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the deflagration and preparatory to the, recommencement of working it, they are sinking shafts in the direction in which they intend to proceed.
Measles. The measles have been alike prevalent and fatal this spring in many parts of Great Briton. In Ireland, though equally extended, they have been less inJurious. In the Foundling Hospital of Dublin, the most extensive institution of the kind in Europe, we are assured that five hundred children were recently, at the same period, afflicted with that disorder, almost all of whom have recovered.
We some time ago took occasion to mention the experiments of a horticulturist who treated his trees with the dead dies of animals, by way of quickening the vegetative process. Sir Humphrey Davy has lately alledged reasons for creatiug hints for obtaining the purpose, in the this practise into a system; he has added best manner. The particulars are curious in themselves; and may prove instructive. It is one of those operations which nature has carried on, on a large scale, where human foot has not trod for
The refuse pilchards in Cornwall are with excellent effects. They are usually used throughout the county as a manure, mixed with sand or soil, and sometimes with sea weed, to prevent them from raising too luxuriant a crop. The effects are perceived for several years.
In the fens of Lincolnshire, Cambridgebo-shire, and Norfolk, the little fishes called waters in such quantities, that they form a sticklebacks, are caught in the shallow great article of mauure in the land bordering on the fons.
might be applied in the same way as any other manure to crops.
Fish forms a powerful manure, in whatploughed in too fresh, though the quantity ever state it is applied; but it cannot be should be limited. Mr. Young records an experiment, in which herrings spread over a field, and ploughed in for wheat, pro-, duced so rank a crop, that it was entirely laid before harvest.
Manures from animal substances, in general, require no chemical preparation to fit them for the soil. The great object of the farmer is to blend them with the earthy constituents in a proper state of division, and to prevent their too rapid decomposition.
By covering dead animals with five or six times their bulk of soil, mixed with one part of lime, and suffering them to remain for a few months, their decompo sition would impreguate the soil with soluble matters, so as to render it an excellent manure; and by mixing a little fresh quick time with it at the time of its removal, the disagreeable effluvia would be in a great measure destroyed; and it Vol. II. Lit. Pan. New Series." July 1.
great success in covering terraces, lining The following cement has been used with basins, soldering stones, &c. and it every. where resists the filtration of water; it is of 93 parts of well burnt brick or clay, so hard that it scratches iron. It is formed and seven parts of litharge and of linseed oil. Nothing can be more simple than its composition or the manner of using it. The brick and litharge are pulverised, the latter must always be reduced to a very The entire parts of the muscles of land and enough linseed oil added to the mixfine powder; they are mixed together, animals are not commonly used as manure, ture, to give it the consistence of thin though there are many cases in which plaster. It is then applied in the manner such an application might be easily made. of plaster, the body that is to be covered Horses, dogs, sheep, deer, and other quadrupeds that have died accidentally, or of sponge. This precaution is indispensible, being always previously wetted with' a disease, after their skins are separated, are otherwise the oil would filter through the often suffered to remain exposed to the body, and prevent the mastic from acquir air, or immersed in water, till they are ing the desirable degree of hardness. When destroyed by birds or beasts of prey, or it is extended over a large surface, it someentirely decomposed; and in this case, times happens to have flaws in it, which must most of their organized matter is lost to the land on which they lie, and a consider-ment. In three or four days it becomes be filled up with a fresh quantity of the ces able portion of it is employed in giving off firm. noxious gases to the atmosphere.
COMPOSITION OF AN UNCHANgeable Ce-
they may prevent losses and dangers.
wishes to avoid being led astray by the
manufactories, the workmen always lose
Exit Tyrannus ! ! ! ¦
A noble beginning, to what should have been a Periscope of Periscopes! A man struck with astonishment, is not expected to display his eloquence. The faculties may be lost, as well in contemplation of the past, as in speculation on the future. We are, confessedly, reduced to the simple beginning of long speeches in a certain assembly-" Mr. Speaker, I want words to express." -Them agician who could shew us in a glass, as he revolved it in his hand,
the events of the moment with the same rapidity as they really occur, would deserve to be placed at the head of his profession.
