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Miscellanies, in prose and verse, deserve to be noticed. One is

Aglaia, a miscellany.
Gomus, in verse, chiefly.

Penelope, an Almanack destined to promote domestic concord and happiness. It contains tales, of various descriptions.

printer, who was sent for to Florence in 1547, to establish the then new Art of Printing in the most improved mode. Many particulars of his life are given in this work. The first book that came from his press in 1547, was, Lilii Gregorii Giraldi Feriaren sis libellus; quomodo quis ingrati crimen et nomen possit effugere, &c. ad Hec. Troctum. 8vo. The last which is cited in this work is Oratio funebris J. Bapt. Adriani de laudibus Eleonora Tolentana. 1563.

Musical Attempt at Impossibility.

This work may be considered as contri-,

Among the musical pieces to which the attention of amateurs on the Continent has been called, is La Fantaisie pour le Piano, by Stebelt, entitled L'incendie de Mos-buting to complete the History of Italian cow. The Burning of Moscow, a subject Typography, especially, Annali di Tipogra for music! Nothing after this can be won-pia Volpi-cominiana, published at Padua, in derful. We have heard the Battle of 1807, by Fortunato Federici. Prague; and other battles, in which an imitation of the firing of volleys, of great The Society of Sciences at Warsaw, progons, Huzzas, &c. was attempted; but how imitate in music the progress of fire-poses a prize for the best Tragedy, the subject to be taken from the History of Poland. Value of the prize one hundred ducats of gold.

POLAND.

the catching of buildings-the roaring ocean of flame-the crash of falling ruins-the pillage, &c. &c. What an unpromising sub ́ject for music, is the Burning of Moscow!

A view of the field of battle of Leipsic, has been published in that city, on one large sheet, coloured; drawn and engraved by G. H. Geisler, price 3 rad. It is accompanied by a description.

Sig. Domenico Moreni, a Canon of the great church at Florence, has published Annals of Florentine Typography, in a volume of 240 pages, 8vo. referring chiefly, however, to the life of Lorenzo Torrentino, and his coadjutors Arnold Antenius and Lorenzo Domenichi of Placentia. Lorenzo Torrentino was a German or Flemish

Another prize of fifty golden ducats for discovering the best manner of preserving fruit trees from the effects of frost: the process to be easily executed, and cheap in its cost.

Another prize for pointing out the best manner of constructing roads, throughout Poland. Value fifty ducats.

From evidence lately laid before the House of Commons, and repeated in the PANORAMA, our readers will have observed the necessity for making great improvements in these means of facilitating inter

HUNGARY.

Theatrical Emulation.---A young nobleman of Hungary has proposed a prize of 700 florins, for the best Tragedy in the Hungarian language; and 300 florins for the second best. The subject to be heroic: taken from the History of Hungary, or from that of any other country. The successful piece to be represented on the National Theatre at Clausenberg; and afterwards printed together with the second best.

ITALY.

Fragments of Homer.

PRUSSIA.

Philomatic Society of Berlin.

Some years ago, the discovery of an ancient MS. containing fragments of Homer, found in the Ambrosian Library, at Milan, was announced to the literary world: the keeper of that Library, Sig. Majo, as lately given notice of their publication, in a Latin declaration, intituled De Editione Fragmentorum Antiquissimorum Iliadis Homericum picturis mentius prodromos. Angelus Maius, Bibliotheca Ambrosiana Orien-writings of Cicero, and of his knowledge in that department of elegant study.

foundation of the Society, after a Report on October 13, the Anniversary of the three months, Professor Levezow read a the labours of the Members during the last Memoir on those indications of a love for the fine Arts, which are found in the

talibus, Lectori Salutem.

course.

The Society some years ago proposed a subscription for the purpose of erecting a monument to the memory of Copernicus: events, equally unhappy for the country and for science, prevented the execution of the plan. The expence was estimated at 36,000 florins: one tenth part of which was subscribed. So impoverishing is war!

