Imatges de pÓgina

publications of very unusual interest on this, ward Thomas Vaughan, M. A. Vicar of St. subject may be confidently expected.


To be published in a few days, A New Compendious Grammar of the Greek Tongue. By William Bell. The sixth edition, with improvements, and a new arrangement.

S. Lyon's Hebrew Grammar and Lexicon are now in the press, at Mr. A. J. Valpy's. They will be comprised in four volumes. The grammar will complete the first volume, and will be published in the ensuing sum



Miss King will soon publish a volume of Poems and Reflections, chiefly on serious subjects.

Miss Charlotte Nooth has in the press, Original Poems, with translations from the French, Italian, and Spanish, and a Play in five acts.


The Speeches of the Right Hon. Charles James Fox, in the House of Commons, with Memoirs, &c. will soon appear in six octavo



The Rev. John Jebb has a volume of Sermons nearly ready for publication.

The Rev. J. Whiteley, head master of the Free Grammar School in Leeds, is preparing for the press, Sermons and Essays in two octavo volumes; including a few sermons by the Rev. J. Lead ey, late fellow of Magdalen College, Cambridge, which he left in the authors hands for publication.

Speedily will appear, in one volume octavo, Apostolic Preaching Considered, in an Examination of St. Paul's Epistles.

Martin's, and All Saints' in Leicester; Rector of Foston, Leicestershire; and late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 8vo. 12s.

The Biographical Dictionary; Volume XXI. Edited by Alex. Chalmers, F. S. A. 8vo. 12s.

Memoirs of Mr. James H. Wood, late surgeon, &c. &c. to the Dispensary and Workhouse, at Blackburn, Lancashire. By

the Rev. Thomas Wood. 2s. 6d.



Practical Observations on the Improvement and Management of Mountain Sheep, and Sheep Farms. Also remarks on stock of various kinds. By John Little. 8vo. 6s. 6d.

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The History of the Church of Scotland, from the Establishment of the Reformation to the Revolution; illustrating a most interesting period of the political history of Laurencekirk. Britain. By George Cook, D. D. Minister


Mr. M. Gregson, of Liverpool, has pre-of pared a few choice MSS. for the press, under the title of Fragments of the History of Lancashire.


Hints addressed to the Patrons and Directors of Schools; principally intended to that the benefits derived from the new modes of teaching may be increased by a partial adoption of the plan of Pestalozzi. To which are subjoined, examples or questions, calculated to excite and exercise the infant mind. By Mrs. Elizabeth Hamilton, author of Letters on the Elementary Prin Examples are sold separately, price 2s. 6d. ciples of Education, &c. 12mo. 7s.-The

struction in the various Departments of Li-
Systematic Education, or Elementary In-
terature and Science; with practical rules
for studying each branch of useful know-
Rev. J. Joyce, and the Rev. Lant Carpen-
By the Rev. W. Shepherd, the
ter, LL. D. 2 vols. 8vo. 11. 11s. öd.

Mr. Thomas Howell is preparing an Account of Shrewsbury and its Environs, illus-show, trated by views of the principal public, religious, and charitable buildings, engraved

on wood.


Some Account of the Life, Ministry, Character, and Writings, of the late Rev. Thomas Robinson, M. A. late Vicar of St. Mary's, Leicester; and some time Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. With a se


Heraldry of Crests, selected from the

lection of original letters. By the Rev. Ed-works of Nesbet, Guillim, M'Kenzie, Ed

monson, and others, with great caution and attention comprising upwards of 2500 different Crests, with other emblems of heraldry (engraved upon ninety copper plates), borne by the most distinguished families in the United Kingdom, from the Crusades down to the present time; with remarks and observations, which will be found useful and interesting, not only to the Nobility and Gentry, but to all who are seeking genealogical information. By J. P. Elvin. 18mo. 9s.


The Trial of James Ripley, Richard ton, Robert Herbert, and Richard Matthews, for the Murder of Jane Watson, one of the persons who were shot in the riot in Old Burlington Street, on Tuesday, the 7th of March, 1815. Taken in short-hand by Mr. W. B. Gurney, Short-hand Writer to both

Houses of Parliament. 8vo. 3s.


