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sider themselves the conquerors of it; but it is by no means improbable, they may be the aborigines, tor they have more marks of originality about them than any people
BRITISH SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA.I have met with among the Hindoo tribes. The simplicity of their food, the peculiarity of their dress, the neatness and cleanliness of their persons and habitations, the respect in which they hold their priests, the want of wheel carriages throughout the whole
ment under Col. Adams, at the close of the year 1813, has brought us more fully acquainted with a country, of which we had but little previous knowledge. The tary exploits are not our object at present: but merely the insertion of a concise description of the country. The natives defended themselves valiantly, when attacked; and the commander of the fort of Eutourree, Surnaid Sing, when he found that all hope of a successful defence of the place against British troops (who entered the ramparts at the breach,) was gone, he strewed a quantity of gunpowder on a cloth, in which he rolled himself, and setting fire to the gunpowder, terminated his life, and thus avoided falling into the hands of his enemies. He had been eminent among a host of depredators, around him, who were the scourge and the terror of the neigbouring villages.
A campaign made by a British detach-country, but, above all, their wonderful intheir fieids, and the mode they have of predustry and peculiar ingenuity in ploughing serving the produce of them, stamp at once the character of this primitive race. Their mili-weapons of offence are the tulwar and men, they are mostly mercenaries, hired spear when you meet with matchlockfor some particular occasion. Not a beggar is to be seen; and the filthy hog, which so Hindostan, is seldom or never to be met much disgusts the sight in every village of with in Rewah. In short, they appear to me to be an unambitious race of men, who seem only to wish to be left to themselves, with foreigners. That they have frequently and to have as little intercourse as possible had petty wars amongst themselves, there is no doubt; but the precious metals, which have so often set the civilized world share in producing their disputes. Indeed in a blaze, appear to have had little or no gold and silver are of littie use to them, nor do they seem ambitious of obtaining them, otherwise no people in India have fluous produce of their lands into money, such an opportunity of turning the superfrom the proximity of their country to Mirzapore. It strikes me from these premises, that the Rewah men are brave and neighbouring states in their domestic conhonest, but jealous of the interference of cerns. They appear to be better judges of what constitutes their own happiness than most nations; and having lived for bunsimplicity, it is not to be wondered at that dreds and hundreds of years in patriarchal they should."
The cold in camp, was particularly intense the thermometer having been so low as 32 degrees, or 4 degrees below the freezing point.
The Cataracts or Waterfalls of the Mohana stream in this country, are particularly fine. One of them falls three bun dred feet: the current is wide and violent; the whole is astonishing. The prospect from this spot is very extensive.
* INTERESTING INTELLIGENCE
DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY
The chiefs of this district are called Sing; and a part of it is called the Singranab district: from these the Rewah Rajah, as liege lord, levies an uncertain tribute once in two years. Plans of much of the country have been taken by the Engineers. Extract of a Letter from the British Camp.
"This country contains the ruins of vast walled cities, large forts, immense tanks and temples innumerable: the people con
FEW PARTICULARS CONCERNING
These are, at the present moment, of en、 creased interest, as the British are actually at war with the Nepaulese; and have met with vigourous resistance, in the attempt to reduce their predatory incursions within their own limits; and to put an end to those barbarities of which the Nepaulese rovers are guilty, when they issue from their fortresses, and overrun the
neighbouring country. It was in consequence of these insults and aggressions, that the British declared war against the Nepaulese in the year 1814.
The kingdom of Nepaul, is at present goyerned by Bhum Leu, a young man about twenty years old. He is a descendant of the Gooska family; which has risen into notice, and usurped the Raj, within the last half century: and though brave and resolute; he has also the arrogance and overweening confidence in his united strength, so natural to an upstart, and a barbarian. The whole of his regular force is said to amount only to 12,000 men. Of these, 4,000 are said to be under his personal command, at Khatmondo; 3000 are under his uncle Amur Serigh; and an equal number under an officer bearing the same name. The remainder are parcelied out in small detachments in various of the country. These men, though hardy and courageous, can make but feeble resistance when opposed to the well disciplined strength of an English army. Calcutta, Nov. 1814,
"The sieges of the towns of Hindown and Khuraira still continue. The operations at both places have been marked with more than usual spirit and activity, Hardly a day passes without a skirmish; and the sallies from both garrisons have been frequent. The Rajah of Kerowly, having sent a thousand of his troops to assist in the reduction of Khuraira, has had the mortification to witness not only their defection from the cause which he had espoused,--but even their actual junction with the enemy Corrupted by the money, or seduced by the promises of the Kelladhar, they marched in a body from the camp of the besiegers to the lines of the besieged; and they all reached their new destination in safety, except about thirty-five, who were seized in their progress to the fort, and were immediately dismantled of their noses and ears. parts
For further particulars respecting this country, and our intercourse with it, compure the Report on Col. Kirkpatrick's “ Account of the Kingdom of Nepaul." LITERARY PANORAMA. Vol. X. p. 416.
