Imatges de pàgina

and rewards are distributed, for inventions, improvements, &c.

honoured when due; superintends the
bonds, and securities of the different offi-
cers, &c. controuls the sums levied on all
places and pensions for the purpose of
forming an annuity fund in case of super-


An Inquest, charged with the superin-annuation, acts as a treasury for all paytendance of every circumstance relative to ments relating to public worship, and public health and convenience, the inspec- receives and holds the duties levied on the tion of eatables, drinkables, markets, quays, exportation of corn. manufactories, workshops, surgeons' dissecting rooms, slaughter-houses, mineral springs, bakehouses, lemonade sellers, and similar occupations.

This includes also authorized public and official bureaux, (Anglice, Housesof-Call) for the reference of workmen of all descriptions wanting employment; in which, each trade is referred to a separate establishment for the requisite information it is in quest of.

The following is the ordonnance of police relative to noxious trades, &c. :— No workshop, manufactory, or laboratory, shall be established in Paris, which may in any degree endanger the public health, or may be hazardous as to occasioning fires, until there has been offered to the prefecture of police, a full specification of every particular relative to the intended building, to the materials used in the manufacture, and operations which

3. It lends on the security of bullion, or of foreign coin placed in deposit.

4. The bank is also a deposit for all

are to take place in the course of prepara-species of written property, public or prition, accompanied by plans, elevations, &c. of the buildings proposed.

vate, domestic or foreign; bullion, national or foreign coin, and diamonds; charging a commission on the estimated value of the deposit of one-eighth per cent. for six months.

5. To receive payment of all bills, &c. either for public bodies or private persons.

6. A regular banking account; paying to the drafts of those who lodge cash.

The rate of interest for Paris is 4 per cent.; but liable to variation.


Branches of this bank are established at Lyons, and at Rouen.

A considerable variety of institutions for the encouragement, improvement, and facilitation of art, manufactures, and di-commerce, might have been added to the preceding, those recited, are, however, sufficient to demonstrate that public superintending care which is bestowed on such subjects in France; it our manufaccannot but impress on of constant the necessity watchfulness against rivalry so powerful; and convince them that they must rely on their own exertions for retaining that superiority of character, which British merchants and merchandize have hitherto possessed,



This institution has the sole right of issuing notes payable at sight, by charter The business of this bank consists for 40 years, commencing 1803.

1. In discounting generally bills of exchange, and other commercial securities, payable to order, not exceeding three months date, legally stamped, and bearing at least, the names of three merchants, or persons of known respectability. It discounts bills with two names only, provided they be respectable, after having certified that the bills originated in a bona fide commercial transaction; and adding to the guarantee a temporary transfer of bank stock, or of five per cents. to the nominal

As soon as possible after such specification has been received, a committee of surveyors, and of persons conversant with the arts, accompanied by a commissary of the police, shall visit the premises, in order to satisfy themselves that such intended establishment is no ways dangerous to public health, or safety. A detailed Inquest-Report De commodo et incommodo, shall be drawn up, reported, and duly registered, for the purpose of future refereuce, relative to the same subject,


An establishment under the special rection of government; intended in the first instance, for carriage of public and government effects; and incidentally to present to individuals a concentrated medium of general conveyance of goods, in which the post office punctually regulates waggons, coaches, or canal-carriage. CAISE D'AMORTISSEMENT: OFFICE OF


2. It furnishes advances on public bills, when their date of payment is fixed.


The first duty of this office, relates to the redemption of public debt. It als, guarantees the payment, at sight, of all bills granted by the Receivers General, but not

} ST. MARK. c. 9. v. 49.

For every one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt.

Succisiva Opera: or, Selections from
Antient Writers, Sacred and Profane,
with Translations and Notes By Rev. H.
Meen, B.D. 8vo. price 5s.;
London. 1815.

This sentence connects with the forego

as the particle yap, which is causal,
shews. In the preceding verse we read,
that offenders shall be cast into the Ge
henua of fire; where the fire shall perpe-
tually burn them, and the consciousness of
their crimes shall perpetually torineut
them. For every one, that is, nãs, ò eis

τὴν γέενναν τοῦ πυρὸς βληθείς, ἁλις θήσεται,
shall be seasoned, shall be preserved
wicked who are thrown into it, as brine
in this fire. This fire shall act upon the
acts upon the meat, over which it is poured.

