Imatges de pÓgina

gant and salubrious bitters of our Materia and N. West coast of this Island; it comMedica has hitherto remained a non de-menced on the 25th ult, and continued till script-and that a most laudable attempt the following morning, the wind blowing to fulfil this desideratum was made by Dr. through the night with a resistless fury; Berry of Madras so far back as 1806; but as far as we have yet learned its ruinous the object was unavoidably defeated by effects have been confined to the line of his plant yielding only .male flowers- coast between Point Pedro and Madram which however he distinctly described, and Kooley Head Land. consigned to the pages of that respectable repository, the Asiatic Researches, vol. x. -Should the subject of this notice happiJy prove a female individual, my utmost wishes will be gratified. Similar means will be adopted to communicate to the public its Botanical description, with the requisite drawings to illustrate it.

At Point Pedro it set in by a strong gale of wind from the north west, which afterwards shifted to the north east and increased in violence. The Sea rose considerably; and the waves passed the smail custom-house at that station 50 or 60 yards, the roof of which was nearly untiled: -the torrents of rain which fell, aided by the waves of the sea, washing away the greater part of the property contained in the building.

It is but a just tribute of praise to add that the community here, are indebted for this valuable acquisition to His Excellency Don Jose Maria de Castro e Almeida, Governor of Damaun, who with a laudable desire to promote useful pursuits exerted the influence of his high station in procuring at the request of a Medical Gentleman of this Presidency, a box full of fresh roots from Mozambique, their indigenous soil;derable. whence after a long passage they reached Damaun on the 11th inst. and their present perfect preservation is a striking proof of the cares and attention with which the experiment has been conducted thus far. Your most obedient servant, BOTANO-PHILOS.

Bombay 24th, October 1814.

P. S. The state of the plant this day (24th Oct.) is as follows, one strong shoot 4 feet high-at 2-Sds of its height sending off a side shoot also healthy-at intermediate distances from the origin of the main stem there are three radical tubes of a conical shape-peeping above the soil-and replete with seemingly fresh circulating juices, of a deep yellow colour-and these only retained from flowing by a thin Epidermis.

The soil of the box is composed of a fine sand, which coinciding with that brought with Dr. Berry's plant, affords a presumption of its being it's congenial element.

Lightning: observation on.

In the Decan, nothing is more common than the injury done by lightning, and it is rather singular, that in Bombay it should rarely be attended with the same effects. Can this difference be owing to the multitude of trees on this island, of the palm species, which act as conductors?


Tremendous Hurricane.
December 7, 1814.
We are sorry to announce a tremendous
Hurricane having taken place off the N.

Several shocks of au Earthquake were felt, the wind blew furiously, but there was no thunder-storm, a circumstance uncommon in this country. Thousands of trees were torn up by the roots, and the loss to the inhabitants will be very consi⚫

At Kaits the sea also made great inroads; and throughout the district of Jaffna, the effects of the storm will long be felt by the natives, in the loss of their palmira and cocoa-nut trees, and in the damage done to their Paddy fields, many of which were overflowed by the sea water. At Pooneyru, the storm was equally severe. The greatest damage, however, appears to have been done at Werteltivo where the sea broke in and washed down nearly the whole village, including the Magistrate's house and office: two lives were lost by the falling of the houses, and about 600 head of cattle were swept away.

The sea water stood two feet high in the house of Mr. Theille.

