Imatges de pÓgina

subscription raised for the purpose of erecting a statue in the Senate House, to the memory of that illustrious character Mr. Pitt; and which was increased by a donation from the niembers of the Pitt Club, formed in the capital. It is not always consistent with fairness of judgment, to estimate the merits of particular meaaures by their ultimate success; but it may surely be affirmed, without incurring the imputation of prejudice, that the late glorious termination of the long-protracted contests of Europe, must be ascribed to a strict adherence to the political system, so vigorously pursued by that eloquent and profound statesman: and it cannot but afford a source of grateful reflection, that whatever may have been the discordant opinions of the parties of the day, the admiration of his talents will at least be perpetuated in this earliest scene of his exertions, by the institutions of literature and the works of


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FAR be it from us to limit the free souls of native Britons, Liberty ourselves, and enjoying with our Devoted to countrymen at large, the privileges of our Nation, we, with undiminished readiness, grant them to others and least of all, are we inclined to diminish those which are claimed, or claimable, by the genus irritabile vatum-the Poets, of our Island: free scope for their utmost powers, is their unquestionable privilege, by prescription from time immemorial and it shall so continue, by our good will; without let, hindrance or molestation.

Nevertheless, we confess our appre


That a

After all, present experience alone can afford grounds on which to form a judgment; and we will hope, that Mr.hensions for the state of the Poetic art, Wainewright's representation is not and the Poetic spirit among us. biassed by partiality. It is evident that choice of subjects that within these few he wishes for additional assistance in the department of Theology: he comyears has manifested itself, shews a wildplains of the neglect of the Hebrew ness, an extravagance, an excess, which language, from which much of our Theo-sibility, than to a sober and rational exseems rather to belong to a morbid senlogy is either drawn, or illustrated; and ercise of the mental faculties. his vindication of the establishments of Poet, under inspiration, should stay the a Hebrew Professorship, and an Arabic torrent of his song to adduce chapter Professorship, which are mere sinecures, and verse in support, or in proof, of all is not satisfactory, though we know that he says, were a more savage tyranny, such places may be given as rewards for past attainments, rather than for by the Inquisition, itself. On the other a more cruel torture, than any devised present or future labours. But, why hand, a Poet who exclaims against the incredulous, and hates those whose When our author asserts that “merit frozen imagination resists the ardour of invariably succeeds in attaining the re- his verse, will receive little pity from us, wards to which it is strictly entitled' -we resolve to believe him; and there-prehensible by mortals uninspired; or if the subject of his song be incomupon we close the book: but, not with-in its very nature, absolutely and irre→ out wishing that this were the general trievably incredible. sentiment of those, who, though edueated at college, spend the years of their life in public labours. Daily observation, the attention of the legislature, respeatedly called to the subject, the benevolences of many worthy individuals, seem to speak an opinion contrary to this of Mr. W. who, after all, may be right, according to his definition of merit.

not for both?-Verbum sat.


the ocean of infinity, to "sing of things When Milton ventured to launch into unattempted yet in prose or rhime," even his muse, though in dignity, absolutely singular, and though supported by the greatest strength of language, as well as of conception, failed in parts and the Poet was most deserted, in his utmost need. He intruded into Heaven, as into Hell: he brought before us the manners of either place; but his

ven? The embarrassments under which this subject lies, in ordinary Theology, are not, small; but, to describe the Omnipotent as thus occupied while alone, while unopposed, and before opposition was possible, is placing the notion in the most,offensive point of view.

angels, and his devils, as beings, are not equally well pourtrayed; and in his most exalted personages, where essential spirit only could be contemplated, that falling short is evident, which language, poetry, imagination, every thing, nust expect and cannot but experience, from the nature of the subject, and.the finite powers of human capability.

