Imatges de pÓgina

reign. On the twenty-eighth of March [A, D. 193.] eighty six days only, after the broke out in the camp"-Pertinax was death of Commodus, a general sedition slain. "The Pretorians ran out upon the rampart, and with a loud voice, proclaimed that the Roman world was to be disposed of to the best bidder by public auction."

Didius Julianus, was competitor with Sulpicianus-and began to bid against him from the foot of the rampart. The un


If it were possible to doubt for a moment the wretched situation of that country, where" might overcomes right," where the armad power disposes of the Sovereignty over the entire community, we have only to review the pages of History, and see what has been--or to look on mo-worthy negotiation was transacted by faithdern France, labouring under throes, pre ful emissaries, who passed alternately paratory-unless preventedby a miracle, to | from one candidate to the other, and acthe most dreadful convulsions,-and in her quainted each of them with the offers of to behold what is. The head should direct his rival. The gates of the camp were the course of the Political Body, as it does thrown open to the purchaser, Julianthat of the natural body; the arms are for whose enemi s found it necessary to affect defence, not for conduct: they are the seat a more than common share of satisfaction of strength, not of wisdom. at this HAPPY REVOLUTION. After Julian had filled the Senate house with armed soldiers; he expatiated on the FREEDOM Of his election, his own EMINENT VIRTUES, and his FULL ASSURANCE OF THE AFFECTIONS of the Senate." "He had reason to tremble, On the throne of the world he found himself without a friend, and even without an adberent. The guards themselves were ashamed of the prince whom their avarice hi-had persuaded them to accept, nor was there a CITIZEN who did not consider his elevation with horror, as the last insult on the Roman name. The nobility-met the affected civility of the Emperor with smiles of complacency, and professions of duty. The people-conscious of the impotence of their own resentment, called aloud on the legious of the frontiers to assert the violated majesty of the Roman Empire."

When Rome was fast sinking under the blows of fate, the Emperor was elected by the army; and when the army found that they could elect Emperors, they found also that they could destroy them. It was not the welfare of the Roman people, at large, which they had at heart, but the purposes of the army, as a separate body. They contemplated the donatives they expected on every new election, the bribes, the cence in which they should be indulged, the security in which they should be able to perpetrate their atrocities, and the weakness or blindness of the laws, from whose cognizance of their crimes they should be free.

Are there no points of resemblance in this narrative to events of modern times?— none, to those which at this moment form that most astonishing spectacle toward which the eyes of all Europe are turned? "The enemy was within two hundred aud fifty miles of Rome -he filled the city with unavailing preparations for war, drew lines round the suburbs, and even strengthened the fortifications of the palace; as if those last intrenchments could be defended without hope of relief against a victorious in, vader?”—Surely this at least is a close resemblance: the issue we must not anticipate: but Julian was condemned and exe

Panorama Office, May 29, 1815.

On the death of Commodus, the purple was accepted by Pertinax; but Pertinax was a man of sense: he found the finances of the State in extreme disorder: "Though every measure of injustice and extortiou," says Gibbou, had been adopted which could collect the property of the subject into the coffers of the prince, the rapaciousness of Commodus had been so very inadequate to his extravagance, that, upon his death, no more than eight thousand pounds were found in the exhausted treasury, to defray the current expences of Government, and to discharge the pressing demand of a liberal donative, which the new Emperor had been obliged to promise to the Pretoriau guards. Yet, under these distressed circumstances, Pertinax had the generous firmness to remit all the oppres-cuted, by order of the Senate, June 2. afsive taxes invented by Commodus."- ter an anxious and precarious reign of "Amidst the general joy, the sullen and SIXTY SIX DAYS!!! angry countenances of the Pr torian guards, betrayed their inward dissatisfaction. They had reluctantly submitted to Pertinax, they dreaded the strictness of the ancient discipline, which he was preparing to restore, and they regretted the licence of the former


What an instructive spectacle to other nations, is that of a people sunk under subjugation to their own army! May it strike due terror into the heart of every Briton! May coming time to the latest generation, never have to record a degradation so re


the brain of Buonaparte which well deserve to be recorded. The first is what he calls his * Overture for Peace."


volting to every honest and patriotic breast, as that which now afflicts unhappy France! May unhappy France soou do herself justice, by ridding herself of a tyrant, and the world of a monster!-We turn now to actual state of things.