At Manar, the storm also was felt in it's greatest fury, most of the houses in the fort were unroofed, as were the Grain Godown and other Bankshals in the Pettah, and nearly all the mud tenements of the na tives levelled with the ground: the Collector's house was partly unroofed and the doors blown off, the water stood ankle deep in every room. We regret to learn that many lives have been lost: a Dhony from Chilaw with seed Paddy on board belonging to Government has been stranded near the south bar, and out of her crew which consisted of eight persons, only one escaped a watery grave. Almost every tree has been blown down, many of which had stood for fifty years. The storm commenced in the north west quarter, and gra dually came round to the south-west. Several Dhonies sunk at their anchors

opposite the Fort, and many of the crews | Seringapatam had sailed from London in are stated to be missing, in fact, nothing March 1812, on a whaling voyage to the withstood the violence of the gale. The Coast of Peru; on which coast she capfour boats which convey the mail between tured the ship Edward, of Nantucket, the coast and Ceylon were all at Tallama-laden with 1200 barrels of oil, and sent naar, and are likewise lost. The ravages her a prize to England; shortly afterof the storm which is stated to have been wards the Seringa patam was taken by the more violent than any remembered by the Essex American frigate off the Gallipagoes oldest inhabitants in Ceylon, appear to Islands, nearly about the time that the have extended throughout the whole of Essex captured the New Zealander and this District with the most disastrous con- the Charlton whalers; these ships sequences. were all carried by the Essex, into Bankes's Cove, and left there by that frigate, which proceeded on another cruise; from which she returned, having captured the Sir Andrew Hammond, and brought her also into Bankes's Cove-That in a little time the Seringapatam, with the other captured ships, were carried to the Marquesas Islands, and the seamen continued prisoners there, treated with a cruelty scarcely ever known to have been practised among enlightened nations; that they were wrought in heavy irons, exposed to every privation, and doomed to linger in miserable captivity; but with a spirit peculiar to the sons of Britain, they bore their sufferings with resignation, watching an opportunity to effect their deliverance from their unfeeling tyrants; and having frequently cautiously consulted together for that purpose, were at length happily furnished with an opportunity on the 6th of May last.The Essex was at sea on a cruize, and expected very shortly to return, having been 6 months out; her return would have frustrated all their hopes, and therefore the crisis of deliverance was important; they seized the moment, and what is more honourable to the interests of humanity, effected their object without bloodshed, or other personal violence than what was necessary to secure three Prize-masters, who happened that day to be on board the Seringapatam; our valiant countrymen, fourteen in number, were employed in removing stores from the other captured vessel in that port on board the Seringapatam; and, on a signal given, they rushed upon the Prize masters, whom they suddenly secured and bound, and having also overpowered two other men, four out of the fourteen got into the hoat, repaired directly with extreme caution on board the Greenwich (another captured vessel), and rushing into the cabin, secured all the firearmis, ammunition, and weapons, and having spiked the guns, returned to the Seringapatam, where they lost no time. other than what was necessary to dispatch a small party on shore to spike the fort guns, and bring off such ammunition as they could procure. Having effected this

Houses in every direction are blown down-tanks burst-trees of all descriptions torn up and destroyed. All the boats between Arippo and Manaar are lost.

The storm appears to have extended not far to the southward of Manaar, as several dhonies have a ved there which rode out the gale at Condatchy and Maichicatté without injury.

In a garden near Manaar containing 500 cocoa-nut trees only fifteen remain standing: at Talamanaar, upwards of 2,000 palmira trees are blown down.

This day there are uine coast mails due. At Delft Island, all the houses except the Government store-houses are blown down. The hemp crop is destroyed; that in store is spoiled by the salt water. The wheat crop has sustained great injury. The inhabitants have lost almost all their goats and sheep, with 4,000 palmira trees. At the Two Brothers Island, 360 head of cattle are lost; and all the tanks and wells are filled with salt water and sand. The greatest consternation prevails there.

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. Lord Somerset has issued a Proclamation, admitting all East India Goods to entry for exportation: on the same terms with those of the warehousing system at home.

It is said, that the generality of the settlers at the Cape, were much averse to the Colony being ceded to the Dutch! As a proof of this, when the report of the intended transfer was made known, a great fall took place in the value of landed property and houses.