Late events in Europe have been thought singular, and certainly they are extraordinary among the inhabitants of civilized countries; but, when a country is in a state of barbarism, whether reduced to that state by authority and systematic perversion of power, or left in it, by the absence of the means of better knowledge, such tergiversation as we have lately witnessed
"The Rajah himself, justly incensed at their conduct, has very unjustly wreaked his vengeance upon their innocent and defenceless families,-plundering and destroying them with remorseless violence.
past, that Kurrim Khan, the Pindarree
We have had the satisfaction of receiv
is nothing wonderful. In fact, it is coming from our correspondent at Macassar, the following report of the effects produced there by the abolition of the Slave Trade.
mon among the wild tribes of India, and we submit an extract of information from that country, which, in its way, bears a close resemblance to the treason of the French army; as the subjoined character of a chief does to Napoleon. It may be observed, however, that Kurrim Khan is better watched in his hold, than Napoleon
Calcutta, April, 1814. For the following particulars of recent Hindoostan news, we are indebted to an intelligent correspondent.
CONSEQUENCES OF SLAVE Trade
"The influence of the abolition of Slavery is already felt to a great degree in this country.-Murders, which were formerly so numerous here, now happen very about to any distance in perfect security. seldom, the people of the country travel
Those wretches whose former employment was stealing and selling children into slavery, are now obliged to confine their depredations to horses and buffaloes, and the scantiness and precariousness of this mode of subsistence compels many to cultivate the land to procure a livelihood.-Under these circumstances, cultivation and
civilization are daily increasing, and must | nevolent Societies she has established: and extend rapidly over the country. The by her efforts. the ignorant have been ennative chiefs in Celebes do not conceal lightened, and the inconsiderate reclaimed. that they are much poorer in consequence of the change, but although they cannot at present be expected to co-operate willingly in the suppression of slavery, they are perfectly conscious of the blessings it must ultimately produce."
Every well wisher to liberty and humanity must rejoice at learning the rapid decline of the Slave Trade in a country, which till very lately was its principal mart in the Eastern seas, and every Briton will feel an honest pride in reflecting, that this happy change has only occurred since the freedom-giving banner of his country, has waved in triumph on the coast of Celebes.
The Institution of a Bible Society here, where the number of individuals is limited, and where the obstacles to such an under taking are numerous, does infinite honour. to the founders of it, and it must be a proud feeling to those persons, that their spontaneous and independent exertions have met with such success and approbation; but all their zeal and assiduity in promul gating the Scriptures must eventually fail, if the opportunity be not also afforded of profiting by their circulatiou.
MAURITIUS, MARCH, 1814.
In these islands, the greater proportion of Indigent Creoles and Free Blacks, are unable to take advantage of the possession of the Bible, from an inability to read it, and thus it becomes a part of our duty to render them capable of enjoying the blessings and comforts which must arise from a knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, by giving them such instruction as may qualify them for its perusal.
INSTITUTION OF A SCHOOL FOR THE EDU-
N.B. In the Mauritius Gazette, preceding
that which contains an account of this meeting, is the following advertisement. FOR SALE,
Two large Negresses; one of them, seamstress and laundress; the other, cook and laundress. Also, a She-Ass with Colt, which may be exchanged for a sure-footed Donkey. Address to Madame Gautier, at her country-which we hope to publish with the prohouse, near the Lataniers River.
We forbear to make any further remarks; all the reason and argument necessary to impress the vast importance of such an undertaking, are so ably maintained, and so forcibly expressed in the letter of His EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR to the Society which was read at the meeting; and
ceedings; that it would be useless as well as impertinent in us to say any thing more at
We cannot omit congratulating the Inha-present; but we cannot take leave of the subject, without expressing a sanguine bitants of this Island upon one measure hope, that the same liberality, the same adopted at the suggestion of His Ex-distinguished zeal, and the same strenuous CELLENCY THE GOVERNOR, the Establish- exertions will be used in the establishment ment of a SCHOOL FOR THE EDUCATION of The School for Indigent Creoles and Free Blacks, as were so laudably displayed in the original establishment of THE MAURITIUS BIBLE SOCIETY.
