Imatges de pàgina

mine. After having descended with some difficulty, we went towards the centre of the mountain, and soon lost sight of the world, sometimes wading half way up the leg, in black lead dust. The arched roof was full of projecting pieces of the shining rock, and large caverns appeared on each side as we advanced. The roof at one place, appeared curiously carved, as if the work of art, part of which we were able to reach. Ou touching this carved work, we perceived it had life, and on examina-, tion, we found it to be composed of a multitude of bats, hanging asleep from the roof and the projecting rocks on the sides of the cave. Moving them backwards and forwards neither awoke, nor made any of them lose their hold of the rock on which they hung by the claws of their hinder legs--but holding the candle at a little dis

tance under one of them, awoke it, when it flew to another part of the cave, Perhaps we penetrated about a hundred feet into the mountain, when it became so low and narrow that we could proceed no farther in that direction. We returned, and went by a passage leading to the right, deeper into the mountain; at the bottom of the descent we entered a large cavern, the floor of which was strewed with the boces of animals, and some parts indicated fires having been made in it, perhaps by people taking refuge from enemies, for it was too gloomy and terrific to be chosen as a residence even by wild Bashmen. After collecting some samples of the rock, and powder, we returned to the mouth of the cave, nearly as black as chimney sweepers by the powder, which flew about so as almost to extinguish our lights.

Nor is this the only decoration of African "beanty and fashion". Among all nations, personal embellishments, and splendors of every description, within the power of the performers to procure, have formed part of the preparations for public dancings; the damsels of Lattakoo are no exceptions to this custom :

At the house of one of the Headmen, who was most venerable in his appearance, his two young wives were preparing to atteud the public diversions before our waggons. They sat together in the front of the house within the enclosure. The one was painting her body with stuff composed of red chalk, ground to a powder, and mixed up with grease. It was contained in a wooden bowl which stood at her side. This she spread on the palms of her hands, and rubbed it carefully over her skin. The other wife had black lead dust mixed with

grease, which, put upon her hair, gave it a blue and sparkling appearance. Notwithstanding our being introduced to them, they went on with the process, and with the utmost composure, till it was finished. The husband though also painted red, yet from the figure of his person, the dignity and gravity of his countenance, the elegance of his fur robe, and various ornaments on his breast, had as noble an appearance as any person I recollect to have seen any where. His house was neat and clean, and his back yard had much of an English appearance. Indeed all the Headmen we saw looked well.

A red skin, and blue hair !-the tiptop of refinement, surely! Our author describes these dances in the following terms; but, whether they were, in any sense, religious, probably, he did not learn.

About eight o'clock in the morning there attended with much noisy singing and was a procession of the women and girls, dancing, carrying poles mounted with ostrich feathers. During the forenoon all was quiet, so that our worship proceeded without molestation. About forty of the men sat round us very quietly during the whole time.

At two o'clock all was confusion around fantastically dressed, and when a circle us. The women brought the girls, most. daubed with white spots of paint, in imitawas formed, about four and twenty women, tion of icopards, entered, and danced for some time. Next entered a woman dressed entirely in straw, so that nothing but her hands were visible. She had much the appearance of a bear walking on his hind legs. There was much shouting, laughing, and clapping of hands at this part of the who danced for a minute, when all of entertainment. Then entered the girls, them suddenly dispersed, and our quiet

was restored.

At two P.M. the bustle commenced in the square, by the dancing of the girls, who had made some addition to their former dresses. Some of them had one side of the face painted black, and the other white; others, the upper part of the face white, and the under, black. They had pieces of reeds, about six inches long, strung like beads, and made into the foru of a petticoat, hung round them from the middle almost to the ground, which made a strange noise when they danced. They had likewise a great quantity of straw rope wound round them, projecting twelve or

fifteen inches from the middle of their | his journal, various remarks on subjects of backs, and also in front, which gave them natural history, fresh as they came to his and a very odd appearance. The queen knowledge. Parke mentions red lions, several others, who acted as musicians, by in Africa; Mr. C. mentions a lion, black bawling aloud and clapping hands, wore at the shoulders, and part of the back: cloaks composed of about a dozen fur tippets, hanging from their shoulders to the which is rather unusual in this part ground, under which they had a skin cloak, of Africa. He notices, also, the differwithout the hair. A few wore leather ence between the quachas, on the north caps, but the greater part had no covering and south of the Great River; the first, on their heads. Almost every one wore being striped with black and white sandals, except the dancing girls. stripes, the latter with black and brown, There is considerable spirit and accuracy in his account of the springbuck?