NEW SOUTH WALES. AMERICAN CAPTURE RETAKEN. Extract of a letter from Sydney. July 2, 1814.-Yesterday evening the Seringapatan of Loudon, whaler, arrived in this Port, from the Marquesas Islands, having been re-captured by 14 men at that place, under circumstances of a very singular nature, and affording a most praiseworthy instance of what bravery and resofution, governed by prudence and discretion, can accomplish. It seems the

son yesterday. The Seringapatam, as the depot of all the stores, was a valuable object for them to become possessed of, and they were thus enabled, by Divine Providence, to effect their escape from that dreadful state of captivity to which their misfortunes had temporarily consigned them.

object, and returned on board-they cut | convicts, and others. When the crop is the cable, and providentially aided by a plentiful, the government fixes a maximum, light favourable breeze, escaped from the and that at so low a rate, that the little farport; and having touched at Otaheite on mer cannot afford to seed his ground the their passage, landed safely in Port Jack-ensuing year; at present, wheat is 157 per bushel, and last year only 77; now, it is impossible to grow it here, on account of the high price of labour, for less than 107; last year, the pigs were fed with wheat, because the government refused it, and now it has been obliged to send to India for a supply. If nothing interferes, next year will be an over grown supply, as the high price last year enabled the people to cultivate their lands.

The settlement of Van Diemen's land comprising Port Dalrymple, and the Derwent, is in a most unhappy state; a very considerable number of convicts, have abconded from government, and their employers, and I am sorry to say, that some persons of respectable families, having involved themselves in great pecuniary difficulties, have taken the unhappy step of uniting themselves to those desperadoes; they frequently drive off whole herds of cattle and flocks of sheep, in one instance 300: nor does there appear any prospect of their being reduced to order at present. The government bas issued a proclamation, of fering free pardon to all who surrender themselves within a given time, murderers alone excepted. In our part of the settlement we are so circumstanced by nature, that such an event could not take place; the forests afford no provision, nor places of possible refuge for more than a few days. Van Diemen's land on the contrary abounds in Kangaroo, Emu, &c. outskirts of one of our districts called Appin, has been rather annoyed by the inhabitants of the Blue Mountains, but generally speaking, the natives are inoffensive. OTAHEITE.


The island chosen by Capt. Porter of the Essex, as his depot, was Nooeroh; of whose inhabitants he had killed fifty in a skirmish. He built a house on shore and compelled his prisoners to erect a stone wall round it. Several whaling ships were captured by this frigate. The severities exercised by Capt. Porter over his people were very great: running the gauntlet, was frequent. The sailors therefore condemued, and almost hated, their officers, generally. The lash was also, frequently employed on their prisoners.


"July 16th 1814.-Money is very scarce here at present, and will continue to be so probably for some time. A scarcity of grain was dreaded several months ago; and the Governor in consequence wrote to India for wheat, of the intended shipment of which the Campbell Mc Quarrie has brought advices. This has proved a very unfortunate circumstance for the settlers; as orders have in consequence been already issued, to receive no more grain from them into the public stores; so that the only money in circulation, is that is sued for the pay, &c. of the troops, which since the departure of the 75d Regiment, has been but a very trifling sum indeed.

We have experienced lately the most alarming want of rain: immense numbers of cattle and sheep have died in consequence. From fifty to a hundred head a day for a considerable time, were found lying dead. Rain in small showers, has ince succeeded.

I must explain to you what must appear very mysterious; at one time you hear of our abundant crops of grain, and immediately after, that the country is in an alarming state of starvation; this arises from the narrow policy of our government, which is the principal parchaser of grain, for the purpose of feeding the troops,and victualling

Comp. Li Pan. vol. IX. p. 665. vol. XV. p. $36. 673.

Letter in English from King Pomarree.

letter received by Captain Walker, of the The following is the verbatim copy of a Governor Macquarie, from King Pomarre, while he lay at Otaheite. We have had several previous occasions to exhibit to the public view specimens of the editorial talent of this friendly Prince; but, nevertheless, under circumstances which could not possibly fail to induce the belief that he was merely the copyist of language written for him by his attentive friends of the Missionary Establishment. It now, however, happens otherwise; for it is certain that when he wrote the letter subjoined, and giving rise to these remarks, the Missionaries were at the Island of Eimao, considerably distant from Otaheite.

