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lament the spoils which he was about to make, and of which he had been deprived. He thought on that day to have imbrued more than usually his sev the with blood; but he was obliged to humble himself before him who governs the empires, and at whose voice the infernal regions shake with fear.

The present appearance of the volcano is n.ost melancholy and terrific. Its side, which was formerly so cultivated, and which afforded a prospect the most picturesque, is now nothing but an arid and barren sand. The stones, sand, and ashes, which cover it,are so astonishing in quantity, that in some places they exceed the thickness of ten or twelve yards; and in the very spot where lately stood the village of Budiao, there are places in which the cocoatrees are almost covered. In the ruined villages, and almost through the whole extent of the eruption, the ground remains covered with sand to the depth of half a yard, and scarcely a single tree is left alive. The crater of the volcano has lowered, as l judge, more than 20 fathoms; and on the south side discovers a spacious and horrid mouth, which it is frightful to look at. Three new ones are opened at a considerable distance from the principal crater, through which also smoke and ashes are incessantly emitted. In short, the most beautiful villages of Camarines, and the principal part of that province are converted into a barren sand.

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The sad result of the misfortunes of that day has been the total ruin of five villages in the province of Camarines, and the principal part of Albay; the death of more than twelve hundred unfortunate persons, and many others severely wounded; the loss of every thing that the survivors possessed in the world, being left without clothing, without animals, without the prospect of a harvest, and without a morsel fit to cat; the mournful and unhappy fate of many, who have been left orphans, abandoned to Divine Providence; others widows, with the loss of four, five, and even more children; the total destruction of their churches and parochial houses, with every thing they contained: in cou-provements on those already constructed, sequence of which the sacraments could not we do not know; but, we know that he be administered to such as died of their had a variety of projects lying by him; wounds the succeeding days, and who were some of them good, some bad, and as we buried without any pomp or ceremony; and the many infants who have been since conjecture, the major part middling, born, have from necessity been baptized with common water, because the circumstances in which we were placed did not `permit it to be otherwise.

The Newspapers have lately amused themselves, and their readers, with the terrors of more than one sea-port, into which a vessel navigated by steam has entered, in its passage from Glasgow, or Greenock, where it was built, to the Thames, where it is intended to use it. The description is amusing; and as these vessels are becoming popular among us, we have thought a slight memorandum of their history, by Robertson Buchanan, Esq. [Philosophical Magazine, for March. 1815.] would prove acceptable and useful. Mr. Fulton, the American, who was a great promoter of such vessels [whom we knew when he was in England] is lately deceased: whether his papers may contain further plans, or im

HISTORY OF THE STEAM BOAT.

So early as the year 1801, a vessel propelled by steam was tried on the Forth and Clyde inland navigation, but was laid aside, among other reasons, ou account of the injury it threatened to the banks of the canal by the agitation of the water: and as far as I can learn, the same objection still subsists to the use of steam-boats on artificial canals so narrow as those usual in Great Britain. That objection, however, I should think, does not apply to some of those of Holland and other countrics on the continent.

The first attempt on any scale worthy of notice, to.navigate by steam on the river Clyde, was in the year 1812". A passage boat of about 40 feet keel and 10% feet beam, having a steam-engine of only three horses' power, began to ply on the river. Since that period the number of boats has gradually increased.

Besides three vessels which have let the Clyde, there are six at present plying on the river, two of which carry goods aswell as passengers. They have on the

The first steam-boat in America was launched at New York on the Srd of October 1807, and began to ply on the river between that city and Albany, a distance of about 120 miles.

whole been gradually increased in tonnage as well as in the power of their engines; and still larger boats and more powerful engines are now constructing: among others, one of about 100 feet keel and 17 feet beam with an engine of 24 horses' power; and one of equal burthen, having an engine of 30 horses power". These boats are all neatly fitted up, and some of them even elegantly decorated.

On board all the passage steam-boats are newspapers, pamphlets, books, &c. for the amusement of the passengers, and such refreshments as are desirable on so short a voyage, a distance of about 26 miles by water, and 24 by land. The voyage betwixt Glasgow and Greenock, including stoppages at intermediate places, is commonly accomplished in from three to four hours, the vessel taking advantage of the tide as far as circumstances will permit: but as they start at different hours from the same place, they are sometimes obliged to go part or nearly the whole of their voyage against the tide.

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The voyage has been accomplished in 24 hours; the tide being favourable, but against a moderate breeze of contrary windt.