OVERTURE FROM BUONAPARTE. Presented to Parliament, by Command of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, May 1815. No. 1.-Letter from M. de Caulincourt to Viscount Castlereagh, dated Paris, April 4,


· Our last noticed several disappointments, which, as we supposed, had befallen the mover of the present mischief; others were not far behind. Murst, in Italy, has been excessively disappointed : his italian troops have shewn little attachment to his person: -why should they? he has been worsted in several engagements with the Austrians. Having a greater force than he had, theyits divided their armies; one marches down the west of Italy, direct on Naples, while another pursues him on the cast, where his routed army is hastily retreating. It is even possible, that he is un-hinged, by this


MY LORD. The expectations which induced his Majesty the Emperor, my august Sovereign, to submit to the greatest sacrifices, have not been fulfilled: France has not received the price of the devotion of Monarch: her hopes have been lamentably deceived. After some months of painful restraint, her sentiments, concealed with regret, have at length manifested themselves in an extraordinary manner: by an unive: sal and spontaneous impulse, she has declared as her deliverer, the man, from whom alone she can expect the guarantee of her liberties and independence. The Emperor has appeared, the Royal Throne has fallen, and the Bourbon Family have quitted our territory, without one drop of blood having been shed for their defenoc. Borne upon the arins of his people, his Majesty has traversed France, from the point of the coast at which he at first touched the ground, as far as the centre of his capital, even to that residence which is now again, as are all French hearts, filled with our dearest remem brances. No obstacles have delaved his Majesty's triumphal progress: from the instant of his relanding upon French ground, he resumed the Government of his Empire. Scarcely does his first reign appear to have been for an instant interupted. Every generous passion, every liberal thought, bas rallied around him; never did any nation present a spectacle of more awful unani

The moment that the Moniteur boasted of the unprecedented unanimity of the French nation in the choice of their Emperor, we inferred that insurrectious had broke out in France. It proves to be the fact. In the South, Marseilles is declared to be in a state of siege; Lyons has witnessed a plot to seize its arsenal and artillery :-in the west La Vendee is up in arms once more; and Napoleon has so few troops he can trust, that his young guard has been seut post from Paris to Orleans, to meet the insurgents; in the east, we are assured there have been no disturbances -In the Borth Lisie has had a fine laid on it, by way of improving its loyalty to him who laid it; Dunkirk is experienced the same kindness. In short, though we have no free and direct intercourse with the interior of France, yet enough transpires to warrant the inference drawn from the assurances of the Moniteur. All this while, that vcracious paper assures the Parisians that the peace between France and England is profound-which is civil enough, no doubt, to Lord Castlereagh; who has described the countries as being in a state of warfare; and has persuaded the House of Commons



to sanction that state.

The report of this great event will have reached your Lordship. I am commanded to announce it to you, in the name of the Emperor, and to request you will convey this declaration to the knowledge of his Majesty the King of Great Britain, your august Master.

In the upper House, Lod Liverpool has accomplished the same purpose. He was supported by Lord Grenville, in opposition to Lord Grey;--as in the Commous, Lord Castlereagh was supported by Mr. Grattan, and others of the usual opposition, in contravention of the arguments of Mr. Ponsonby, Mr. Whitbread, &c.

This restoration of the Emperor to the throue of France is for him the most brilliant of his triumphs. His Majesty prides himself, above all, on the reflection that he owes it entirely to the love of the French people, and he has no other wish, than to repay such affections no longer by the trophies of vain ambition, but by all the adUnder these circumstances, and while we vantages of an honourable repose, and by are waiting with that awful anxiety which all the blessings of a happy trauquillity. marks a moment of extreme suspense, we It is to the duration of peace that the Emshall not affect to do more than give in-peror looks forward for the accomplishment sertion to ome of those emanations from of his noblest intentions. With a dispo

sition to respect the rights of other nations his Majesty has the pleasing hope, that those of the French uation will remain iaviolate.

round you men who hate France, and who desire to ruin you. I formerly gave You useful warnings. What you write to me is at variance with your actions. I de-shall, however, see by your manner of actug at Ancona if your heart is still French, and if it is to necessity alone that you' yield. write to my War Minister, in order to set him at ease with regard to your conduct, Recollect that your kingdom, which has Lost 80 much blood and trouble to France, is your's only for the benefit of those who gave it you. it is needless to send me an answer unless you have something important to communicate, Remember that I made you a king solely for the interest of my system, Do not deceive yourself. If you should cease to be a Frenchman, you would be nothing to me. Continue to correspond with the Viceroy, taking care that your letters be not intercepted."