Mr. Meen some years ago, published a small pamphlet, entitled "Remarks on the Cassandra of Lycophron." It was then recommended to him to com

plete the entire poem on the same plan ;
is this recommendation we concur; for,
to say truth," the present publication,
composed of literary scraps," scarcely,
takes that hold on the scholar's mind,
to which the talents and learning of the
author entitle it. Mr. M. indeed, pleads
"the advanced price of every article
with which printing is concerned :".
The excuse, is too well founded; yet,
in fact, little more expense would have
been incurred by presenting the public
with a complete work, than has at-
tended the present desultory publication.
The advanced state of knowledge, affords
ample opportunity for a man of study
to obtain great credit by republishing,
with proper notes, various antient poems
referring to Natural History: for instance,
Nicander on Serpents,-whose work
might be rendered extremely interest-
ing, and entertaining, by such modern
accounts of serpents, as illustrate that

Unlike all other fires, it shall not destroy
It shall consolidate, not consume them.
life, but prolong it. Such is the state of
every incorrigible offender. It remains to
the faithful.
be shewn, what is the portion reserved for
is so truly devoted to the Christian cause,
Every faithful disciple, who
as to be ready to die in its defence, is here.
represented under the figure of a sacrifice,
seasoned with salt. Every sacrifice, saith
Christ, thus prepared for, and devoted to
me, shall be considered as seasoned with
crifices, so seasoned, were acceptable to
salt. The Jews understood, that sa-
the Lord. Every sincere disciple is here
by anticipation and prolepsis denominated
a sacrifice. By this appellation he wes
forewarned of an event, which the sword
of persecution would not fail to accom-
plish. With a like allusion to sacrifices, St.

ancient author, whether by similar-Paul thus writes to the Philippians, If I am
ity, or by contrariety. The same idea offered up-and to Timothy, for I am ready
would apply to many other works: and
to be offered.
Mr. M. appears to be extremely well
qualified to do such subjects justice.

Thus the punishment, hereafter to be inflicted on the wicked, and the recompense, reserved for the faithful, are expressed in terms, fetched from those sacrificial rites with which the Jews were conversant. ' Commentators, conceiving the sense to be instead of ionottai, avahwa dhatta. consumed by fire, have proposed to read, But the very reverse of consumed is the passeuse intended. A learned critic has indeed said, that, "as to salting with fire, nothing can be made of it." Much, and much more to the purpose may be made of it, than can be made of any word, which criticism, in its ardour to amend, may have

The present pamphlet contains-frag-
ments of the Cassandra of Lycophron,
evidently composed with a view to fur-
ther use in a regular. edition, though
placed irregularly, here :-Odes, from
Pindar, in portions, or detached
sages; also from Horace, and Nicander,
illustrating difficult words; with several
tests from the New Testament, critically
examined for the same purpose.
M's, profession seems to have led him,
to these, particularly; and his discus-undertaken to substitute.

sions manifest a commendable desire of
understanding that sacred
Salt is good but if the salt äraλov
volume, yimpan, should have become insipid,
shich it is his duty to explain to others. TIVI AUTò άPTUJETS; Quo condimento
We shall take our specimens from these.sqlem ipsum condietis ?

[ocr errors]

The following verses shew that we | tion of an argument in St. Paul's Epistle must not overlook the occasion of our to the same church: we rather wonder Lord's discourse-" What was it ye that a passage in Ignatius's Epistle to disputed among yourselves, by the the Magnesians should have escaped way?"-who should be greatest. To him on this subject: "Be ye salted in this refers the concluding expression him [Jesus Christ] lest any one among "Have peace one with another." He you should be corrupted; for, by your taught them humility and simplicity by savour [relish, piquancy, saltness] ye his caressing a child, and his compa- shall be judged," or, your character shall be determined. The Good Father is risons taken from children: warning them, that they had better cut off of- exhorting them to live according to fending members, than incur guilt, and the rules of Christianity," and "to avoid endure its punishment,-where the fire error, and vain doctrine.” is not quenched. The simple reference to salt here, then, is its well known quality of preserving, in other words, continuance, perseverance-the very contrary to corruption. Every simmer shall be punished by fire as lasting, as salt is, in its natural operation. In plain words---the character of sinners will be preserved amidst the most tormenting series of sufferings, how long soever continued, whether in this life, or in another."- "But (rather than and) every sacrifice (to God, of course) shall be salted with salt, which by its serving properties shall prevent corruption, and keep it in a fit state for the holy Altar.-The character of a holy person, also, shall be preserved, till it please God to take him to himself.”


This preserving power natural to salt, is an excellent quality: but if the salt, have lost this preserving power, if it be effete, as much of it is, that is found on the borders, or superficies, of salt lakes, &c. where rain has repeatedly fallen on it, wherewith will ye restore that property It has indeed the figure and colour of salt; but is become a mere caput mortuum, and is trampled on without concern. Carefully, therefore, maintain this preserving power among you in its full vigour justify and perpetuate your character as my disciples; and let me hear no more of your dissentions, putes who shall be greatest; for such bickerings and jealousies, are readiest way possible, to corrupt your christian and apostolic feelings, your spiritual mindedness, your character, as disciples.

and dis


Because the following article happens to treat on fire, we extract that also.