The next day witnessed a very severe who resisted most violently; and sustained, action against the Prussians, principally; with its consequences, will be best given in as well as inflicted, great loss. But this, the words of the heroes themselves. THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON'S ACCOUNT. Waterloo, June 19, 1815. MY LORD, Buonaparte having collected the 1st, 2d, Sd, 4th, and 6th corps of the French army and the Imperial Guards, and nearly all the cavalry on the Sambre, and between that river and the Meuse, between the 10th and 14th of the month, advanced on the 15th, and attacked the Prussian posts at Thuin and Lobez, on the Sambre, at daylight in the morning.-I did not hear of these events till the evening of the 15th, and I im mediately ordered the troops to prepare to
Our last left France under the Second Emperorship of Napoleon the First; our present, finds France under the first Emperorship of Napoleon the Second-that is to say, if Napoleon the First may have his way. In short, BUONAPARTE HAS ABIGATED IN FAVOUR OF HIS SON; which is the very game he intended to play before he set his foot the last time on the soil of the Great Nation. Did he think to cajole the Allies into an acquiescence with his scheme? He did. Does he think now to cajole them? No: but, he could do no better, for the purpose of prolonging the miseries of France; it was the most effectual proceed-march; and afterwards to march to the ing in his power. left, as soon as I had intelligence from other quarters to prove that the enemy's moveThe enemy drove the Prussian posts from ment upon Charleroi was the real attack.the Sambre on that day; and Gen. Zieter, who commanded the corps which had been at Charleroi, retired upon Fleurus; and Marshal Prince Blucher concentrated the villages in front of his position of St the Prussian army upon Sombref, holding Amand and Ligny. The enemy conti Bued his march along the road from Charleroi towards Brussels, and on the of the army of the Netherlands, under the same evening, the 15th, attacked a brigade Prince de Weimar, posted at Frasne, and forced it back to the farm-house on the same road, called Les Quatre Bras.-The Prince of Orange immediately reinforced this brigade with another of the same divi
Murat escaped to France: his Queension, under General Perponcher, and in and family are sent under the British flag to the morning early regained part of the Trieste, and very probably from thence, ground which had been lost, so as to have wnder Austrian convoy, to the fortress of the command of the communication leadGratz. ing from Nivelles and Brussels, with Mar cha! Blucher's position. In the mean time I had directed the whole army to march
As we observed, Murat, in Italy was UNKINGED, by the advance of Austrian troops and British ships to Naples, his capital (May 11th). He was defeated in his object of revolutionizing Italy: he failed in his attempt to cut his way through the Austrians at Tolentino, May 3. Murat arrived at his capital, just in time to escape from it, distinguished under another name, with a British pass, intended for another person.
His army capitulated May 21. The populace of Naples rose against his family; and the Austrians were entreated to enter the city before the time agreed on;—which, to restore order in some degree, they did, at two o'clock in the morning of May 22, during the height of the tumult.
trians were now at liberty to pour their troops into the South of France. Thus was the last King of the Buonapartean Dynasty dethroned; and there remains only the Master Tyrant himself. With the lightning swiftness, for which he is fa to head his army in the north. He commous, Buonaparte travelled from Paris, menced his irruption into the plains of Belgium June 15th. and brought to action the Prussian posts scattered on the Sambre: they retired, of course. His fighting force is from 120, to 130,000 troops.
