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the artists, say they, are deceived into this new species of excess. Whether this cause be the real cause, or whether it be sufficient in itself, to account for the effect complained of presume not to judge: but, if any imvements have really been made in the pre aration of colours, our colourmen will not fail to take the hint, and maintain their reputation in their Art.
We should rather attribute this false and glaring effect to a perverted taste among the artists; for, the same authority informs us, that in the generality of modern pictures, the principal characters, the chiefs, with their attendants, and their guards, in whatever situation the point of the story may require, always display such shewy colours in the clothing, such beautiful stuffs, &c. that distinction of rank is totally confounded. Never are their vestments suffered to exhibit signs of age, or of service; never are they worn, or faded; ueither do they lose their beauty or splendour, in the shade, or iu the backgrounds. Not the inhabitants of a palace only, but the labourer with his team, the peasant in his hut, the traveller on whatever road, appear-without exception-all appear in new suits-in clothes fresh from the hand of the taylor, whether introduced into his tory, common life, or landscape. The mention of this gross impropriety is caution sufficient to our artists to avoid it.
Literary Labours: Pedestrianism.
M. Thiebaut de Berneaud, one of the librarians at theMazarine Library, has been during several years employed in bringing forward a translation of the work of Theophrastus, on the History of Plants He has used whatever MSS. of reputation he could obtain access to; and to render his labours more correct, he has travelled en foot, in Italy, not less than seven years, in different places; during which pedestrian excursions, he has collected many valuable additions to the stores of his knowledge In fact, this appears to be at the same time a spirited method of doing justice to a botanical subject; and the most promising of any, to obtain correct ideas in reference to the labours of antiquity, aided by the force of modern system, and recent discoveries.
M. Debure, the bookseller, at Paris, has lately published, in two volumes, octavo, L'Egypte sous les Pharaons, &c. Egypt under the Pharoahs, or Researches into the Geography, Religion, Language, Writings, and History of Egypt, before the invasion of Cambyses; by M. Champollion, jun. of Grenoble. These two volumes contaiu only the geography, the others are in progress. The author has deeply studied the Coptic or Egyptian language; and has
availed himself of all the Coptic MSS. in the Royal Library at Paris. The work, when complete, is expected to be replete with uncommon erudition.
M. Gosselin's work on the systematic and positive Geography of the Ancients, is completed in two large quartos, with forty maps and plans.
Jahrbuch der Staatsarzneikunde, &e.— Annals of legal Medicine, published by J. H. Kopp. The sixth year of publication. This work appears yearly, and contains matter both curious and interesting. It is divided into two principal parts, one of them allotted to the preservation of such Essays as the Author deems worthy of his purpose; the other presents the history of Medicine, and its progress as a Science. The whole is arranged under four divisions: Medical Organization; Medical Police; Veterinary Police; and legal regulations of Medicine.
This volume contains an interesting Memoir on Medical Police; and on the influence of leading men (especially Physician to Sovereigns,) on the Medical organization of a country, including also the duties of government on the subject: this is by M. de Wedekind, first Physician to the Grand Duke of Hesse.
The Volume concludes with notices of discoveries, more or less interesting, made in the Medical Art, during the year 1818.
The bookseller Baumgaertner, at Leipsic, announces a German Encyclopedia, or complete Dictionary of arts and sciences; the basis of which is professedly Nicholson's British Encyclopedia. Many of the German literati have associated to render this work as suitable as possible to their countrymen, and to enrich it with much additional matter. The work will be accompanied by a great number of plates, and will appear successively in volumes.
His Holiness the Patriarch of Constantinople (Kyrillos, a native of Adrianople) formerly Archbishop of Iconium, has published at Vienna, under the superintendance of the Archimandrite Anthimos Gazi, a large map of Iconium, laid down by himself. This map is on a large scale, and contains the ancient as well as modern Dames of places. His Holiness, besides a profound acquaintance with the language, geography, and antiquities of Greece, speaks several other languages.