RUSSIA.

The first volume of M. Klaproth's Travels in Caucasus, was published in 1812, at Halle, but the troubles of war suspended all attention to the continuation, which it was intended should occupy two vols. more. This delay has afforded the author an opY 2

portunity of adding a third volume to his petual langour, The pleasures of the intended two also, three maps and two table are extremely confined; nor do the plates. The whole forms, with the Des-Turks appear to enjoy them with the cription of Eastern Caucasus formerly pub- smallest portion of spirit, except in such lished by the author, the most complete ac- parties as are made for excursious into the count of Caucasus, that exists. country, in which they are more than usually animated by a private use of wine, which they then indulge. But, in the inorigi-térior of Constantinople, there is no symptour of that gaiety which enlivens European society; they are remarkable for nothing but for traces which they still preserve, of ancient hospitality, in the admission of the poor to the table of the great, who never forgets that a sudden disgrace may one day cast him down to the level of the lowest who presents himself at his gate, and desires charity and refreshment.

It contains a description of all the habitable countries of Georgia; with the History of Georgia, translated from the nal Chronicles of the country, with three Genealogical tables of the kings of Carthic, of Cacteth, and of Imiretta: account of the sources of the Terek, of the course of the Kur, to the frontiers of Turkey; return by the snowy mountains; by the snowy mountains to the town of Oni, on the river Rioni (the Phasus of the ancients). Observations on the customs and manners of the people. Observations on the froutier country between Russia and China, collected during a journey in 1806. An account of the languages spoken, the written characters, &c. occupies a whole volume.

The arrangement of the festival, which is usually simple enough, is not of a nature to provoke a very animated conversation. Fear and respect interdict political discussions, from the Turks: during a long period they have had no religious dissentions which might supply fuel to general discourse; and in literary questions, which might break the monotony of conversation, Turkey is absolutely barren. Clumsy games, tricks of address, and of strength, the grimaces or wantonuesses of hired dancers, have but slight effect on their gravity.

It may be gratifying to our readers to be informed that British Literature forms a very material part of the Report from the Continent: the proportion is, indeed, striking; and there can be no doubt, but what the Literati of the Continent have availed themselves of the first moment of information, to obtain and to publish, such accounts of the labours of the learned among us, as might impart to their readers some notion of British industry and know-is, ledge. That this should be interrupted, we exceedingly regret: but, we have thought it our duty to record the fact for future consideration, as well as for present gratifica tion.

In the public Coffee-houses the scene is not, indeed, much more animated; but, it

at least, much more diversified, and af fords frequent opportunities favourable to a spirit of observation. Generally, they are established in spots which may be deemed picturesque, and especially, on the sea coast. The Turkish ladies never enter them; and if a European lady--for such are admitted-makes her appearance, the Mussulmans rarely allow themselves to

TURKEY.

COFFEE HOUSE AT CONSTANTINOPLE.

The continuation of the Voyage Pit-shew any sign of impression made on their toresque de Constantinople and the banks of languor. The Coffee-houscs, like the the Bosphorus, after the drawings of M. Mosques, the public baths, and the barMelling, has given occasion to the inge-ber's shops, are privileged places for freenious draughtsman to introduce the in-speaking, for those whom they call infidels, terior of a Coffee House, in the Square of who are never insulted. According to the Top-Hané this is preceded by observa- appearance of persons who enter a Coffee tions on the national disposition of the house, the pipes brought to them are .Turks, which confirm whatever has been more or less ornamented. The attention reported on their inactivity and listlessness. of the company is usually directed to Our author describes their state of calm- story-tellers, who engage in the difficult ness and indolence, their state of reverie, task of furnishing amusement: they possess which resembles a continued drowsiness, a ready, abundant, and flowery elocution; as peculiar to themselves. It is scarcely they rival each other in attempts to narrate interrupted by the frequent revolutions at whatever is most laughable, wonderful, and Constantinople, and the violent and sudden surprizing, catastrophes which follow in their train. The most lively and interesting of Europeau spectacles would create no interest in a people which delight in their own per