No white whatever was near him when he | ill disposed, and intended attacking the wrote it, and Captain Walker, from a com- ship next day. Captain J. Thorn affected bination of circumstances that set the fact to disbelieve this piece of news, and even when the savages came next morning in beyond dispute or doubt, sanctions the positive affirmation that the entire letter is great numbers, it was only at the pressing remonstrance of Mr. M'Kay, that he orproduced by the head and hand of Pomarre. dered seven aloft to loosen the sails. In and of himself alone. It is as follows:the mean time, about fifty Indians were "Sir, on board, who expermitted to come changed a number of sea otter skins for blankets and knives; the former they threw into their canoes as soon as received, but

By your request, I have enquired for some people to go in the Macquarie with you; but as it is impossible for me to know the true sentiments of their minds, and as those I might recommend to you, although my bosom friends, they might still prove treacherous to you, therefore, I think it best for you to take the men you brought from Emao; but as for Vano, I think you have done well in not taking him, as I know him to be of a bad character; but I leave it to you for to discharge him; concerning those men who went to Port Jackson in

the vessel; I know nothing of them; but
this observation I wish to make, they are
just as liable in case of a revolt, as the
greatest enemy you have on board: this I
speak sincerely, wishing you a successful
o, age,
I remain,

Your very humble servant,

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COLUMBIA RIVER: N. W. coast of
Destruction of the American Ship Tonquin.

The following is an account of the singular and melancholy fate of the American ship Tonquin, the crew of which were destroyed by the savages, while on a trading voyage on the coast north of the river Columbia, on Vancouver's island.

secreted the knives.

Every one when armed, moved from the quarter-deck to a different part of the vessel, so that by the time they were ready, in such a manner were they distributed, that at least three savages were opposite every man of the ship, and at a signal given, they rushed on their prey, and, notwithstanding the brave resistance of every individual of the whites, they were

all butchered in a few minutes.

The circumstance has been related in different ways by the natives in the environs of the establishment, but that which carries with it the greatest appearance of truth is as follows :—

The men above, in attempting to descend, lost two of their number, besides one mortally wounded, who, notwithstanding his weakened condition, made good his retreat with the four others to the cabin, where finding a quantity of loaded arms, they fired on their savage assailers through the sky-lights and companion way, which had the effect of clearing the ship in a short time, and long before night these five intrepid sons of America were again in full posession of her.

Whether from want of abilities or strength, supposing themselves unable to take the vessel back to Columbia; on the following morning, the four who were unhurt left her in the long boat, in hopes of regaining the river, wishing to take along with them the wounded person, who refused their offer, saying, that he must die before long, and might as well die in the vessel as elsewhere.

Soon after sunrise she was surrounded by an immense number of Indians with canoes, come for the express purpose of unloading her, but who, from the warm reception they met with the day before, did not seem forward in boarding.

The wounded man shewed himself over the railing, made signal that he was alone, and wanted their assistance; on which some embarked, who, finding what he said was true, spoke to their people, who were not any longer slow in getting on board, so that in a few seconds the deck was considerably thronged, and they proceeded to undo the hatches without cereNo sooner were they completely engaged in this, than the only survivor of the crew descended into the cabin, and set

That vessel, after landing the cargo intended for Astoria, departed on a trading voyage to the coast of Columbia river, with a company, including Officers, of twenty-three men, and proceeded about 400 miles along the sea-board, when they stopped on Vancouver's island, at a place called Woody-point, inhabited by a powerful nation, called Wake-a-ninshes. These people came on board to barter their furs for merchandize, and conducted themselves in the most friendly manner during the first day; but in the same evening information was brought on board by an In-mony. dian whom the Officers had as interpreter, that the tribe where they then lay were

fire to the magazine, containing nearly nine thousand pounds of gunpowder, which in an instant blew the vessel and every one on board to atoms.