The maintenance of this precious posit is the first, as it is the dearest of his duties. The quiet of the world is for a long time assured, if all the other Sove-I reigns are disposed as his Majesty is, to make their honour consist in the preservation of peace, by placing peace under the safeguard of honour

Such are, my Lord, the sentiments with which his Majesty is sincerely animated, and which he has commanded me to make known to vour Government,

I have the honour, &c. (Signed) CAULINCOURT, Duke of Vicence. Ilis Excellency Lord Castlereagh, &c. &c.

We do not profess to understand this paper: it seems to us to be any thing rather than an overture for peace : yet, when necessaay, this man can write in a style sufficiently intelligible, as appears clearly from his POLITE epistles to his brother of Naples.

To the King of Naples.

"I say nothing to you of my displeasure at your conduct, which has been diametrically opposite to your duty That, however belongs to the weakness of your nature. You are a good soldier on the field of battle, but, excepting there, on have ho vi gour, no character. Take advantage of an act of treachery, which I only attribute to fear, in order to serve me by good inte gence. I rely upon you, upon your contrition, upon your promises. If it were otherwise, recollect that you would have to re

li-Emperor and King. Among other proofs of Murat's duplicity, are the following:

pent it. I suppose, you are not one of those ho imagine that the I ion is dead, and that he may be-- -upon (et qu'on peut lui, isser dessus). If such are your calculations, they are false. I defeated the Austrians yesterday, and I am in pursuit of the remuants of their columus. Another such vitory, and you will see that my affairs are not so desperate as you have been led to believe.

"You have done me all the harm that you coud since your departure from Wilua, but we she say no more about it The itle of king his turned your brain. If you wish to preserve it, behave well, and keep your won 1.

To he King of Naples.

From these most obliging polites es our readers will infer that Murat, while affecting to support the cause of the Allies, and of humanity, held a private, confideutial, correspondeuce with Buonaparte; such was the fact; and being fully aware of this, the Allies turned a deaf ear-so far as politicians turn a deaf ear to any thingand treated his application to their honour, generosity, loyouté, magnanimity, &c. with indifference. When Buonaparte advanced into Prance, Murat advanced to the North of Italy, to support him. Murat is defeated:

and this is irretrievable detriment to the

March 5. "SIR MY BROTHER.-I have alrea commusicated to you my onion of you. conduct. Your situation had set you be side yourself: my reverses have completely turued your brain. You have called

Documents read by Lord Castlereagh in his Speech in the House of Commons, on the 2d of May, 1815.

Letter from Eliza Buonaparte to Buonaparte,


Lucca, February 14, 1814.-" SIRE,-I have had the honour of informing your Majesty by my reports of the 5th and 8th of this mouth, of the concentrating movement operated by the Prince of Lucea upon Pisa, in consequence of the circumstances which induced me to quit Florence, to order the evacuation of that city, and to assemble all the troops of the division upon

point of greater security. The Prince has matained himself at Pisa till now; ubimving received advice of an English cxpedition, amounting by all accounts to at least 6,000 men, and which appears to e undoubtedly dire, ted to Sichy against Leghorn, Spezia, or Genoa, I have deterined to order the Prince to continue his ovement upon Geuoa, in order that his retreat may not be cut of by the only road which still remains open.

“I have been confirmed in this plan by having ascertained that some Neapolitan troops, superior in numbers, are already at Pistoia, and have forced our advanced posts to abandon the passage of Serravalle.

"I also know that the enemy intends to cut off our communications, by seizing the road which conducts from Pontremole to Spezia, and the Riviera di Genoa.

"I have thought proper to give him nofice to keep some troops upon which the Viceroy must have reckoned, and which cannot render any very decisive services elsewhere.