This emulation, not seldom provoked by defiance, often urges them beyond the bounds of decency, which they outrage still more in their action than in their

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ON THE DUTY OF MAKING
WILLS, DURING HEALTH.

words; all this while, whoever contem
plates the immobility of the spectator.
would conclude that these relators were
discussing the most edifying and serious
We lately inserted a Paper by Dr. Bad-
subjects. Formerly, after a due quantity
of the fumes of tobacco and coffee haddeley of Chelmsford, respecting the duty
mounted into the heads of the grave of making Wills, while the testator is in
Mussulmans, political questions became
objects of their enquiries, and at length, of
their disputes; and the most violent revo-
lutions were often prepared Lcforehand in
these tumultuous assemblies since that
time, severe laws and bloody executions
have suppressed such dangerous amuse-
ments. The delights of the Cotlee-house
are diversified occasionally by tabulists,
dancers, and bands of musicians.

health. To that paper, we have reason to think, much publicity has been given;--too much cannot be given. The importance of the subject justifies every endeavour to enforce it on the public, and to press it on the consciences of individuals. The following paper is by Dr. Lettsom; it not only confines the principles of the former, but states additional facts and arguments, well deserving serious consideration. We assure ourselves, that in circulating this advice, we are really doing good; though, it is likely, that, from the private nature of the duty, we may never know the extent of the benefit.

The Coffee-bouse of the Square of TopHane is one of the handsomest in Coustantinople. It is situated opposite the Point of the Seraglio, and part of the Imperial Palace and Gardens is seen from the windows; also, the Port of Constantinople, the coast of Asia, the islands of the Princes, and down the canal to the opening of the Hellespont In this Coffeehouse are usually assembled individuals of different professions, mainers, and nations, ranged on the sophas, Dervises, Effendis, Bestangis, Agas, Turks, Armenians, &c.

HINTS RESPECTIN WILLS
AND TESTAMENTS.

It ought not to be forgot, that admomitions of the severest nature are often given to the magistrates, the men of the law, the officers of state, and even the government, by means of the story tellers in these Coffee-houses: not always, indeed, in direct terms, but by implication, by application of the sentiments, of the chaing; hence the superintending care of age racters introduced; by variation of incidents, &c. which the auditors well understand, though much of if is mere gesticulation or pantomime,

The instinct of other animals for the protection of their young, is equailed, if not exceeded, by the affection of man for his offspring. The wants of the one are few, and the power of gratifying them is soon acquired; but those connected with humanity are continually varying and augments

and experience scarcely terminates with
life itself. Man, who with labour and so-
licitude acquires a property, naturally de-
sires to perpetuate it to his family and re-
What he thus creates, he pos、
iatives.
sesses a right, and feels a propensity, to
dispose of among them; and this the law
empowers him to do, under certain regu→

Another of these plates represents a view of the Bosphoros, taken from Kanditly. The scène includes handsome houses, clegaut Kiosks, the sea flowing beneath them, gardeus, groups of trees, cultivated hills,lations, by Will. Considering the anxiety &c. But, amidst this laughing s enery, the and labour with which property is acsea presents something terrible to the quired, and the total uncertainty of hunian spectator, and more still to those not used life, it is to me a subject of wonder, that to -f wind rises. The Bosphorus here- any man should suffer one hour to clapse abouts dividing into two currents which of uncertain time, without this security to run in contrary directions, the frail serpent his wishes. Sometimes indeed various emboats, appear to be in great danger. The barrassments, and the unsettled state of passengers cry out, terrified: the rowers, family concerns, may induce individuals to however, continue their course; and after postpone making a Will; but no state can be so unsettled, as to anord a just plea great exertions enter a smali bay, which affords shelter to a multitude of fishes, against making that, which when once borne away by the stream. Here the inha-made, throws, as it were, a clearer light on the aspect of affairs, and enables the bitants in great numbers, enjoy the amusement of fishing: aud the Grand Seignor individual to alter or modify many circumstances conducive to future peace of mind. himself, sometimes resorts for the same purpose,