The minute quantity of lime found in this substance was not sufficient to account for its fusibility: it was therefore reasonable to expect the presence of a fixed alkali in it; and on fusing some of it with three times its weight of boracic acid, and treating the mass with nitric acid and carbonate of ammonia, and afterwards distill

The nation acknowledge their having lost nearly one hundred warriors, besides, a vast number of wounded by the explosion, who were in canoes round the ship. The four men who set off in the longing sulphuric acid from it, I procured from it sulphate of soda; which proves that it was a frit made by means of soda, and coloured with oxide of copper.

boat were, two or three days after, driven ashore in a gale, and massacred by the natives.

The undiluted colour in its form of frit is used for ornamenting some of the mouldings detached from the ceilings of the chambers in the baths of Titus: and the walls of one chamber between the compartments of red marble, bear proofs of having been covered with this frit, and retain a considerable quantity of it.

There is every reason to believe that this is the colour described by Theophrastus as discovered by an Egyptian king*; and of which the manufactory is said to have been anciently established at Alexandria.


[Resumed from page 628.]

IV. Of the Blue Colours of the Antients. Different shades of blue are used in the different apartments of the baths of Titus, and several very fine blues exist in the mixture of colours to which I have referred in the last two sections.

Vitruvius speaks of it, under the name of cæruleum †, as the colour used commonly in painting chambers, and states, that it the method of fabricating it was brought was made in his time at Puzzuoli, where from Egypt by Vestorius; he gives the method of preparing it by heating strongly together sand, flos nitrit, and filings of


Pliny mentions other blues, which he of Egypt, Scythia, and Cyprus. These nacalls species of sand (arena) from the mines tural blues, there is reason to believe, were different preparations of lapis lazuli, and of

the blue carbonates and arseniates of copper. hy-Indian blue, which the first author states Both Pliny and Vitruvius speak of the to be combustible, and which was evidently a species of indigo.

I have examined several blues in the fragments of fresco painting from the ruins near the monument of Caius Cestius. In a

deep blue approaching in tint to indigo, I found a little carbonate of copper, but the basis of this colour was the frit before de


These blues are pale or darker, according as they contain larger or smaller quantities of carbonate of lime; but when this carbonate of lime is dissolved by acids, they present the same body colour, a very fine blue powder, similar to the best smalt, or to ultramarine, rough to the touch, and which does not lose its colour by being heated to redness; but which becomes agglutinated and semifused at a white heat.

This blue I found was little acted on by acids. Nitro-muriatic acid by being long boiled upon it gained, however, a slight tint of yellow, and afforded proofs of the presence of oxide of copper.

A quantity of the colour was fused for half an hour with twice its weight of drate of potassa; the mass, which was blueish green, was treated by muriatic acid in the manner usually employed for the analysis of siliceous stones, when it afforded a quantity of silica equal to more than 3-5ths of its weight. The colouring matter readily dissolved in solution of ammonia, to which it gave a bright blue tint, and it proved to be oxyde of copper. The residuum afforded a considerable quantity of alumine, and a small quantity of lime.

Amongst some rubbish that had been collected in one of the chambers of the baths of Titus, I found several large lumps of a deep blue frit, which when powdered and mixed with chalk produced colours exactly the same as those used in the baths, and which when submitted to chemical tests were found to be the same in composition.

The blues in the Nozze Aldobrandine, from their resisting the action of acids, and from the effects of fire, I am inclined to consider as composed of the Alexandrian or Puzzuoli blue.

In an excavation made at Pompeii, in

* De Lapidibus, sect. xcviii.
† Lib. vii. cap. 11.

This identifies the mtrum of the an cients with carbonate of soda.

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