"The projects of the English and Austrians, do away all the doubts which the personal conduct of the King of Naples night create. I ought not to conceal from your Majesty that I have received from hum several letters, much at variance with the operations of his troops.

“The King is in a state of great agitation. He is astonished that the Viceroy should have retired from the Adige, and that I have quitted Tuscany, upon the notion that he could be the enemy of your Majesty and of France. He loudly expressed his devotion and his gratitude for your person, and he even said to the Tuscan Deputies, that he would prefer receiving the hist blow, to drawing his sword against a Frenchman.

"I know not how to reconcile this language, of a hoh I do not suspect the sincevity, with all the arbitrary measures which have endangered my authority, and those which oblige me even now to provide for the safety of the French troops assembled at Pisa. Your Majesty will appreciate these contradactions, which seem to me to proceed from a resolution deemed by the King conformable to his interests, but into which he has geen dragged, contrary to his own affections. I am assured that the language and conduct of the King are simtar in his communications with the Viceroy.

he is more cowardly than a woman or a mouk when not in the presence of the evemy. He has no moral courage. He has been frightened, and he has not hazarded losing for a moment that which he cannot hold but by me and with me. Make him fully sensible of his absurdity. When he quitted the army without my order, I foresaw all the evil counsels which would be given him. I am, however, better satished with the message he has sent me through you. If he be sincerely sorry, let him watch the moment for proving to me that he has not been so ungrateful as he is pusillanimous, I may yet pardon him the injury which he has done me."

"Volta, Feb. 20, 1814. "Sire,-I have the honour to address to your Majesty a return ot your army of italy up to the 18th of this mouth.

"The King of Naples, who appeared inclined to march against us, and to yield to the solicitations of the Austrians, paused as soon as he became acquainted with your Majesty's late victories of the 10th, 11th, and 12th. He had not yet received the ratification of his Treaty, the evening before last. I therefore hope that he will not add to the wrongs of which he has been guilty towards your Majesty, by firing upon your troops. I am, with respect, Sire' &c.


Commercial Chrouicle.


The time is approaching when the SuCAR market feels the demand for those sorts of sugars which good housewives, as well as minufacturers, prefer as an ingredient in their home-mode wines; and it has been remarked by the observant, that this demand is more considerabic yearly. This implies 1. that the art of making British wines is more studied than formerly : 2, that the consumption of Foreign wines, is rather on the dedine than on the increase; and this justifies the calculation of the trade.


“It is, nevertheless, certain, that a pro clamation of Cen. Bellegarde's, which recalls the nations of Italy to their former state, has been reprinted at Bologna under the eyes of the King.

In addition to this, it must be observed that for some years past, the last two espes ally, the quantity of sugar in the ware homes, previous to the arrival of the fleets,


This proclamation, drawn up with much art, haq produced the greatest effect | in Tuscany, Where it is extensively cir-has been next to nothing: it follows, that culated.


"I am, with profound respect. Sire, &c.
Letter from Buonaparte to the
Queen of Naples

the consumption has increased, while the
cultivation in the West Indies has decreas.
ed. The demand for strong sugars contis.
nues in the market! inferior are rather
declinmg. The export has lately been no
great things; contracts are still made for
home delivery, a fortnight. or three macks

“Nangis, Feb. 17.- -- Your husband is very brave man in the field of battle, but


ment. Several of the principal brokers have not declared sales: what has been sold has not, lately, been prime. Prices Jower 4 to 5s. Spices are improving: what were bought at the ludia House, at the following prices have been sold at a profit.

Coffee has experienced a cloud, orcasioned party by so large a quantity as · AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 22,000 bags being sold at the India House, lately, and 15,000 more bags declared. wheats are more improved within the last Esser. According to general calculation. The demand for the Continent is very li- ten days than was ever before remembered mited, owing to the precarious state of af- in so short a time. Barleys, when they fairs, and the difficulty of obtaining pay-first appeared above ground, were not deficient in quantity; but, they have since been much injured by the insect. Oats, beans, and peas, are considered full plants; and are in a very thriving state. Tares are already so forward, that they are cattle. come to the scythe, as green food for and lambs are very forward in fat. Beef Herbage being plentiful, sheep not at all scarce Having so little frost slowly, and the plough is kept in continual this winter, the fallows pulverize extremely diurnal motion. The farmers are looking for a rise in the Corn Market; but that is rather unlikely, as the country abounds with most kind of grain.