There are some so inconsiderate as to imagine, that by making a Will they really shorten their own lives. Happily, however, common reflection must render this opinion not very general. Indeed, I am persuaded, from long and repeated ob ́servation, that so far from shortening, the satisfaction of having made a Will, prolongs life.

I

of futurity pressing on intellect, fo arrange a person on a bed of sickness, with doubts his worldly concerns! Independient of this I have found, by experience, that the distled their important concerns, are much eases of persons who have previously setthat making a Will, whilst in health, more easily cured; and thus in reality, really conduces to prolong life.

Many diseases of the human body depend greatly upon mental solicitude, and few things contribute more forcibly to alleviate solicitude, than this security in the disposal of property. This is particularly verified, when persons are attacked with sickness, without having made a Will. It tends to aggravate disease, and renders them much more difficult to cure, insomuch that the uneasiness and perplexity of mind occasioned thereby, frequently bring on delirium early in the disease, or that agitation of intellect, as scarcely admits of a capacity to make a Will at all. How often have I seen a weeping wife, and many an quible daughter plunged into the deepest distress by this neglect of an affectionate husband and father, who has inconsiderately put off the making of a Will day af ter day, till, alas! the bewildered faculties render it too late to perform this act of jus-terror, as if they were signing their own tice to his family; and which often occa- death warrants. The same alarm will not siens subsequent legal and expensive deci- be excited, by the cautious and prudent sions, that ruin at least many an amiable interference of an intimate acquaintance daughter; for the laws of primogeniture whose inquiries may be received, rather are calculated to entail misery on the help- as the result of friendly solicitude, than of suspicion of danger, whilst those of the physician, who is supposed to foresee the event, must impress the mind of a debilitated frame, with a dread of the most imniinent hazard of life.'

I would here have suggested, that it should be one of the earliest inquiries of the attendant medical practitioner, "if the patient have made a Will;" but unfortunately any question proposed by a physician on the subject, alarms the patient, who is apt hastily to rejoin, "What, Doctor, do you think I am going to die?" and afterwards, too often, gives himself up to despair of recovery. In some instances, when health has been restored, the patients have told me, that signing their Wills, conveyed a

less female sex.

observation, I sincerely wish that every Under these views, deduced from long person who regards his individual heath and happiness, and the succour and comfort of survivors, would not protract the settlement of his affairs by Will, a single day of an uncertain existence.

In some instances I have known, that the disease has been so moderate, and the understanding so clear, as to admit of the making a Will on a sick-bed; but when the patient has recovered, I have scarcely known an instance, wherein he has not condemned the disposition of a Will made in the hurry of agitated spirits, with a mind weakened by disease, and influenced by the urgency of the occasion, and the pressure of surrounding objects. At the Lesi, what a scene of melancholy reflec-of tion is presented! At an awful period wheu the mind ought to detach itself as much as possible from pecuniary calculations!How many instances daily occur of sudden deaths, from disease and from accidents,

In civilized society, where relations and connexions are multiplied, it requires much composure and caim reflection to dispose of property by Will, to the perfect satis faction of the individual, even in health; but how impracticable then must it be for

making a Will in the season of health, and
This is a further argument in favour of
so it appeared to the Society of Quakers,
minute of recommendation to each indivi-
who, a few years ago, expressly formed a
dual of the Society, capable of it, not to
body and soundness of mind.
postpone making a Will, whilst in health

May I presume here to recommend it, as a subject worthy of being occasionally introduced from the pulpit, throughout the kingdom; for it cannot be indecorons to

stances in which there is scarcely a momeat between existence and non-existence, between life and death!

and from which none are exempt;-in-inculcate, in places destined to the worship of a supremely just Being, an act of moral justice to every family in civilized society.

tion of the Doctor: among the Homilies We heartily concur in this recommendaof the Church this subject is treated with great seriousness and propriety.

number of Cascades is there not, on all sides? In short, we are arrived at that degree of luxury, that we now will condescend to

BATHS OF THE ANCIENTS.

