirely persuaded that all France, rallying round its legitimate Sovereign, will immediately annihilate this last attempt of a criminal and impotent delirium, all the Sovereigns of Europe animated by the same sentiments, aud guided by the same principles, declare, that if, contrary to all calculation, there should result from this event any real dar