The society mentioned in our last, called Helleniki Hetairia tôn Philomousôn, already contains many learned members, Greeks and Europeans. The Hon. Mr. North has
been unanimously named the first President of this rising institution. Many ecclesiastics have also enrolled themselves among the members, and support the interests of the society with zeal. The sittings at Athens are held weekly, in a large monastery, situated in one of the handsomest parts of the town, the superior of which (o Hegou- | menos is reckoned among the sincerest friends to the muses.
In Sexto semper infelix fuit Roma. The allusions it included extended from Tarquin the Sixth to Pope Pius the Sixth, the Pontiff' then reigning on the Apostoli. cal throne; to whom it was more immedi ately addressed.
The Abbé Carroni has published his Observations made during a journey in Transylvania; with his remarks on the Wallachians and the Bohemians (gypsies,)
Dr. Dyonisius Pirro, of Thessaly, has pub-including also considerations on the dialects lished a new Hydrographical Chart, entitled and languages of those people; in which he Possiton, or Neptune. It is in the Greek supports the opinion of writers who derive and French languages, and represents the the Wallachian from the latin, and that Black Sea, the Archipelago, the Adriatic, of the Bohemians (gypsies) as a dialect from the Mediterranean, the Western Coasts of Hindoostan. His volume is entitled Car Europe, England, and the Atlantic, to roni in Daria. Mie Osservazioni locali, natiothe coast of America. An explanatory nali, &c. 1 vol. 8vo. Milan. memoir accompanies it.
M. Petrouzopaulo, of Leucadia, a learned patriot, has lately published at Florence a work on the Antiquities and History of the Leucadian Islands, so famous among the ancients. He possesses a cabinet of medals, rich as those struck at Leucadia, also a considerable number of inscriptions.
A new Journal in the Hungarian language in Quarto commenced with the year 1814. It is published weekly at Vienna, and treats on moral and domestic economy. It is called Xarai gazda, the Patriotic Economist; and justifies its title by its contents. It is conducted by M. Fr. Petke de Kis Szanto.
Sig. Cancellari, one of the most learned Antiquaries of Rome, published some time ago a very curious work, which he entitled Le Sette Cose fatali di Romu Antica: the Seven things fatal to Ancient Rome. They are, he says, 1. the needle of the Mother of the Gods. 2. The Quadriga (or chariot of four horses) of Creta de Veienti. 3. the Ashes of Orestes. 4. the Sceptre of Priam, 5. the Veil of Ilium. 6. the Sacred Shields. 7. the Palladium. Sig. C. also illustrates three other things fatal to Troy; as, the death of Troilus, grandson of King Priam; with the introduction of the wooden horse, by the Scean gate; also, the carrying away of the white horses of Rhesus, king of Thrace, with the bow and arrows left by Hercules with Philoctetes. An explication of the mysterious powers attributed to the Bambers three and seven, concludes the work.
Whether there be any thing ominous in these numbers, we pretend not to say; but we remember a Pasquinade current in Rome, which found similar misfortunes in the number Six. It was in these words:
The Sggio di Poesie, or Attempts at 1 vol. 8vo. are spoken of as being among Poetry, by Guilio Geronino, of Naples, the best Odes and Poems, chiefly Anacre ontic, which have appeared in Modern italy. The Odes of the Abbé Giovanni Melli, one of the most distinguished Poets of Sicily, are added to those of Sig. Gerouno.
The Academy of the Italian language and literature, at Florence, has been emplayed during some years in publishing or patronizing various works relative to the improvement, or perfecting, of the Italian tongue. One of the principal is entitled Elenco di Alcune Parole oggidi frequente mente in use, lequali non sono ne'vocabulari Italiani. I vol. 8vo. Milan.
The first volume of a general history of the literature of Poland, by Felix Bentkowski, has been lately published at Warsaw. The work is preceded by au introduction, in which the State of Literature in Poland is considered, as well generally, as more particularly.
The history is divided into periods, in the first section; and describes the most Fancient documents known to be extant in the Polish language, including notices of authors who have written in this language. The second section is devoted to the history of Poetry and Eloquence. The second volume will contain the history of literature, of philosophy, of jurisprudence, of mathematical studies, of natural history, natural philosophy, &c. We are glad to see Poland raising her head on the subject of Literature; it is truly honourable to the author who attempts the task, and to his country which furnishes the means and materials.