The History of the Kings of England from the arrival of the Saxons, A.D. 449, to

A Memoir of the Conquest of Java; with the subsequent operations of the British forces in the oriental archipelago. To which is subjoined, a statistical and historical sketch of Java, being the result of ob

his own Times, A. D. 1143. By William of Malmsbury. Collated with authentic MSS. and translated from the original Latin. With a preface, notes, and an Index. By the Rev. John Sharpe, B. A. late Scho-servations made in a tour through the coun lar of Trinity College, Oxford, Curate of try, with an account of its dependencies. Elstead and of Treyford, Sussex. Royal 4to. By Major William Thorn, late Deputy Quarter-master-general to the forces in Java. Dedicated, by permission, to H. R. H. the Bur-Duke of York, and illustrated by thirty-five engravings, consisting of plans of the different positions and views taken on the spot. Royal 4to. 31. 3s.

31. Ss.


The Philosophy of Human Nature; containing a complete theory of human interests; to which is added, an essay on the origin of evil. By John Duncan. 8vo. 10s. 6d.


Memoirs of the War of the French in Spain. By M. de Rocca, Officer of Hussars, and Knight of the Legion of Honour. Translated from the French by Maria Graham, Author of the Journal of a Residence in India. 8vo. 9s.

Researches on Consumption, and other Disorders of the Lungs. From the French of G. L. Bayle, D. M. P. By William Barrow, M. D. Senior Physician to the Fever Hospital, Lunatic Hospital and Work house, Liverpool. Illustrated by plates. 8vo. 125.


The Miscellaneous Works of Edward

Gibbon, with Memoirs of his Life and Writ

A Practical Treatise on Finding the Latitude and Longitude at Sea; with tables de-ings, composed by himself; illustrated from signed to facilitate the calculations. Tran- his letters, with occasional notes and narslated from the French of M. de Rossel, rative. By John Lord Sheffield. A new Member of the French Board of Longitude, edition, comprising nearly one-third of new late Captain in the Navy, &c. By Thomas matter, with a portrait and other engravings. Myers, A. M. of the Royal Military Aca5 vols. 8vo. 31. 5s. A few copies in royal demy, Woolwich. To which are added by Svo. 41. 10s.-The third volume, in quarto, the translator, an extensive series of examcontaining all the additional matter is now ples, adapted to the various rules given in ready for the subscribers, price 21. 8s. the work; an introduction to the tables, explanatory of their construction and use; and some additional tables, &c. 8vo. 16s.


An Essay on the Venereal Diseases, which have been confounded with Syphilis, and the symptoms which exclusively arise from that poison. Illustrated by drawings of the cutaneous eruptions of true syphilis, and the resembling diseases. By Richard Carmichael, M. R. I. A. President of the Royal College of Surgeons, in Ireland, and one of the Surgeons of the Lock Hospital, Dublin. Part II. 4to. 11. 5s. sewed.—The first part may be had, price 13s. sewed.


France and England; or, Scenes in Each. compiled from the original papers of Edward Castleton Gifford. 2 vols. 12mo. 10s. 6d.

Maritime Geography and Statistics, or a Description of the Ocean and its Coasts, Maritime Commerce, Navigation, &c. &c. By James Hingston Tuckey, a Commander in the Royal Navy. 4 vols. 8vo. 21. 16s.

A Review of the Rev. H. Norris's Attack on the Bible Society. By the Rev. W. Dealtry, B. D. F. R.S. late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Dedicated, by permission, to the Lord Bishop of St. David's. 1s. 6d.

Some Principles of Civilization; with detached Thoughts on the Promotion of Christianity in British India. By Richard Hey, Esq. LL. B. late Fellow of Sydney, Sussex, and Magdalen College, Cambridge. 3s.