OF INDIGENT CREOLES AND FREE BLACKS,
It is hardly necessary to make any observation on the advantages which must accrue from such an institution, the fact is too well established that nothing tends so powerfully to civilization as a general diffusion of knowledge, to need an argument in its favour; but the work of improvement must go on more rapidly, when Religion is blended with instruction, and the temporal advantages of education are directed to the spiritual benefit of those instructed.
England has every claim to the gratitude of the world for the unbounded liberality and ceaseless exertions she has displayed in the dissemination of the sacred volume of the Scriptures over the whole face of the earth. Thousands of persons without reference to their persuasion, sect, or nation, have had The Holy Bible without Note, or Comment, put into their hands by the be
The Rent of the Pearl Fishery, was to finish April 6th, but an aumany fishing on account of Government would take place, and continue as long as the weather remained fine and the banks productive.
The Pearl Fishery, it is reported has succeeded beyond all expectations.
On the conclusion of the Pearl Fishery the merchants having come to the resolution of presenting an Address to the Superintendant, a deputation consisting of Mr. C. Belderbeck, Mr. J. M. Laveliere, Abdul Cauder Markar, one of the Renters of the Pearl Fishery, and Castajee Franjie, waited on Mr. Sutherland, at his Cut.
cherry on the 17th Instant, with a letter, signifying their gratitude for his upright superintendancy, and justice as a Magis trate, &c. &c. to which Mr. S. returned a suitable answer.
Should the custom of presenting addresses continue in India, it will add one to the memoranda, which, in future ages, may constitute propfs of British ascendancy.
WHEAT GROWN IN CEYLON,
the great majority speak Cingalese, and the rest Tamul. This report of numbers falls far short of former representations: nor can it be doubted that multitudes of the inhabitants have of late years relapsed into idolatry. In the time of the Dutch Government, there were between 300 and 400 temples dedicated to Pagan Deities: in the year 1807, they amounted to 1200! In 1669, the Christians in the district of Jaffna alone, were 65,000: by the last return it appears that there are not 5,000!.
His Excellency the Governor with Mrs. Brownrigg, the Honourable Mr. Carrington, and a large party, were to pay a vi sit to Delft Island, where there is a very considerable establishment for the breeding of horses, and where hemp of a remarkable good quality is produced, and wheat grown, the only part of Ceylon where it has been yet found to thrive,
Our readers are already acquainted with Duaterra, the New Zealand Chief; and with his patriotic exertions for the benefit of his people: the present article shews the endeavours made by the benevolent Missionaries in New South Wales, to se
FURTHER PARTICULARS RESPECTING THE
Most of the native Christians are Budd-cond his intentions, to further and support bites in their heart, and frequently attend their idol worship and devil dances; and the Roman Catholics are scarcely a remove in Christian Knowledge or practice above them. It is to be regretted, that our European Christians, by their conduct, rather encourage than discountenance caste. I cannot but detest a national custom which prevails, that no native, no not even a native Christian, is allowed to sit in the company of an Englishman. It is true, some of our countrymen, who are in mind and station above the common ones, subject themselves to censure, by inviting a respectable native Christian to' take a seat. But while we abhor the antichristian conduct, we feel very delicate at once to break through the custom, lest we expose our-lowing is a copy: selves to censure on the one hand, and such a degree of familiarity on the other as might cause contempt. The inhabitants of the southern part of the island are mostly worshippers of the god Buddha: they deny that there is an External self-existent Being, and affirm that all the gods, and the world, &c. were made by chance; and that in proportion to a virtuous life in this world, men pass into a state of annihilation, which they affirm is the highest state of happiness. In a conversation with two of their priests, we were fully convinced of this being their doctrine; and they reason with all their skill against the existence of God, or the creation of the world.
On Monday, May 23rd, 1814, the Active sailed from the river Derwent for the Bay of islands. After a good passage, we came to an anchor near Tippoonah on Friday, June 10th. Duaterra was at his farm; but, hearing of a vessel being in the harbour, he came over to Tippoonah, and paid us a visit. We put into his hands a letter from Rev. Mr. Marsden, of which the fol
Number of Christians in Ceylon.-It appears, on investigation, that the native Protestants are about 150,000. Of these,
NEW SOUTH WALES. PROGRESS OF CIVILIZATION AND CHRIS
TIANITY IN NEW ZEALAND.
them, and ultimately to confer on that lately savage people, the greatest of benefits.
The following Extracts are taken from the Journal of Mr. Kendall, one of the Missionaries alluded to.
Parramatta, March 9, 1814.