When the girls had retired, some old women brought forward a horned serpent, which they drew on a flat board. It was made of clay, daubed over with red, white, and black paint. This being placed

within the circle, two women came forward, fantastically dressed, who seemed to be actresses. They danced round the serpent in a strange manner, with rods in their hands, decked with black ostrich feathers, and keeping their eyes continually directed towards the serpent, often pointing to it with their rods, and then pointing to the eastward, as the quarter where it had been found. They often appeared as if much terrified at the sight of it, and suddenly sprang from it. They seemed to act their parts very well, and the surrounding multitude appeared highly entertained by this part of the show. About six or seven hundred were present.

Left Sand-flat at seven in the morning, and soon me in sight of some Springbucks, which afforded great entertainment, from their springing at least six feet every leap in height, and several yards in lengthi. However near a persou may be to them, no motion of their legs can be perceived; the instant they touch the ground after one spring, they rise again into the air, which makes their motion resemble flying.

They will, with ease, leap over the head of a man of ordinary stature; and when pressed, perhaps considerably higher.

he says,

Having heard of some paintings in Salakootoo's house, we went after breakfast to

We could have been very glad if the reverend writer had obtained further information on the subject of a grey serpent, that was killed, which "shone in the dark, and also emitted a rattling sound, evidently intended by providence to warn people of its approach." We recollect uo bistory of any rattle-snake in Africa, nor of a serpent possessing phosphoric view them. We found them very rough properties; and we confess a curiosity to become better acquainted with any representations of the camel-leopard, rhiWe have greater connoceros, elephant, lion, tyger, and stein- such, if it exist. buck, which Salakootoo's wife had drawn on fidence in his account of "a species of the clay wall, with white and black paint. serpent, which, on seeing man or beast However, they were as well done as we approaching, endeavours to get to windexpected, and may lead to something bet-ward, when it spits its poison, that it may be blown into the eyes of the enemy. If the least particle gets into the eyes, the person will be blind for some days." Barbot, in Churchill, vol. v. mentions a similar fact; but, it does not appear, that the serpent had any need to get to windward. A propós of serpents ;we are pleased with the ingenuity of Cupido, Mr. C's. Hottentot driver, who edified his fellow servants and others "by a word of exhortation," from time to time. Says our author,"He illustrated the immortality of


This reminds us of Mr. Barrow, who found animals drawn by the Bosjesmans, in a cavern that he visited, well executed, well discriminated, and correctly proportioned; worse drawings, says he, have passed through the enThat writer, even graver's hands. founds his persuasion of the existence of the Unicorn, on a drawing discovered in a cavern, of which he inserts a copy.

To return to Mr. Campbell, we give him credit, for having minuted down in

This ceremony, whatever were its meaning, implies some acquaintance with the imitative arts, that of Sculpture, for instance : neither is that of Painting unknown; for, says Mr. C.`

the soul, by alluding to the serpent,, who, by going between two branches of a bush which press against each other, strips himself once a year of his skin." When we find the skin, said he, "we do not call it the serpent; no, it is only its skin: neither do we say, the serpent is dead; no, for we know he is alive, and has only, cast his skin." The serpent he compared to the soul, and the skin to the body of man." Was this the reason for introducing the serpent as the emblem of immortality among the ancients?

Mr. C. athirmus that a drop of the fresh milk of the Euphorbium accideu

with our own Post Office Annual Directory, the names and references are correct; but not near so unmerous as they might have been, if more economically arranged on the same quantity of paper.

The Summary informs us, that the work is arranged in the following or der General notice of the principal productions of nature and of industry in France; Extent, Population, &c.

Paris-Manufacturers, bankers, merchants, tradesmen, newspapers, periodicals, law list, ministry, and affairs of state, public functionaries, coaches, &c. Departments.-Extent, population, prefectures, &c. Roads, rivers, and na

tally spirting into one of Dr. Vander-vigable canals, manufacturers, &c. pubkemp's eyes, then in a diseased state, lic societies, inns, fairs, and curiosities; the sight of it was perfectly restored. public buildings, antiquities, amuseIt might have been thought more likely ments, &c. to extinguish the sight completely; but if this be correct, can any medical use he made of the fact?

This volume is accompanied by several plates, and a map, which contributes essentially to the better understanding of the narrative. It may be added, that, several articles of Natural History, of Hottentot and Caffre &c. manufacture, with other things, have been brought to England by this gentleman, and may be inspected: among them is the skin of a Camelopardalis. A portrait of the author in his travelling dress, faces the title page of his work.