A Visit to Paris, in 1814. Being a review of the moral, political, intellectual, and social condition of the French capital : including observations on the public buildings, and the monuments of art which it


contains; and remarks on the effects of Agriculture, and one of his Majesties Justhese great works and the institutions of tices of the Peace for the Counties of Oxford; Paris on the national taste and thinking; ob- | Berks, Surrey, and Norfolk. 8vo. 3s. 6d. servations on the manners of the various classes of its society; on its political conduct and opinions; and on the general state of its information and attainments in lite-Religion of the Church of England; being an answer to the Letter of a Unitarian Lay Seceder: with notes and illustrations. By the Bishop of St. David. 6s.

The Bible, and nothing but the Bible, the

rature and arts. By John Scott, Editor of the Champion. 8vo 12s.

The Epicure's Almanack; or, Calendar of Good Living; on the plan of the celebrated Almanach des Gourmands, published ammually at Paris. 18mo. 5s 6d.

Essai, Historique, Politique, et Moral sur les Revolutions, Anciennes et Modernes. Par M. de Chateaubriand. 8vo. 12s.

Souvenirs d'Italie, d'Angleterre, et d'Amerique. Par M. de Chateaubriand. 2 vols. 8vo.


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The First Eight Books of Armageddon : a poem, in Twelve Books. By the Rev. George Townshend, B. A. of Trinity College, Cambridge. 4to. 11. 11s. 6d

Ancient Scotish poems, published from the MS. of George Bannatyne, 1568.Edited by Lord Hailes. Very neatly printed on fine wove paper. 8vo. 11. Is.

A Selection of the Psalms of David, from the version of the late Rev. Jaines Merrick, M. A. Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. To which is appended a collection of hymns, adapted to the principal festivals, and particular Sundays, &c. of the Established Church, throughout the year; as well as to other special occasions. Royal 18mo. 3s. 6d. boards-4s. sheep-5s. in red or purple.

The Veils; or, the Triumph of Constancy: a poem, in six books. By Miss Porden. 8vo. 10s. 6d.


The Happiness of States; or, an Inquiry concerning Population: the modes of subsisting and employing it, and the effects of all on human happiness. By S. Gray, Esq. 4to. 11. 11s. 6d.

The Saints' Day Catechisin; or Practical Improvement (by way of Question and Auswer) of the Festivals of the Apostles and Martyrs: designed for plain people, and younger members of the United Church of England and Ireland. By John White Middleton, M. A. formerly of Trinity College, Oxford, and Curate of Norton-under-Ham, Somerset. 25.

Apostolical Preaching Considered; or, an Examination of St. Paul's Epistles. 8vo. 10s. 6d.

The Character of Moses, established for Veracity as a Historian recording Events subsequent to the Deluge. By the Rev. Joseph Townsend, M. A. Rector of Pewsey, Wilts. Vol. II. 4to. 11. 16s.

The Sacred Interpreter; or, a Practical Introduction toward a beneficial reading and a thorough understanding of the Holy Bible. The several parts of the Holy Land are compared with the accounts given thereof by modern travellers. The whole designed to render the study of the Holy Scriptures more easy and instructive. By. D. Collyer. 2 vols. 8vo. 11. Is.


The Travels of Professor Lichtenstein in Southern Africa; comprising the continua. tion of his journey through the Karroo; a botanical tour to the district of Zwellendam, &c.; a journey into the countries of the Bosjesmans, the Coraus, and the Betjuans, a people never before visited by Europeans; an excursion to the borders of the Roggeand the return by St. Helena to Europe. Ilveld; a journey to Bosjesveld and Tulbagh, lustrated by a valuable map and several engravings. Vol. II. 4to. 21. 25.

The Traveller's Complete Guide through Belgium, Holland, and Germany: containing a particular account of all the public buildings, places of amusement, and curiosi ties; accurate tables of distances, in English miles, from one town to another; the best inns pointed out; and a description of every thing worthy the attention of gentlemen, lovers of the fine arts, and travellers

The Principle of the English Poor Laws illustrated from the Evidence given by Scot-in general. Also tables of the value of ish Proprietors (before the Corn Commit- money at the different places, with notices tee) on the Connexion observed in Scotland of the trade and manufactures of each between the Price of Grain and the Wages town; accompanied with general directions. of Labour. By John Weyland, Junior, Esq. to strangers. By Charles Campbell, Esq. F. R. S. Ordinary Member of the Board of Illustrated by correct maps. 12mo. 7s.