Milford and its neighbourhood Some days ago, the inhabitants of alarmed by the arrival of a vessel, which they conceived, from the quantity of smoke which issued from her, and the noise on board, to be on fire; it however proved to be the Thames, passage vessel, worked by gow to Wexford, and from thence to Milsteam-engines, which had come from Glasford, on her way to London, between which place and Margate she is intended At first, owing to the novelty and ap- Tuesday afternoon at two o'clock, and arto carry passengers. She left Wexford on parent danger of the conveyance, the num ber of passengers was so very small that She was worked about that harbour a rived at Milford at nine the same evening. the only steam-boat then on the river considerable part of Wednesday, and she could hardly clear her expenses but the went remarkably swift through the wadegree of success which attended that at-ter, against wind and tide, and appears tempt soon commanded public confidence. well adapted for the purpose she is intended The number of passengers which now go for. in those boats may seem incredible to those who have not witnessed it. Travelling by land has not only been nearly superseded, but the communication very greatly increased, owing to the cheapness and facility of the conveyance. Many days in fine weather, from 500 to 600 have gone from Glasgow to Port-Glasgow and returned in the same day. One of the boats alone has been known to carry 247 at one time. The increase of travelling in consequence of navigation by steam, may be estimated by the number that went in the commou passage boats before the introduction of this agent: at that time, the highest estimate even for summer did not much exceed 50 up and 50 down, and those generally of the lower class of the

For the value of a horses' rower, see Buchanan's Essay on Mill-work, Teeth of Wheels, p. 150.

+ The time which was allowed to the Mail Coach to go between those towns, was 2 hours, but owing to extraordinary exertion some of the coaches now run that distance in about 24 hours

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people. The number that then went by coaches may be thus estimated: four coaches up and four coaches down, which might average six passengers each.

voyage and the beauty of the scenery atIn the summer, the pleasure of the tract multitudes; and the bathing-places below Greenock have, in consequence of the easy passage, been crowded beyond former example.

The scenery near Glasgow is sylvan and picturesque as the river descends, until it beautiful, but becomes bolder and more west Highlands. terminates in the rugged mountains of the

ROBERTSON BUCHANAN."

cited at St. Ives, in Cornwall, at Falmouth, An alarm of the same kind was also exand at other places on the const.

very suddenly made its appearance at We learn also, that, this same vessel Portsmouth, and coming into the harbour immediately against the wind, produced, with a little surprise, a considerable degree of curiosits. She was built lately on for the purpose of shewing the uses to the Clyde, and was brought to Portsmouth, which she may be applied. She is a very eatly fitted vessel, has the appearance of yacht, is 75 tous burden, answers to her helm with all the celerity of the best sailing vessels, and goes through the water at hour-which is produced by the steam the rate of from seven to eight miles an of 14 horse power: one ton of coals is suffrom the engine erected in her, it being ficient fuel to produce the necessary force came to Portsmouth from Plymouth Sound, of steam for impelling her 100 miles She in 23 hours. The machinery in her, we suppose, is constructed upon the common

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principle of most steam engines: the steam produced by the boiling water is condensed into a piston or pipe, which acts upon two wheels that are fixed upon the sides of the vessel, and these touching the sea, propel her forward in any direction, at the rate mentioned. It was intended, had the wind not been fair, that she should have towed the Endymion frigate out of the harbour on Saturday morning. The vessel went out

And yet the security and expedition, which the mechanical principle of impell

at between nine and ten o'clock, when Ad-ing ships might afford, would be of so much more importance on the ocean, particularly for the conveyance of passengers and letters, that its adoption on the waters, where it is used at present, is obviously of but little consequence in comparison.

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mirals Sir Edward Thornbrough, Halkett, and Fleming, Captains Boger, Tower, &c. went on board to ascertain her qualifications. She continued to work about Spit head nearly two hours, when she departed for Margate and the River.

There are, we believe, several modes of impelling vessels by steam: a capital boat of the kind has lately been built on the Thames, under a patent; and therefore conducted with some privacy. She also, is intended to ply between Margate and the Metropolis; but her machinery is con

cealed.

While on this subject, we cannot avoid adding an incident that occurred not long ago on the Thames. - A steam boat in the course of building, and nearly finished, was bought, at a fair price, by persons who passed themselves off for a Company intending to join, and to fit her for a passage boat frem London down the river. The builder procured them a pilot, to carry her to Margate :—when arrived in the open sea, four Frenchmen made their appearance from below, and obliged the pilot to carry her over to the coast of France, where she safely arrived, to the astonishment of all vessels coming into the Downs, as she passed them; and of the inhabitants of the coast, where she became domiciliated.

of the machinery that acts on the water, resembling a water-mill wheel, would be so much in the way at sea in rough weather, and would expose the vessel to so much danger, if the bad weather encreased to a storm, that none have been yet hardy enough to try vessels of this construction on the ocean.