With conceptions, the wildest of the wild, Mr. Southey produced his Kehama. He delighted himself: he delighted his readers; but neither one, nor the other, could believe a stanza of his Poem. The mind glowed as the eye read; but the understanding knew itself to be dazzled, and refused assent, though it admitted, and admired the scene depicted.other; not a dislocation, but an indis On occasion of Mr. Southey's Poem, pensable necessary, if not rather a prin we concluded, that he had studied cipal, in the general scheme and plan. Hindoo originals, not merely for the sake But that we may not do Mr. T. injustice, of novelty, but with design of emulating, we subjoin a part of his Introduction, and of surpassing them. His work was from which the reader will form his a series of shifting pictures, a kind of own judgment. Eidophusikon, each of which bespoke the master. He transported us alternately from Heaven to Hell; led us in mid air; carried us through fire, and through water; and associated our fancies as companion-travellers with his Mr. Townsend has determined on taking a range, beyond comparison more extensive than any poet had ventured to assume as the basis of his Epic. His lunits-if limits they may be called, are-from eternity a parte ante, to eter-being an attribute of God only) and a place nity a parte post: from the endless, of punishment was next prepared for those before Time began, to the endless after who should depart from their Allegiance = Time shall be no more. He will find between these opposite Worlds of Happithis too much for his readers. If he, nes and Misery, Chaos was commanded to himself, can imagine these extremes roll, partly occupying that portion of inthey cannot. If he can witness the birth fiuity, in which the stars now move: for of this world,—of all worlds, they cannot. the origin of the material Universe, could not even Chaos, though supposed to be If he can conceive, creation, absolute have been eternal, (Eternity being anocreation, out of nothing, they cannot.ther attribute of God only) and if created, His theme is not within the compass of it must have been created for the accommortal minds; and the difficulties it in- plishment of some purpose. After the cre cludes are insurmountable. The Philo- ation of leaven, Hell, and Chaos, the desopher too, led to contemplate the opera- fection that had been foreseen took place, tions of infinite Felicity, and Goodness, and the followers of evil were consigned will be shocked to find, that before he to the darkness prepared for them. In my gave birth to beings, the All-benevolent endeavour to answer the question, what prepared a place for their punishmenting the stars, I have adhered to the tra➡ was the object of the Deity in thus creat whence should the idea of punishment dition of the Jews, and the inferences ap arise, when only perfection existed?parently deducible from Scripture: I hope Whence the necessity for this Hell foi-I am sanctioned by these Guides in sup lowing immediately the creation of Hea- posing, not only that the Earth, but the

Imagination, if guided by caution and itself the order in which the Deity acted judgment, may endeavour to picture to in the creation of the World: the pattern of the Universe must have been ever present to his pervading Mind. I have sup posed the first act of the Omnipotence of God to have been the Creation of Heaven, the residence of the more peculiar manifestation of his Glory. His Omnicould be absolutely perfect, (perfection science perceived that no being but himself


Neither is it credible that the reader should conceive of Chaos as an ap pointed place, as a'creation purposely situated to answer the designs of him who thus stationed it. Chaos implies confusion, and the greater the confusion the more Chaotic: but, by Mr. T's. disposal of it, it becomes an arrangemeht, a regular ingredient in the whole mass; as necessary in its place as any

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whole number of the Suns around it, were vine, Will before time begant. This is
created and filed with beings, to be re-less happy than Milton's reference to
ceived, after sufficient probation, into the idol powers, better known to us from
presence of their Maker, in the room of the Scriptures we esteem sacred. As
the offending Angels; if they escape the
allurements, and temptations to evil, to
to councils held by these chiefs, a land
which all created Beings were equally ex-
of solid fire, and other infernal proper-
ties, they cannot but remind us of their
originals in Pandemonium.

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Arguing from the existence of natural evil, Mr. T. inters the existence of moral evil, but he restricts moral evil to this earth. A more accurate view of things would have led him to infer that other worlds bear too near a resemblance to our own, to be free from the possibilities implied in a state of probation. They have their clouds, their storms; their tempests, their severities of the seasons, as well we have. Their poles are oblique to the plane of their ecliptic, as well as: those of the earth and of heaven had blowa upon a freighted bark, while Mr. T. introduces that as a part The drifted and neglected atoms soared : of our punishment, or as a proof of our The lofty mounds that raised by savage hands subjection to evil, he raises in the phi-Concealed their slaughtered,dead; the mosslosophic mind, a question adverse to the theory, and therefore injurious to the theme, of his poem.

Neither does the philosophic mind,
led by the poet to witness the beginning
of the immensity in which creation rolls,
and the stars exist, readily bring it-
self to the microscopic consideration of
Britain, though the reader's own coun-
It is less than a speck among
mountains. It is a diminutive con-
stantly diminishing. The author in-
The author in-
deed apologizes for "the frequent men-
tion of our own great and good coun-
try;"-we accept his apology as a
patriot, but it does not cover his faults, The wondering beings shone : the same they
as a poet.