Principal States and Cities of the World, the same particulars, as far as a more confined space will allow : tifty-six pages, not very closely printed, are allotted to the United Kingdom.

This Directory classes the different professions together; still attending to alphabetical order, a plan which has been adopted to a very complete degree in Holden's Annual Directory in Classes; but a page in Holden's work contains in quantity as much as three of this cum

bersome octavo.

We shall translate accounts of a few public establishments.


Almanach du Commerce de Paris, des Départemens, &c. Commercial Alma nack, for 1815, for Paris, the Depart ments of France, and the principal cities of the world, by J. De la Tynna, of Fribourg, Member of the Society for the encouragement of National Industry. 8vo. 20s. Bossange et Masson. London. In this country where commerce ea

and display a series of models and machines, This institution is designed to receive invented or improved: it contains a very considerable collection of originals, to which are added drawings, prints, and descriptions of every kind of machine or tool used in manufactures, together with a library of works referring to subjects of this nature. Instructions are here given in mathematics, and drawing of all kinds, including the practice of mechanical drawing. The liberality of the present government has

gerly employs every means of attain-enriched this collection with a museum of a similar description, latery purchased; and pays great attention to its re-organisation, and improvement.-M. le Duc de la Rochefoucault, is appointed Inspector Ge


ing and of communicating information, we need not descaut on the utility of Commercial Directories, a useful, though humble department of literature. The chief merit of such works is, certainly, their correctness; as it is impossible for us to form any idea of this qualificafion in regard to foreign states or cities, we shall only notice, that in those instances in which we have compared it


ATHENEUM OF ARTS, Established in 1792, for the encourage ment of Sciences, Arts, and Literature: a meeting of the members is held weekly; also a general annual meeting, when a report is read of its labours and progress;

and rewards are distributed, for inventions,
improvements, &c.


An Inquest, charged with the superintendance of every circumstance relative to public health and convenience, the inspection of eatables, drinkables, markets, quays, manufactories, workshops, surgeons dissecting rooms, slaughter-houses, mineral springs, bakehouses, lemonade sellers, and similar occupations.

This includes also authorized public and official bureaux, (Anglice, Housesof Call) for the reference of workmen of all descriptions wanting employment; in which, each trade is referred to a separate establishment for the requisite information it is in quest of.

The following is the ordonnance of police relative to noxious trades, &c. :—

No workshop, manufactory, or laboratory, shall be established in Paris, which may in any degree endanger the public health, or may be hazardous as to occasioning fires, until there has been offered to the prefecture of police, a full specification of every particular relative to the intended building, to the materials used in the manufacture, and operations which are to take place in the course of preparation, accompanied by plans, elevations, &c. of the buildings proposed.

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honoured when due; superintends the bonds, and securities of the different officers, &c. controuls the sums levied on all places and pensions for the purpose of forming an annuity fund in case of superannuation, acts as a treasury for all payments relating to public worship, and receives and holds the duties levied on the exportation of corn.


This institution has the sole right of issuing notes payable at sight, by charter The for 40 years, commencing 1805. business of this bank consists

1. In discounting generally bills of exchange, and other commercial securities, payable to order, not exceeding three months date, legally stamped, and bearing at least, the names of three merchants, or persons of known respectability. It discounts bills with two names only, provided they be respectable, after having certified that the bills originated in a bona fide com mercial transaction; and adding to the guarantee a temporary transfer of bank stock, or of five per cents. to the nominal

As soon as possible after such specification has been received, a committee of surveyors, and of persons conversant with the arts, accompanied by a commissary of the police, shall visit the premises, in order to satisfy themselves that such intended establishment is no ways dangerous to public health, or safety. A detailed Inquest-Report De commodo et incommodo, shall be drawn up, reported, and duly registered, for the purpose of future refereuce, relative to the same subject.


An establishment under the special rection of government; intended in the first instance, for carriage of public and government effects; and incidentally to

present to individuals a concentrated me-
dium of general conveyance of goods, in
which the post office punctually regulates
waggons, coaches, or canal-carriage.


2. It furnishes advances on public bills, when their date of payment is fixed.

Branches of this bank are established at Lyons, and at Rouen.