The very ingenious Mr. J. W. Boswell has submitted an idea on this subject, which we think it our duty to add. He observes,

The method of propelling ships by steam engines, which has been for some years practised with success in the rivers and estuaries of North America, and which has at length been introduced on the Thames, is of a nature which must coufine its use to rivers, canals, or small lakes; for the part

His plan is, to cause a violent emission of air, rising through the water, behind the vessel: the resistance this would find from the water, would originate a motive power, in his opinion sufficient to impell the vessel forward with considerable velocity. He adds,

Vessels on this plan would be more safe in case of leaks, as the engine could easily be made to work the pumps on such occasions.

Vessels with a steam-engine need not have so many hands for mere sailing, or in could be made to hoist the anchor, and the merchant service, since the engine raise and lower the yards, sails, and topmasts, and do other work requiring much force, besides working the pumps.

The steam-engine would be also useful in grinding flour for the crew, while the waste steam could be used in cooking. And, last, though not least, the waste steam would besides always afford a plentiful supply of fresh water, by an apparatus for condensing it being added.

ST. HELENA.

The following Intelligence from this island will gratify our readers; not only from its nature, but because it may be taken as one instance of the spread of that spirit of benevolence that does so much honour to the mother country, to her dis tant dependencies. We give only an abstract of proceedings which prove the interest taken by the superiors in the wel

fare of their inferiors.

The Governor, Mark Wilks, Esq. by patrónizing these efforts gives them an

order, and regularity, highly honourable to I will also solicit the Hon. Court to present himself, and beneficial to them.

the St. Helena library, with copies of those works of which they may possibly have duplicates at their library in the India House."

BENEVOLENT SOCIETY.

St. Helena has within this year or two either instituted or greatly invigorated those charitable means of educating the lower classes of the community, including the free blacks, as well as the whites, the pattern of which was borrowed from the mother country. The number of children on the island was estimated at thirteen hundred; of these about two hundred were first taken under care, for the purpose of instruction; some of these were slaves to the Company; and four were slaves to individuals.

Among the most curious subjects of enquiry, is that respecting the cause of deterioration and decay, among what have been the choicest specimens of the vegeta

tion in a more private mauner.

Beside these, a few were receiving instruc-ble tribe. It is well known, that some fruits are no longer what they were: that the progeny of others appears to have great, ly degenerated; and, in short, that much disappointment has, taken place among the curious, in consequence. As every thing that may contribute to explain the cause of this, has its consequence, we give a place to the following.

The Governor had ordered the youth of the garrison to be instructed: and two branch schools had been established, not only for the benefit of the Company's slaves, but of all the slave children, and free poor, in the neighbourhood of each school. They are-in the Valley 1. The old under school: 2 The Sunday school for slave children. In the Country. 1. The Sunday school at Plantation. 2. The Sunday school at Longwood. The funds in part, are raised by 'some of the children themselves. Garrison boys on the foundation pay fourpence weekly the rest one penny weekly.-It will readily be supposed, that the rewards given greatly exceed the payments. Ten of the elder girls are allowed to bring their own needle work with them, to be executed under the inspection of the mistress.

ON CHESNUT TR EES.

Extract from a Letter.

"I take this opportunity of requesting your attention to a singular fact, in natural history, which has lately been noticed to me. On regretting the appearance of some stately chesnut trees near Mr. Doveton's country house, which seemed to have been sometime dead, I was assured, that within these last four or five years, the greater number of the chesnut trees, of every age in this Island, have either died or are dying. On inspecting several at the PlantationHouse, in both these states, I could perceive no insects, nor any other source of destruction, beyond the ordinary indications of decay in an aged tree. I was long embar rassed by these singular phænomena, until it was accidentally mentioned, that, on the first introduction of the chesnut, the rats had been so troublesome in the destruction of the seed, that it became an established li-practice, which has since been continued, to propagate the plant by means of suckers only. This is the fact which I should wish you to investigate as a philosophical botanist. The theory of Mr. Knight, regarding the certain decay of all engrafted fruits, or, such as are propagated by any other means than the seed, may receive an unexpected plea-illustration, in the singular fact which I have stated. In both cases, these dissevered portions of the original tree are destined to follow the decay of their parent; and a theory which seems strange only to superficial observers, will be seen to accord with

The First Report of the Benevolent Society was made Oct. 27, 1814, and was opened by an address from the Governor in person, in which the institution was strongly recommended to general patron

age.