Thus was a principal member of the conspiracy of Elba disposed of. The Aus
terloo the next morning, the 17th, at ten [678 o'clock. pursue Marshal Blucher. On the contrary, The enemy made no effort to morning, found all quiet, and the enemy's a patrole which I sent to Sombref in the videttes fell back as the patroles advanced. Neither did he attempt to molest our middle of the day, except by following, march to the rear, although made in the with a large body of cavalry, brought from his right, the cavalry under the Earl of Uxbridge. an opportunity of charging them with the This gave Lord Uxbridge 1st Life Guards, upon their debouche from the village of Genappe, upon which occasion his Lordship has declared himself to be well satisfied with that regiment.
upon Les Quatre Bras, and the 5th division under Lieut. Gen. Sir T. Picton, arrived at about half-past two in the day, followed by the corps of troops under the Duke of Brunswick, and afterwards by the contingent of Nassau. At this time the enemy commenced an Prince Blucher with his whole force, exattack upon cepting the 1st and 2d corps, and a corps of cavalry under General Kellermann, with which he attacked our posts at Les Quatre Bras. The Prussian army maintained their position with their usual gallantry and perseverance, against a great disparity of numbers, as the 4th corps of their army, under General Bulow, had not joined, and I was not able to assist them as I wished, as I was attacked myself; and the troops, the cavalry in particular, which had a long of Waterloo, crossd the high roads from The position which I took up in front distance to march had not arrived.-We Charleroi and Nivelle, and its right thrown maintained our position also, and completely defeated and repulsed all the ene- which was occupied; and its left exback to a ravine near Merke Briane, my's attempts to get possession of it. The tended to a height above the hamlet Ter enemy repeatedly attacked us with a large la Haye, which was likewise occupied.— body of infantry and cavalry, supported In front of the right centre and near the by a numerous and powerful artillery; he Nivelle road, we occupied the house and made several charges with the cavalry garden of Hougoumont, which covered the upon our infantry, but all were repulsed return of that flank; and in front of the left in the steadiest manner. bis Royal Highness the Prince of Orange, Sainte. In this affair centre, we occupied the farm of La Haye the Duke of Brunswick, and Lieut. Gen. with Marshal Prince Blucher, at Wavre, By our left we communicated Sir T. Picton, and Major General Sir through Ohaim; and the Marshal had James Kempt, and Sir Denis Pack, who promised me that in case we should be were engaged from the commencement of attacked he would support me with one the enemy's attack, highly distinguished or more corps, as might be necessary. The themselves, as well as Lieut. Gen. Charles enemy collected his army, with the excepBaron Alten, Major Gen. Sir C. Halket, tion of the 3d corps, which had been sent Lieutenant Gen. Cooke, and Major Gene- to observe Marshal Blucher, on a range of rals Maitland and Byng, as they succes- heights in our front, in the course of the sively arrived. The troops of the 5th di- night of the 17th and yesterday morning; vision and those of the Brunswick corps and about ten o'clock he commenced a fuwere long and severely engaged, and rious attack upon our post at Hougoumont. conducted themselves with the utmost gal-I had occupied that post with a detachJantry. I must particularly mention the ment from General Byng's brigade of 28th, 42d, 79th, and 92d regiments, and Guards, which was in position in its rear; the battalion of Hanoverians.-Our loss and it was for some time under 'the comwas great, as your Lordship will perceive mand of Lieut.-Col. Macdonel, and afterby the inclosed return, and I have parti- wards of Colonel Home; and I am happy cularly to regret his Serene Highness the to add that it was maintained throughDuke of Brunswick, who fell, fighting out the day with the utmost gallantry by gallantly at the head of his troops.-Al- these brave troops, notwithstanding the though Marshal Blucher had maintained his repeated efforts of large bodies of the position at Sombref, he still found himself enemy to obtain possession of it. This much weakened by the severity of the attack upon the right of our centre was contest in which he had been engaged, accompanied by a very heavy cannonade and as the 4th corps had not arrived, he upon our whole line, which was destined determined to fall back, and concentrate to support the repeated attacks of cavalry his army upon Wavre; and he marched and infantry occasionally mixed, but somein the night after the action was over. times separate, which were made upon it. This movement of the Marshal's rendered In one of these, the enemy carried the necessary a corresponding one on my part; farm house of La Haye Sain'e, as the de and I retired from the farm of Quatre tachment of the light battalion of the Bras upon Genappe, and thence upon Wa- legion which occupied it had expended 2A2