It seemed to say; and back from Pole to Pole
Echoed the sound, as from the dying mist


The writer who includes in one work the whole of existence, who describes the Millenium, the general Resurrection, the battle of Armageddon, the world where the mysteries of providence, the difficulties of philosophy, the secrets of nature, and the depths of science shall be all laidopen, may deserve commendation for his courage, may live in the delights of his own imagination; but the imagination of others will not follow him and he will find that mercy to himself, had also been mercy to his readers.

The deities of India are enrolled as the principals of opposition to the Di


the change of the living then on earth,
The work opens with the end of time,
and the general Resurrection. This last
event is thus described.

Nów, from her chequered surface, softly


A thickening mist, as Earth resigned her stores
Of all that once was human; from the dry
Of either Polar sea, where never breath
And barren wilderness, from mighty depths

grown cairns,

The sacred temples, the forgotten tombs,
Where in oblivion slept the deluged world,
With rocks, and vales, dissolved, and crumb-
Fing join

The gathering cloud of life: while, from the

As every ato songht its former mate,
Immortal and complete, a murmuring sound,
And all the good in radiant beauty rose,
Louder and louder swelling into toues
Of deepening thunder, broke: "We come!

We come!"

In substance, shape, and dignity: alike

In splendor and in glory: every form
With shining robes of heaven and on the
As if of amber flame appeared, begirt


Of all the smiling millions, that possessed
The purer Faith, and died in peace with Him,
Whose blood alone can save, a beaming light
Celestial lustre shed, the Spirit's dread seal
In this great day, when all the heirs of bliss
First meet, to part no more! and, with the Just,
Rose, as a spot upon the face of heaven,
The self-condemned; the living trembling saw
The Earth dissolve beneath their feet, o'er-



With darkness, that dispersing, as the dew
Before the morning sun, revealed the forms,
Seen, heard by all, but, as the light, wufelt,

The Heathen ask, what is to be their doom? The answer bids them confide in the mercy of God. But all the heathen ought not to be thus encouraged:-Conscience should have been assigned as the agonizing tormentor of the wicked among thein.

The blessed ascend to heaven;but heaven would be nothing without music; a song recounts the origin of all things, the fall of Lucifer, the substitution of man; sin enters the earth. The scene changes to hell, whence, after due consultation, the demons issue forth to destroy the creation of God, at least for a time. Ithream and Brahma travel among the stars till they reach the sun; but during the journey, their discourse turns on man and his nature. The argument of the seventh book is,

The opening of this book is a favourable specimen of the poetic talents of

the author.

And now they leave the orient sun, and rise
Above the circling Planets; till the eye
Of Brahma marked the fiery comet move
Around the polar star, his arm should plunge
Among the clear Cerulean, to disturb
The solar way: high o'er the Earth they flew,
And saw the long black shadow throw its



There gazing as they stood, before their sight
A glimmering vision floats; and pallid fear
And silent horror seize their daring frames,
Recoiling from the dull, and loathsome shape
That unknown dread inspired: shade of

Destruction of the Solar system. Brahma and Ithream, leaving the Sun, discover Death, hovering in the shadow of the deserted Earth-their conferencethey proceed to the Polar star-from whence Brahma hurls a Comet from its orbit, guiding it among the attraction of surrounding stars to the solar system--Saturn' is drawn to the Comet-Venus falls into the Sun-Earth is moved from its axis, and deluged with fire-the Moon torn away-The Georgian Star remains untouched the Comet, still directed by the Demons, is plunged from the solar system among the stars-in the mean time, the two armies approach Armageddon the leaders of the angelic army-their march they stop at the place where Man was judg-partiality for his mother. The foledthe army of Satan rises from the op-lowing books, including the ninth, to the posite quarter. twelfth, are unpublished: they describe the battle of Armageddon, in which the angels are at first defeated, and Satan advances to the very gate of heaven :-but, attempting to enter heaven he is repulsed: then is vanquished; and is adjudged by the Messiah to hell; Satan and sin linger at the gates of hell, but are forced in. Lastly, creation is destroyed, as having answered its purpose; and the consummation of all things is completed.

Of empty darkness through the depths of air,
Veiling, sad last eclipse, the silver moon.