There is also a Bible Society: which proceeds in conjunction with the Benevoient Education Society; and furthers its views. The smallest donations are received; and care is taken by the regulations, that no subscription apparently beyond the mited powers of any subscriber, should be accepted.

Who knows what obligations the learned may lie under in future ages to the copies preserved in the library thus established on the island of St. HELENA?

There is a Library Society; the subscribers to which purchase books to be added to the present library of the company so that, under judicious management, and choice, a few years will obtain for the island, an inexhaustible fund of instruction and sure. The Governor and Council also, promise to recommend to the Court of Directors, that all books and other articles which the society shall commission from England, shall be sent freight free; and

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the beautiful simplicity of nature, in all her Loroux is that part of the left bank of the
works. In vegetable, as in animal exist-Loire immediately bordering the river,
ence, limits are placed to the prolongation and which is comprised, according to the
of individual life; and the species can be
preserved by no other means than the re-
new division, within the departments of
production of new individuals.”
the Loire Inferieure, and the Mayenne and
Loire.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY
OF LA VENDEE.

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The importance of the efforts making by the Royalists in France, to deliver their country from Corsican Tyranny, is understood by few among us. The war in that country formerly brought the Republican cause to the brink of ruin, and would have quite ruined it, had not French pride refused British succours while in seeming prosperity; and when adversity pressed on the Royalist cause, and succours would have been acceptable, it was too late. In war, no second opportunity is to be looked for. At present a very different policy is pursuing. Vast quantities of stores and ammunition in various shapes have been seut, instantly, to assist the Royalists; and the Royalists have thankfully received them.

LE MARAIS: THE MARSHES.

adjacent to the sea. Le Marais is that part of Lower Poitou open country, and the passes are impractiIt is a flat and very other seasons. It is intersected at all points of cable during winter, and very difficult in its circumference by cauals, or salt marshes, ders any attack against it very dangerous, a species of natural fortification which renand consequently, is favorable for defence, riage roads are to be met with, the greatest particularly for the inhabitants. Few carpart are bye-ways or raised paths, and made between two canals. These cauals are in general from thirty to forty feet wide, from The bandit carrying his musket in a bandothe upper extremity of one bank to the other. leer, leans upon a long pole, and leaps from one bank to the other with amazing facinot admit of his performing this exercise, lity. If the presence of the enemy will without exposing himself to his fire, he

lished in the various Moniteurs, of victo

Our readers will be enabled from this description of the country to know what confidence to place in the accounts pub-throws himself into his niole, [a kind of small boat very flat and ways sufficiently shut up to hide himself very light,] and crosses the canal with very great rapidity, being alfrom the sight of his pursuers. He soon appears again, fires at you, and disappears in an instant, very often before you have dier, to whom this mode of fighting is untime to answer his fire. The republican solknown, is obliged to be continually upon his guard, to march along the shoresofthecanals, and to follow slowly their circuitous track, bea-mishes: thus it costs him several hours to supporting at the same time frequent skirtraverse over a space which the bandit most commonly accomplishes in a few minutes. After you have surmounted all these obstacles, and arrived at the plain after having followed all the zig-zags,

[The following is from the Republican formed by the canals which surround it, General Turreau.]

the enemy present themselves in all parts;
they seem to rise out of the land and water.
Notwithstanding which we must at any
at it; for one may judge of the dangers so
rate take post there, and support ourselves
a retreat in this country by the difficultief
of penetrating it.

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ries, here :—total destruction of the rebels, there:-&c. &c. of the sudden appearing, and disappearing of the rebel hosts; for no doubt, so much of the former management of the forces is renewed, as was then derived from the nature of the country: and is dependant on it. These people are not dispersed-but they disperse themselves: they are not destroyed, if ten: but even when the fortune of war turns against them, their enemies gain little besides the ground they stand on. Such is the war in La Vendee!

Three brothers called Chouans, formed Gravelle. The places where they commitmeetings in the envirous of Laval and la ed their robberies, and the information that the original profession of these chiefs, that has been obtained, leads us to suppose was that of smuggling; this is the origin of the rebels called Chouuns.

LE BOCAGE:

THE WOODS.

Le Bocage is a part of Lower Poitou, now divided into several districts belonging to the department of La Vendee. VOL. II. Lit. Pan. Now Series, July 1.

Le

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