enemy on our position, was defeated.— The Earl of Uxbridge, after having successfully got through this arduous day, received a wound by almost the last shot fired, which will, I am afraid, deprive his Majesty for some time of his services. His Royal Highuess the Prince of Orange, distinguished himself by his gallantry and conduct, till he received a wound from a musket ball through the shoulder, which obliged him to quit the field. It gives me the greatest satisfaction to assure your Lordship, that the army never, upon any occasion, conducted itself better. The division of Guards, under Lieutenant-Ge neral Cooke, who is severely wounded ; Major-General Maitland and Major-Gen. Byng, set an example which was followed by all; and there is no Officer, nor description of troops, that did not behave well. I must, however, particularly mention, for his Royal Highness's approbation, Lieutenant-General Sir H. Clinton, Major General Adam, Lieutenant-General Charles Baron Alten, severely wounded; Major-General Sir Colin Halket, verely wounded; Colonel Ompteda, Colonel Mitchell, commanding a brigade of the 4th division; Major-Generals Sir James Kempt and Sir Denis Pack, MajorGeneral Lambert, Major-General Lord E. Somerset, Major-General Sir W. Ponsonby, Major-General Sir C. Grant, and Major-General Sir H. Vivian; MajorGeneral Sir O. Vandeleur; Major-General Count Dornberg. I am also particularly indebted to Gen. Lord Hill for his assist. and conduct upon this as upon all former occasions."
all its ammunition, and the enemy occupied the only communication there was with them. The enemy repeatedly charged our infantry with his cavalry, but these attacks were uniformly unsuccessful, and they afforded opportunities to our cavalry to charge, in one of which, Lord E. Somerset's brigade, consisting of the Life Guards, Royal Horse Guards, aud 1st Dragoon Guards, highly distinguished themselves, as did that of Major-General Sir W. Ponsonby, having taken many prisoners and an eagle. These attacks were repeated till about seven in the evening, when the enemy made a desperate effort with the cavalry and infantry, supported by the fire of artillery, to force our left centre near the farm of La Haye Sainte, which, after a severe contest, was defeated, and having observed that the troops retired from this attack in great confusion, and that the march of Gen. Bulow's corps by Enschermout upon Planchnorte and La Belle Alliance, had begun to take effect, and as I could perceive the fire of his cannon, and as Marshal Prince Blucher had joined in person, with a corps of his army to the left of our line by Ohaim, I determined to attack the enemy, and immediately advanced the whole line of infantry, supported by the cavalry, and artillery. The attack succeeded in every point; the enemy was forced from his position on the heights, and fled in the utmost confusion, leaving behind him, as far as I could judge, one hundred and fifty pieces of cannon, with their ammunition, which fell into our hands. I continued the pur-ance suit till long after dark, and then discontinued it only on account of the fatigue of our His Grace highly praises the other detroops, who had been engaged during partments of his army, also: he also aptwelve hours, and because I found myselfplauds the Prussians; and particularly the on the same road with Marshal Blucher,
attack by Gen. Bulow.
who assured me of his intention to follow
Your Lordship will observe, that such a desperate action could not be fought, and such advantages could not be gained without great loss; and I am sorry to add, that ours has been immense. In Lieut. Gen. Sir T, Picton, his Majesty has sustained the loss of an officer who has frequently distinguished himself in his service, and he fell gloriously leading his division to a charge with bayonets, by which one of the most serious attacks made by the
It was soon felt by the public that this battle was of consequence; but none ventured to give it its real consequence. Finding all was lost, Buonaparte fled to Paris, with the same velocity as he had quitted that city; and he entered his palace! at eleven o'clock at night, on the 21st. Immediately was published the following account of the great battle of the 18th.
BATTLE OF MOUNT ST. JOHN.