I have sent the Brig Active to the Bay of Islands to see what you are doing; and Mr. Hail and Mr. Kendall from Eugland. Mr. Kendall will teach the boys and girls to read and write. I told you, when you was at Parramatta, that i would send you a gentleman to teach your Tamoneekees (boys and Koeteedos (girls) 10 read. You will be very good to Mr. Hall and Mr. Kendall. They will come to live in New Zealand, if you will not hurt them; and will teach you how to grow wheat, and to make houses and every thing.Charles has sent you a cock, and Mrs. Marsden has sent you a shirt and jacket, I have sent you some wheat for seed, and you must put it into the ground as soon as you can. I have sent you a mill to grind
your corn. If you will come in the Active to Parramatta, I will send you back again. Send me a man or two to learn to make an axe and every thing. You will send the Active full of moca, potatoes, lines, mats, fish, uets, and every thing. I have seut a jacket, for Kowheetee. Tell him to assist you and Terra to lade the ship. You will be very good to all my men, and not hurt them, and I will be good to you. Ann, Elizabeth, Mary, Jane, Charles, Martha, Nauny, and Mrs. Bishop and Mrs. Marsden, are all well, and wish to know how you are. If you do not come to see me, send me word by Mr. Kendall and Mr. Hall what you want, and I will send it you.
Duaterra's farm.-In an enclosure he had sown some wheat, which was already five or six inches above the ground; and his people were busily employed in cleartog more land, on which he intended to
plant potatoes, and to sow two bushels of wheat which we had presented to him by desire of Mr. Marsden.
I am your Friend, (Signed)
SAMUEL MARSDEN. Duaterra gladly received Mr. Marsden's letter, and was very much pleased with the arrival of his promised friends. I and Mr Hall accompanied him to his principal hipwah, or town, called Ranghee Hoo. It consisted of several small huts, about five feet in height, seven in breadth, and eight or ten in length. We were presently surrounded by many natives, men, women, and children; who conducted themselves toward us in the most friendly manner : as we repeated our visits, their friendship for us became more confirmed. The Tohungho Rakoos (woodmen) paid great attention to Mr. Hall. The children, who were at first afraid to come near me, would follow me, as soon as I had gained their confidence, to a great distance, to take hold of my hand.
We acquainted them with our intention of bringing our wives and children from Port Jackson, and residing among them, To some children I gave an invitation to go with us, and learn the Book, and see Mrs. Marsden; for it must not be omitted that the name of Mr. Marsden is well known at the Bay of Islands. The natives speak of him with respect, and even celebrate him in their songs.
On the Sunday after our arrival in the Bay of Islands, Mr. Hall read upon deck the Prayers of the Church. The rain prevented the natives from coming to the vessel at the time of Divine Service: two or three, who had slept on board, attended.
Duaterra is chief over the people of four districts. His territory is extensive. He has 400 fighting men under his command: a friend of his, whose name is Way, has 200; his uncle Kungroha, 300; and his uncle Shunghee, 600. Shunghee is a warrior, but of a very mild disposition, and with little appearance of the savage. He is chief over the people of seventeen places, is of a very ingenious turn, and anxious to learn the European Arts. He shewed us a musket which had been stocked and mounted by his own hands: it does him much credit, as he had no man to instruct him. He has several muskets in his possession. The natives procure these destructive weapons, with powder and shot, from the vessels which touch upon the coast.
In Duaterra's store-rooms were deposited rum, tea, sugar, flour, cheese, and two chests of European raiment. One of these places was unlocked; and, although the residence of Duaterra is sixteen miles dis-natives were digging the soil; others cleartant, yet every thing remained safe and unmolested.
We observed the natives at their daily work. One day Terra and about forty others (men and women) were very busy in preparing an allotment of land for potatoes, for the ensuing year. Some of the
ing it of roots and rubbish, which they placed upon heaps; and others were burning the heaps. Terra appears to be near
In many little fenced plots of land at Ranghee Hoo, and other places, we disco-seventy years of age. He presides over vered several hogs feeding. Pork is very the people of seventeen places. plentiful. An axe or a good piece of iron will purchase one, and sometimes two, good sized pigs. The soil is very good near Tippoonah, notwithstanding the hilly nature of the country. The cultivated land produces potatoes, cabbages, turnips, carrots, onions, &c. The parts which are not cultivated are generally covered with fern.
Ahourakkee, and the men which he had with him there, with all possible dispatch, conveyed two good spars to the water side, This was attended with much labour, as the timber lay at the distance of two or three hundred yards from the river: but these stout active men soon cleared a path for it and drew it along. One piece, which the natives had cut down, measured nearly ninety feet in length.
July 5, 1814.-I attended the mourning ceremony for Towtoro, a man who had died on the 3rd. The corpse was neatly wrapped up in the clothing which had