St. Luke, c. 12. v.49,

I am come to send fire on the earth, and what will I if it be already kindled?

Fire is often used in a metaphorical sense. In such a sense it has been explained here. It may mean, say the commentators, the fire of persecution, or the fire of zeal. It may imply either illumination or destruction; for it may be a consuming, or a salutary fire. Thus, amidst that variety of pre-seases which interpreters have suggested, the reader finds it difficult to fix his choice, and select from a multitude of meanings the one thing meant. To ascertain this, recourse must be had to the context. There is indeed a fire that consumes. Thus HoThe mer: vnuσly Пup oλoor Bañézi. fire, thrown upon the ships, was paco, destructive. But to a destructive fire the words of Christ, in the present instance, are inapplicable; for he came to save men's lives, not to destroy them. His reference is to a very different fire; the kindling of which is here foretold.

Mr. Meen has very properly quoted a passage from the Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, in illustra

The language is prophetic, as was that of John; when, speaking of the Messiah, he said, he shall baptize you with fire. I am come, saith Christ, to cast a fire upon, or, towards the earth: xai ri Jiw; and what do I wish with regard to this fire ? si nồn ἀνήφθη. I wish it were already kindled. Ei idem valet quod utinam apud Hellenistus Poole's Syn. It is used in this sense, not merely apud Hellenistas, but by the best Greek writers. But this fire cannot be kindied immediately; for I have a baptism, with which I must be baptized. I must ere long be immersed in a sea of sorrows, and be whelmed in the waters of affliction.

καὶ πῶς συνέχομαι, ἕως bo---and into what straits am I driven, until this baptism be completed, and these sorrows end?

[ocr errors]

When the period assigned to my state of suffering shall be closed, when my seat of glory shall be resumed, then, and not sooner, shall this fire be kindled; and the prophecy of John, He shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit; and with fire, shall be fufilled. The words, I am come to send fire on the earth, are spoken by Christ, in confirmation of John's testimony. Both predictions refer to the same event, which the same emblem of fire is employed to foreshow. Common words, whose designation is prophetic, become obscure. We see through the glass of prophecy darkly, till its season be advanced, and its completion approaches. The day of Pentecost was drawing on, when the dimness would disappear; when illumination

Sketches of the History and Present State of The Russian Empire, &c. by Rev. W. Anderson. 8vo. pp. 439. Price 12s. Gale and Co, London, 1815. An abstract of the History of Russia has lately been a more promising speculation than ever; and especially if the reigning family were the prominent features of the work. All who were not absolutely dead to laudable curiosity, must desire to know something of that distinguished personage who so nobly and perseveringly defended his own Empire; and at once generously, and poli

Would burst upon minds, prepared to re-tically determined, on accomplishing the ceive it; when, at length, there would up pear to them divided tongues like us of fire, and it (the fire) would sit upon each of them.

deliverance of Europe.

Such is the work before us; rather a history of the reigning house and family, than of the Empire under their dominion; and as such we shall consider it. A few introductory chapters, however, describe the country and people. Says the writer,

If Mr. M. had given to xain this instance, as we have done in the former, the sense of but, he could not have supported a notion so opposite to that intended in this passage. Our Lord is evidently lamenting the contentions to which his gospel would give occasion, and which already shewed themselves, not slightly among the Jews:-such evils were according to the perversity of the human heart; but not, as he protests, according to his will, or wishes: "I am come to send fire [animosities] on the land of Judea; xxiTi Jeλw; but, is it according to my will? non angen; do I wish it to be. already [so early, so prematurely] kindled? Certainly not.

This seems to be perfectly consistent with the character of our blessed Lord; whereas, the words as they stand seem to imply an indifference to approaching, or to present, evil;---while Mr. M's. sense, referring to a future good, that was restricted to the Apostles, does not meet the force of the words on the land, of Judea, at large; and less still, if they be referred to the Gentiles, as well as to the Jews to which sense Church History gives but too much sanction.


It may further be conjectured, that the words "how am I straitened!" are of medical import: My veins are ready to burst, till they shed the blood they contain;-till they baptize my body by pouring out their blood over it."

It is a very curious and instructive spectacle which Russia presents, in the strange diversity of its inhabitants. It is said here are eighty distinct nations, different in character, language, religion, goand modes of life. The hunter and fisher, vernment, manners, degrees of civilization, without property, cloathed in skins, who live in pits and feed on raw flesh and unripe fruit, and the shepherds living in moveable tents, supported by the produce of their flocks, ignorant of the use of money and the art of writing, are fellow subjects with the industrious husbandman and in

genious mechanic, with the owner of a thousand acres, and the wealthy merchant. Here are tribes loose and unconnected, some bowing to paternal authority, others preserving a pure democracy; the adherents of monarchy in all its gradations and of aristocracy in every form. Here is found impurities and absurdities of polytheism to religion in every shape, from the grossest the sanctity of the christian faith and practice. In short, Russia presents man in every variety of his physical condition, and under every modification of the social state and religious principle. Here may be seen at once what a succession of ages elsewhere exhibits, and the simultaneous view may correct the errors and prejudices into which detached portions of human history have betrayed philosophers.