Confused and indistinct, the phantom seemed,
Mantled in moving clouds; a hovering mist
Now on the deep it rested, now on high
It soared, and cast a nameless terror round.
As some proud bark that holds its gallant way
At midnight, strikes upon some barren rock
And checks with furling sail her wary course:
So o'er the shadow of the rolling Earth
The mystic gloom arrests them; the rich Sua
Poured the full splendour of his golden ray
Upon th' impassive darkness, that absorbed.
The living glory of his perfect beams;
Nor was the light reflected, nor the vast
And black profound illumined: 'twas the





Of Death; that hopeless of his future prey
Waited the fall of nature: now he sees
The rebel Lords, and, swifter than the wing
Of angels, rose above their bending heads,
In solemn stillness waving his dark clouds,»
Ambitious in his fierce despair to enclose
Th' immortal Chieftains in the net of fatė;
They, spurning the dread King, remained an-

Though racked with fear of undiscovered ill,
Till Brahma, shrinking from the Phantom


The description in which the Poet indulges himself of how the earth looked while ou fire, and how in ruins after it was burnt, proves him to be a son of earth, unable to shake off his natural

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The very abstract of the prodigious extent of this poem sufficiently speaks its

nature. Never was worse policy than in publishing eight books, without the conclusion. Thut may be a chef d'œuvre, and we persuade ourselves it is so; but, we know not well, how the poet can diversify his remaining scenes

from what has already been familiar to General View of the Political State of

France, and of the Government of Iouis XVIII. &c. in Letters to a Friend. Price 3s. Stockdale. London. 1815. ·

us: for, after all, we never yet could identify the description of a mere earthly battle-much less of a heavenly onewithout maps and plans, and a bird's eye view of the country: a favour not to be expected in the instance of the battle of Armageddon: though we well knew the gentleman who had uearly a dozen pictures painted by the best artists, of Views, and Portraits of various places,

in the New Jerusalem.

Milton was blamed for having to hero to his poem; or, if any, Satan. Mr. T. is much more blameable; for, though he has nothing but heroes, yet none is sufficiently prominent to deserve distinction above his peers. His heroes too, have so little in common with flesh and blood, that they affect but very slightly the sympathies of humanity. We take a very superficial interest in their actions: they are a race of beings distinct from ourselves; and this distinction prevents them from operating on our passions; from exciting our anger or indignation, from beguiling us of our applause or approbation: there is nothing common between us and them; no link of connection or similarity.

To examine the structure of verses in this Poem, and to criticise it closely, we must leave to the who possess leisure. There are passages which deserve comBut, we are of opinion, mendation. that the writer would better please the public by directing his talents to a more humane and domestic theme: something which may affect the individual; move him to joy, and grief, by turns; excite his interest, his pity, his approbation, triumph over his heart, and close, by leaving him in that state of rapturous attention, as when

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Answer to the Calumniators of Louis XVIII. King of France and Navarre, &c. By an Englishman. Price 25. Stockdale. Loudon, 1815.

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WE unite these pamphlets, because their object is much the same; to vindicate the King of France, and to support his cause and government: But, in truth, the latter is the more im portant of the two, and the best written.

It is impossible to deny that the King had to struggle against difficulties on every side not an order could he issue which did not offend somebody, ine cluding, perhaps, some party. To da nothing, was ruin: to turn to the right hand, or to the left, was dangerous. To attempt to please the Parisians, was to offend, if not injure France: to study the good of France, was to expose limi self to the sneers and sarcasms of the half-witted Parisians. The King cer, tainly took over with him some English notions:-the French were sunk to a state of moral degradation, of which he had formed a very imperfect idea: his own goodness was his greatest enemy.

His manner of accepting the Constitution has been arraigned; yet clear it is, that if he had accepted it from re presentatives of the people not chosen by legal authority, he would have seemed to have sanctioned that autho→ rity, by which they were chosen. Moreover, he found these persons had already been treated with by the Allies with them, would have manifested the and therefore, to have refused all treaty influence of a captious disposition, a dishave been something more than exçes trust, a haughty reserve, which would sively ungracious. How far the calcu lations of this Englishman, on the proe portionate state of parties are correci, we do not presumie to say,

The General View of the political state of France agrees nearly with our infor mation on the subject. The writer is man of observation and ability. At this moment the subject is peculiarly inter

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