At nine in the morning the rain having somewhat diminished, the 1st corps put-itself in motion and placed itself with the left on the road to Brussels, and opposite the village of Mount St. John, which opposed the centre of the enemy's junction. The second corps leaned its right upon the road to Brussels, and its left upon a small
wood within cannon shot of the English | of leading an attack upon the village of Mont St. Jean, from which he expected decisive success: but by a movement of impatience so frequent in our military annals, and which has often been so fatal to us, the cavalry of reserve having perceived a retrograde movement made by the English to shelter themselves from our batteries, from which they had suffered so much, crowned the heights of Mont St. Jean, and charged the infantry. This movement, which made in time, and sup. ported by the reserves, ought to have decided the day, made in an isolated manner, and before affairs on the right were terminated, became fatal.
army. The cuirassiers were in reserve behind, and the guards in reserve upon the heights. The 6th corps, with the cavalry of General D'Aumont, under the orders of Count Lobau was destined to proceed in rear of our right to oppose a Prussian corps which appeared to have escaped Marshal Grouchy, and to intend to fall upon our right flank, an intention which had been made known to us by our reports, and by a letter from a Prussian General taken by our light troops.
The troops were full of ardour. We estimated the force of the English army at 80,000 men. We supposed that a Prussian corps which might be in line towards the right might be 15,000 men. The enemy's force then was upwards of 90,000-our's less numerous.
At noon, all the preparations being terminated, Prince Jerome, commanding a division of the 2d corps, and destined to form the extreme left of it, bore upon the wood of which the enemy occupied a part. The cannonade began. The enemy supported with 30 pieces of cannon the troops he had sent to keep the wood. We made also on our side dispositions of artillery. At one o'clock Prince Jerome was master of all the wood, and the whole English army fell behind a curtain. Count d'Erlon then attacked the village of Mont St. Jean, and supported his attack with 80 pieces of cannon, which must have occasioned great loss to the English army. All the efforts were upon the Plateau. A brigade of the 1st division of Count d' Erlon took the village of Mont St. Jean; a second brigade was charged by a corps of English cavalry; which occasioned it much loss. A the same moment a division of English cavalry charged the battery of Count d'Erlon by its right, and disorganised several pieces; but the cuirassiers of General Milhaud charged that division, three regiments of which were broken and cut up.
It was three in the afternoon. The Emperor made the guard advance to place it in the plain upon the ground which the 1st corps had occupied at the outset of the battle. This corps was already in advance. The Prussian division, whose movement had been foreseen, then engaged with the light troops of Count Lobau, spreading its force upon our whole right flank. It was expedient, before undertaking anyhing elsewhere, to wait for the event of that attack. Hence, all the measures of reserve were ready to succour Count Lobau and overwhelm the Prussian corps, when it should have advanced. ..That done, the Emperor had the design
Having no means to countermand it, the enemy shewing several masses of cavalry and infantry, and his two divisions of cuirassiers being engaged, all our cavalry ran at the same moment to support their comrades. There for three hours numerous charges were made, which enabled us to penetrate several squares, and to take some standards of the light infantry, an advantage out of proportion to the loss which our cavalry experienced by the grape shot and musket firing. It was impossible to dispose of our reserves of infantry until we had repulsed the flank attack of the Prussian corps. This attack still was prolonged, and perpendicularly upon our right flank. The Emperor sent thither General Duhesme with the young guard and several battalions of reserve. The enemy was kept in check, repulsed and fell back-he had exhausted his forces, and we had nothing more to fear. It is this moment that was indicated for an attack upon the centre of the enemy. As the cuirassiers suffered by the grape shot, we sent four battalions of the middle guard to protect the cuirassiers, keep the positions, and, if possible, disengage and draw back into the plain a part of our cavalry.
Two other battalions were sent to keep themselves en potence upon the extreme left of the division, which had manœuvred upon our flanks, in order not to have any uneasiness on that side-the rest was disposed in reserve apart to occupy the potence in the rear of Mont St. Jean, part upon the plateau in the rear of the field of battle, which formed our reserve position.
In this state of affairs the battle was gained; we occupied all the positions which the enemy occupied at the outset of the battle; our cavalry having been too soon and too ill employed, we could no longer hope for decisive success. But Marshal Grouchy, having learned the movements of the Prussian corps marched upon the rear of that corps, which insured us a