That a country presenting inhabitants so diversified by modes of life, by know

edge and by ignorance, should have monarch was at that time engaged in the experienced the most trying vicissitarles, siege of Smoleusk. The reply of the aurean surprise no considerate mind;-butbassador, when the king demanded the these we pass, to fix the attention of the immediate surrender of that town, discovers his spirit. reader on the origin and character of "When your son," said Philathe present reigning family, and theretes," ascends our throne, he will not, only possess Smolensk, but all Russia, and it does not become you to dismember his ter ritories." This courageous reply, with other remonstrauces respecting his treat

House of Romanoff.

The Poles had acquired such an ascendancy during these convulsions, that the vacant throue of Russia was offered to Lament of Russia, so exasperated Sigismund,. that he arrested the ambassador, and threw him into prison. Philaretes suffered a rigorous confinement of nine years in the castle of Marienberg in Prussia. So little were the rights of nations known among all these people, and so feeble at that time was the Russian power.

dislaus, son of Sigismund, king of Poland. Instead of appearing himself, that prince sent an army of Poles into Russia, who by their insolence and oppressions excited fresh tumults. This state of anarchy and confusion continued for three years, when the Russians considering the e'ertion of Ladislaus as void, thought upon choosing a new sovereign. Michael Romanof was proposed, a youth of sixteen. His inex-turn to Moscow, received the patriarchate perience being objected, it is probable that from the hands of his son; and, in reality, though supported by many of the nobles though not ostensibly, assumed the adBe would have been rejected, had not one ministration of affairs. lu many public of the clergy, who were zealous in his fa-acts his name was associated with his son's; vour, confounded opposition by declaring he gave audiences to ambassadors; and on that it had been revealed to him, that young public occasions he often took the prece Romanof would prove the most fortunate dence of the tzar. Experience, moderaand prosperous of the tzyrs that Irad ever tion, and sagacity which entitled him to sat upon the throne. Thus the general this power and dignity, were displayed in concurrence was secured. This event, the prosperity of Michael's reign. Philawhich happened June 11th, 1618, put a retes having attained an advanced age and period to the civil contentions of Russia, reached the highest honour in the church which in the space of sixteen years had and the greatest power in the state, died geen five princes perish by violence, and in 1633, the regret of the whole kingdom. experienced as many revolutions.

When Michael was chosen to govern the Russians, he resided, with his mother, in a convent at Kostroma, entirely ignorant of what had taken place. Informed of his good fortune, by deputies sent for that purpose, he recollected the calamities of all the tzars, since the death of Rurick's last. successor, Feodore Ivanovitch; and bursttoing into tears, declined a dignity which seemed to involve the ruin of those who enjoyed it. The importunities of the deputies, however, inforced by the splendors of royalty, overcame the youth's reluctance. Hle repaired to Moscow, and was crowned with the usual solemnities,

The house of Romanof derived its origin from Andrew, a Prussian Prince, who came into Russia in the middle of the fourteenth century. His grandson Zachariah attained the highest honours in the court of Vassili Vassilievitch, and left several children. His second son, Yury, was boyar in the reign of ivan Vassillievitch, whom bis daughter, Anastasia, was the first wife. The third son enjoyed the rauk of viovode. Nicetas the youngest, likewise a boyar, was the father of Feodore Roauof, whose only son was Michael, now chosen tzar.

Feodore Romanof, in consequence of his talents, popularity, and great connections, was obnoxious to the usurper Boris Godumof, who obliged him to enter the priesthood, and confined him in a monastery. On this event he changed his name to Philaretes. The tzar Demetrius released him from confinement, and gave him the archbishopric of Rostof. When the nobles had agreed to seat Ladislaus upon the throne of Russin, Philaretes was sent am Lessidor to Sigismund to settle the conditions of his son's elevation. The polish

The truce of Develina, concluded in 1619, released Philaretes, who on his re

The marriage of the young tzar must appear very singular. The most beautiful young women were drawn from the provinces to the court. They were received by the chief lady of the court, eat together, and lodged separately. The tzar observed them privately, and even visited them at night to see whether they slept quietly.On the day fixed for the marriage, she on whom the choice fell, was presented with a ring and handkerchief, and the others were dismissed with presents. This cus tom, of which several examples are found

« AnteriorContinua »