A considerable variety of institutions for the encouragement, improvement, and facilitation of art, manufactures, and di-commerce, might have been added to the preceding, those recited, are, however, sufficient to demonstrate that public superintending care which is bestowed on such subjects in France; it our manufaccannot but impress on turers, the necessity of constant watchfulness against rivalry so powerfu}; and convince them that they must rely on their own exertions for retaining that superiority of character, which British merchants and merchandize have hitherto possessed,


The first duty of this office, relates to the redemption of public debt. It als, guarantees the payment, at sight, of all bills granted by the Receivers General, but not

3. It lends on the security of bullion, or of foreign coin placed in deposit.

4. The bank is also a deposit for all species of written property, public or private, domestic or foreign; bullion, national or foreign coin, and diamonds; charging a commission on the estimated value of the deposit of one-eighth per cent. for six months. 5. To receive payment of all bills, &c. either for public bodies or private persons.

6. A regular banking account; paying to the drafts of those who lodge cash.

The rate of interest for Paris is 4 per cent.; but liable to variation.


ST. MARK. c. 9. v. 49.

For every one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt.

Succisiva Opera: or, Selections from
Antient Writers, Sacred and Profane,
with Translations and Notes By Rev. H.
Meen, B.D. 8vo. price 5s.;
London. 1815.

This sentence connects with the forego

Mr. Meen some years ago, published a small pamphlet, entitled " Remarks on the Cassandra of Lycophron." It was then recommended to him to com

as the particle yap, which is causal, shews. In the preceding verse we read, that offenders shall be cast into the Ge henna of fire; where the fire shall perpetually burn them, and the consciousness of their crimes shall perpetually torment them. For every one, that is, nãs, ò eis


τὴν γέενναν τοῦ πυρὸς βληθείς, ἁλις θήσεται, shall be seasoned, shall be preserved wicked who are thrown into it, as brine in this fire. This fire shall act upon the acts upon the meat, over which it is poured.

plete the entire poem on the same plan is this recommendation we concur; for, to say truth, the present publication, composed of literary scraps," scarcely, takes that hold on the scholar's mind, to which the talents and learning of the author entitle it. Mr. M. indeed, pleads "the advanced price of every article with which printing is concerned :"The excuse, is too well founded; yet, in fact, little more expense would have been incurred by presenting the public with a complete work, than has attended the present desultory publication. The advanced state of knowledge, affords ample opportunity for a man of study to obtain great credit by republishing, with proper notes, various antient poems referring to Natural History: for instance, Nicander on Serpents,-whose work might be rendered extremely interesting, and entertaining, by such modern accounts of serpents, as illustrate that ancient author, whether by similarity, or by contrariety. The same idea would apply to many other works: and Mr. M. appears to be extremely well qualified to do such subjects justice.

Unlike all other fires, it shall not destroy It shall consolidate, not consume them. life, but prolong it. Such is the state of every incorrigible offender. It remains to be shewn, what is the portion reserved for the faithful. Every faithful disciple, who. is so truly devoted to the Christian cause, as to be ready to die in its defence, is here. represented under the figure of a sacrifice, seasoned with salt. Every sacrifice, saith Christ, thus prepared for, and devoted to me, shall be considered as seasoned with salt. The Jews understood, that sacrifices, sc seasoned, were acceptable to the Lord. Every sincere disciple is here by anticipation and prolepsis denominated a sacrifice. By this appellation he was forewarned of an event, which the sword of persecution would not fail to accomplish. With a like allusion to sacrifices, St. Paul thus writes to the Philippians, If I am offered up-and to Timothy, for I am ready to be offered.

The present pamphlet contains-frag-
ments of the Cassandra of Lycophron,
evidently composed with a view to fur-
ther use in a regular. edition, though
placed irregularly, here :-Odes, from
Pindar, in portions, or detached
sages; also from Horace, and Nicander,
illustrating difficult words; with several
texts from the New Testament, critically
examined for the same, purpose.
M's. profession seems to have led him,
to these, particularly; and his discus-undertaken to substitute.

sions manifest a commendable desire of
understanding that sacred volume,
which it is his duty to explain to others.
We shall take our specimens from these.sqlem ipsum condietis?

Thus the punishment, hereafter to be inflicted on the wicked, and the recompense, reserved for the faithful, are expressed in terms, fetched from those sacrificial rites with which the Jews were conversant. Commentators, conceiving the sense to be instead of axonora, vanwaras. consumed by fire, have proposed to read, But the very reverse of consumed is the pas-sense intended. A learned critic has indeed said, that, "as to salting with fire, nothing can be made of it." Much, and much more to the purpose may be made of it, than can be made of any word, which criticism, in its ardour to amend, may have

Salt is good but if the salt ärahov impar, should have become insipid, Taurò άPTUJETE; Quo condimento

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