Foreign Literary Gazette.


Among the most wonderful and constantly attractive arts elicited by the powers of the human mind, there is none on which we dwell with such unremitted complacency as on the art of Writing; by which we record our thoughts, and fix our ideas for future rumination; by which the man of business keeps his accounts, while the philosopher embodies uis ideas; which, directed into a thousand channe's, is here emploved in calculating the weight of the earth itself, of its fellow globes, whose immense circuits obey the same motive impulse, and there assists in estimating the dimensions of a living atom, invisible to mortal sight, and occupying no greater space in the world, than the teu thousandth, or the thirty thousandth, part

of an inch.

What were History without writing? what were all the occurrences that ever have befallen our species? Where were the wisdom to be learned from events? and where the aggregate of those instructions which the faults, the follies, the sagacity and the devices of mortals year after year, and age after age, afford their posterity? On the other hand-the rudiments of this wonderful art contain no principle in themselves, that, being referred to prototypes constantly the same, may at all times renew the same ideas. From this remark, the written language of China stands forward as an acknowledged exception; and, certainly, as we have formerly had sion to submit to our readers, it proceeds on principles of more general delineation, than any other with which we are acquainted. Reduced to its elements, each word is the representative of a thing, or things; although in combination, the figure and the reference is overwhelmed, if not entirely lost.*

Yet even this system is arbitrary, in some points of view; for no emotions of the mind can be represented in figures; neither can dates, referring to periods of time, past or future, &c.: and except in a few of the more obvious symbols, nature seems to have receded before art and convention; as is evident from the necessity for studying this system with laborious perseverance, as well by natives as by strangers. But, if this system were originally drown from nature, and connected by observation, then, there can be no reason for ascribing the art of writing in its other branches to Divine Revelation. No interposing angel taught the Hindoo, or the Egyptian, if the Chinese were able to accomplish the same effect, without celestial assistance. When Pliny, therefore, ascribes writing to the Gods, we merely learn his conviction of its deep antiquity; when pious writers among ourselves, trace it up to Adam, and suppose the first of men to be the first of authors, they do but declare what they do not know; and favour their readers with an apology for instruction, instead of instruction itself.

It must be confessed, however, that when once fixed by usage and popularity, the delineations of the Chinese language are less likely to be entirely lost, as to their verbal import, than the characters of the western nations, which contain no principle adapted to revive, by its allusion to fixed objects, the idea of any sound, or sentiment, of any person or thing, of any phrase, or syllable. Under these circumstances, it becomes a question, deserving of consideration, whether other rations also did not derive their characters from natural occa-objects? and having first adopted symbols, whether they did not afterwards divide and sub-divide, them into phrases, expressions, words, and syllables? We cannot expect to find traces of such a process in modern alphabets; but, by examining those which are the most aucient, and comparing the principles by which they are governed, we may make some advance towards the happy, and simple ideas on which they are constructed.


Compare LITERARY PANORAMA, Vol. XII. pp. 848. 1052. We cannot do better than repeat here, a part of Dr. Marshman's Observations. They include the most remarkable objects of nature; as the sun, the moon, a river, a mountain, fire, water, earth, wood, stone, &c.; the principal parts of a house, as the roof, the door, as well as those utensils most frequently in use, as a knife, a spoon, (or chop-stick) a seat, a box, a staff, &c. Domestic animals also find a place here, as the goat, the cow, the horse, the dog, &c.; nor are the grand supports of life omitted, as grain, pulse, Vol. II. Lit. Pan. New Series. June 1.