SPICES. The large sale at the IndiaHouse took place late in March. Of the Company's Black Pepper, 7606 bags, only about 200 were sold at an advance of on the taxed price of 10d.; the trader was in consequence scratched out, as an advance on the 10d. could not be realized the damaged sold at 5d. a 7d.; 112 bags Privilege Pepper, about 5,000; ba. sold at 8d. a 10d. the remainder was taken in; the Damaged sold at 61d. a 8d.; the best White realized 203d., ordinary 1818 a 1944.

13s. Od. a 13s. 8d.

9s. 9d. a 11s. 1d.

With the exception of the Cinnamon, a great proportion of the other Spices were withdrawn, the buyers only selecting the best qualities, and giving a trifliug advance Cinnamon, about 1,700 bags (150,000 lbs.) 1st quality 2d quality .. 12s. Od. a 12s.10d. 3d quality Cloves, about 150,000 lbs. 1st quality Amboyna, out of 132, only sold 32 bags at 4s. Id. a 4s. 4d. 2d quality 3s. Id. a 3s. 4d. | 3d quality 2s.1ld. a 3s. 2d. Mace, 50,000 lbs. 128 Casks put up, 30 sold of the 1st quality, at 13s. ld. 2d quality, 176 casks


sold at


11s. 2d. a 11s. 4d.
9s. 4d. a 10s.10d.
8s. Id. a
Casks of the best
Ss. 9d.
12.11d. a 13s. 2d.


8s. 1d. a


particularly healthy, the wheat having reWarwickshire. The growing crops look covered from the ill effects of the frosts at description is on the decline. The mowing the close of last mouth. Grain of every grounds both meadow and upland bid fair has fallen considerably in value, and is at for an abundant and heavy swarth. Wool present but little in demand. Stock both fat and store is much lower. Trade is paralyzed by the present unfortunate events, hundreds of artizans are without employ.


34 quality, 176 casks.. 4th quality, 20 casks.. Nutmegs, 100,000 lbs. 4 quality, 1st sort 2d, 238 casks sold out of 468 (2d and 3d) . 3d, 61 casks, 3d and 4ths, worm eaten Pimento, 11d. and 12d. for extensive parcels.

Co. Gray's Inn-square.

Gs Id.

Hill W. Kidderminster, hatter. Sol. Bigg,
Southampton Buildings, Chancery-lane.

High Holborn.

Lewis J. Three King-court, Lombard-strect,

Bullion is declining in price, notwith-Jordan A. Atford, Wilts, maltster. Sol. Fisher, standing the immense current of expences, occasioned by the necessary remittances from Britain to the Continent, at this cri- wine merchant. Sols. Wiltshire and Co. tical moment. Gold has fallen 2s. in about Winchester House, Old Broad-street. two months. We consider this as a poli-Mee T. Kettering, Northampton, farmer. Soly. tical indication. Napoleon is not able to Matthews and Co. Castle-street, Holborn. pay his old prices. Naval stores are held Percival W. Liverpool, lead-merchant. with a firm hand-prices are heightening. Tobacco is at nominal prices. Indigo is going off very low. Cotton is not in full supply; much is bargained for by anticipation. Rum, no business: Brandy sales forced, at a low rate.


Bankrupts and Certificates, in the order of
their dates, with the Attornies
BANKRUPTS.—April 11.

Bannister, J. Shillingford, Oxford, butcher.
Sols. Price and Co. Lincoln's lun.
Bell W. Horncastle, Lincoln, grocer.
Eyre, Gray's Inn.

Stephens J. Landeveylog, Carmarthen,
Sauter, Chaucery-lane.


Bryett T. Gosport, grocer. Sols. Bleasdale

and Co. New Inn. Bakewell Messrs. Weston upon Trent, Stafford, soap boilers. Sols. Sykes and Co. New Inn. 8s. 2d. Cohen E. London, merchant. Sols. Poole and


Sherbrook T. Leeds, merchant. Sols. Atkinson merchant. Sol Barber, Gray's Iun-lane.

and Co. Leeds.

Searle W. jun. Littlington, Cambridge, miller.
Sol. Isaacson, Cannon-street.

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