Sir HUMPHREY DAVEY has lately pub-walk only on costly stones, &c. &c. lished in the Philosophical Transactions, his remarks on Colours found in the orna

cients. To us it appears somewhat strange should that edifices destined to that purpose be decorated with such costly materials, and such exquisite skill: baths, among ourselves, being usually plain enough. But we ought to reflect that these edifices were almost a kind of palaces; that they were seats of luxury and enjoyment, to the great, full as much as modern villas: that some

This description will moderate the surprise of our Readers, at the discoveries ments of the Baths constructed by the An-made by Sir H. Davey, of costly colours, &c. &c. in the ruins of these buildings: as in the following article. Some Experiments and Observations on the Colours used in Painting, by the Ancients. By Sir HUMPHREY DAVY. LL.D. F.R.S. [From the Philosophical Transactions for 1815. Part I.] I. INTRODUCTION.

The importance the Greeks attached to pictures, the estimation in which their great painters were held, the high prices paid for their most celebrated productions, and the emulation existing between diferent states with regard to the possession of them, prove that painting was one of the arts most cultivated in ancient Greece: the

Emperors (as Commodus) dined in their Baths; and spent much of the day there; as most of the Empresses did, and many other females. These structures, therefore, were not only rendered extremely convenient, but were embellished in every way, with the most capital masterpieces of sculp-mutilated remains of the Greek statues, notwithstanding the efforts of modern artists during three centuries of civilization, are still contemplated as the models of perfection in sculpture; and we have no reason for supposing an inferior degree of excellence in the sister art, amongst a people to whom genius and taste were a kind of birthright, and who possessed a perception, which seemed almost instinctive, of the dignified, the beautiful, and the sublime.

ture, with paintings, gildings, &c. in the most costly style of Architecture. They, were originally simple and ordinary; but even those for the populace, became at length luxurious in a high degree; as may be easily understood from the following passage in one of Seneca's Epistles. ... But, who dares to bathe himself now, at so small an expence? every one thinks himself poverty struck, and wretchedly sordid, unless he frequents baths, the walls of which are ornamented with large round windows, furnished with transparent and costly stones; if the marble of Alexandria is not intermixed with that of Numidia; if it be not stuccoed with great skill, and varied as well with painting; if the height of the vault is not fitted with glass; if the marble of the Isle of Thasus, which formerly was not seen but in some temple, as a rarity, is not employed to veneer the rim of our basons, into which we descend after our bodies are exhausted by excessive perspiration; in a word, if the water does not run through silver cocks: -aud all this I say, is destined only to the baths appropriated to the populace. What might I not add, if I were treating on the baths of Freedmen, aud persons of better rank? How many statues do we not see? how many columns, which sustain no edifice, but serve only as ornament, or to display the expensive taste of the owner? What a

The works of the great masters of Greece are unfortunately entirely lost. They disappeared from their native country during the wars waged by the Romans with the successors of Alexander, and the later Greek republics; and were destroyed either by accident, by time, or by barbarian conquerors at the period of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire.

The subjects of many of these pictures are described in ancient authors, and some idea of the manner and style of the Greek artists may be gained from the designs on the vases, improperly called Etruscan,` which were executed by artists of Magna Græcia, and many of which are probably copies from celebrated works: and some faint notion of their execution and colouring may be gained from the paintings in fresco found at Rome, Herculaneum, and Pompeii.

These paintings, it is true, are not properly Greek; yet, whatever may be said of the early existence of painting in Italy

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