The first thing that strikes us in all writing is, the order of the lines formed by the letters, or by which the letters are goverued; and this presents noticeable varieties. The next is the form of the letters as to their general appearance to the eye;

another at least equally important particular is, the order in which the words are to be read and understood.

flesh, fish, &c. nor the primary relations of life, father, mother, son, daughter, however difficult to be represented."

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bricks which contain these letters, being taken from the foundations of the tower of Babel, are as old as the first foundations, they must be among the most antieut inscriptions in existence. If they are no older than the days of Nebuchadnezzar, who completed that structure, though they will not compare with the Mosaic writings and others, vet the letters upon them may be transcripts from alphabets of much earlier date. Be that as it may, they are formed of straight lines which is our present object.

If we examine the forms of the Welsh letters, which are attributed by the learned, of the Principality to the Druids, we find that they also avoid the circle; that their limbs, or members, are uniformly straight, and that their system must be referred to the principles of the square. In an enlarged dissertation this would deserve both enquiry and verification. Here we can only accept it as a fact, and apply it to our purpose:-for, as these letters were de Cinga-rived from the flexures of twigs, and contained symbolical references; it seems a fair question to ask, whether the nail-headed characters, might not be derived from twigs, also,or from other natural productions, ain the country where they originated? By this, they approach the primary idea of the Chinese-imitation: and, if this could be allowed of the Sanscrit, which also is a square character, then we see how one simple, but felicitous conception, became the parent of the Art of Writing; notwithstanding there is no apparent similitude between the Chinese character and any other.

When a Chinese is about to begin a piece of writing, the first thing he does is to rule a perpendicular line, that marks the center of his characters, which are to be read downwards. On this line, he branches out the sketch of his characters to the right and to the left. Directly the contrary, as our readers will perceive by inspecting the fac-simile annexed, the Sans crit is governed by a horizontal line, on which all the letters appear to hang. This enters into the form of the letter; a few short strokes, having the air of flourishes or after thoughts, rise occasionally above the line; but the body of the letter is below the line. The Marhatta, Bengalee, Sikh, Kashmeer, Hindoostanee, Uhumiya, are evidently variations from this original. Another principle is, that every character is formed by a first stroke at right angles with the primary line; which causes the square form to predominate in this alphabet.

Extremely different from the Sanscrit, the Coriya, Telinga, Burman, and lese, are all formed of circular figures: and there is no such a thing as a square figure among them; scarcely, radeed, a straight line. Does not this indicate an origia totally distinct?-derived from different race of men? It seems also to announce an origin later in point of time; and after a facility had been obtained by practice in using the pencil. The Sanscrit affords few circles, if any; and this it has in common with the Chinese.

If the Chinese written language were formed by delineations of natural objects, taken generally, and without restriction, it leads to an easy conception by what means the same process, employed on a restricted series of objects, natural or artificial, might deduce from them a variety of figures to which fired notions might be adapt ed, and correspondent names be given. So a single stroke, 1, might, and naturally would, recall the idea of one: and II of two; I, of three; III of four, and so on. Moreover, these strokes might be laid in another position, as, or, or, &c. and in this horizontal position, they might receive another signification; and they might easily be made to-cross the former;

We lately had occasion to submit a specimen of the language of flowers; the covert meanings of which were at least amusing; but, they were somewhat more, if they may be allowed to justify the same

discover no cogent reason.

which would give a third series of signifi-power ascribed to twigs; against which we cations, &c. Something, not unlike this conjecture, may be recovered, perhaps, on examination of such alphabets as present the most plausible claims to antiquity.

It is remarkable, that the nail-headed character of Persepolis and Babylen, which (the last especially) is extremely antient, is exclusively composed of straight lines, and presents no circles. Yet, if the

Our readers have seen, that the trees were symbolical; and that letters, formed of the pliant twigs of trees, were symbolical also, 1. as parts of the different trees, from which they were cut: 2. as letters, or conventional signs of words, or syllables, ing known to two parties enabled them to as parts of words, the import of which becorrespond together.

But, if this nail-headed character were really derived from the heads of arrows, in which those weapons were placed, and varied in form by the different positions

Compare PANORAMA, Vol. XIV. p. 835,



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