A map of the seat of war in the years 1815. 1814, on two sheets, is in a forward state of preparation by the best engravers
varians, were at length attacked by a corps of the French army, commanded by Marshal Lefevre, who entered Inspruck, May 19, 1809, but was obliged by a defeat he suffered on Mount Isel, on the 29th, to rehis-treat and after several bloody actions to evacuate the Tyrol, except the fortress of Kuffstein.
of Berlin. Each sheet is three feet two inches high, by two feet eight inches wide. It will contain representations of all the battles, actions, sieges, &c. from the beginning of the war to the affair at Paris. The plates will be accompanied by an torical commentary in two volumes octavo. The text will be translated, and published at the same time in English and French. The best edition will be printed on English paper; but there will be a cheaper edition on German paper, at half the price of the former, or two Frederics
History of the War in the Tyrol. When the inhabitants of the Tyrol resisted the aggressions of the French, and defended their country, as became freemen, some years ago, our countrymen throughout Britain, were deeply interested in their favour. The history of that war has lately been published at Berlin, by J. L. S. Batholdy, in 1. vol. 8vo. under the title of Der Krieg der Tyroler, &c. The History of the Tyrolese War. The two first chapters comprise a description of the geographical situation, the productions, the commerce, and the constitution of the Tyrol: including the character, manners, and customs of the inhabitants, with explanation of the influence of these circumstances in the insurectional war.
It was at the battle on Mount Isel, that André Hofer fought in person in the midst of the throng, while his two companions in arms, Spekbacher, and the Capuchin Haspinger, distinguished themselves by the greatest intrepidity. Before the battle the Capuchin performed mass, and then put himself at the head of his troops. The action lasted with incredible fury from six o'clock in the morning, till very far into the following night.
The chiefs were mostly peasants possessed of some property, and following the trade of inn-keeper, or publican, by which calling, they became acquainted with many Few among among their countrymen. them could read and write.
The Tyrol being relieved from the presence of the enemy by the retreat of Marshall Lefevre, a new army of French and Bavarians, attempted an invasion, and the combats began to assume the character of rage and fury, when the news was received of the peace concluded at Vieuna, by which Austria renounced the Tyrol. This threw the Tyrolese into utter consternation: yet their chiefs, informed, or uninformed, continued their warlike operations, The Capuchin Haspinger proposed even to invade the country around Salzburgh, to proclaim an
The most conspicuous was André Hofer, publican in the valley of Passeyk, Joseph Spekbacher, an Agriculturist of Rynn, and Haspinger, a Capuchin brother.
The object of the insurrection was to avoid becoming subject to the dominion of Bavaria, and to maintain the former relation of the country with Austria, which power, sent the Marquis de Chasteler to direct the operations, and organize the population. This was extremely difficult; and to form them into battalions was scarcely possible; these independent marks men were much more strongly inclined to go together in troops of their own forma tion, and to fight in straggling parties, conducted by their own inclinations, and by chiefs of their own choosing.
insurrection, and to extend their views by Carinthia, and Styria, to the gates of Vienna. These offensive operations of the three chiefs, notwithstanding the peace, were deemed rebellion, and caused their ruin. They were out-lawed, and obliged to seek security in flight. Hofer withdrew to the mountains, where he was discovered by a party of French, was taken to Mantua, and there was shot. He had received from Austria the title of Commander-in-Chief in the Tyrol; a chain of gold with the medal of honour, and the sum of 3,000 ducats for his operations. Of the two other chiefs, Spekbacher contrived, after incredible labours and dangers, to arrive safe at Vienna; where he subsisted on the produce of a small landed property. As to the Capuchin, not choosing to trust to the anmnesty proclaimed by the French, and pursued by the reproaches of the peasants who accused him of abandoning them, he escaped in November 1810, into Italy, and from thence to Vienna; where he obtained a small pension.
To this History several documents are annexed, as letters, orders issued by Hofer, The most deserving of notice is an &c. extract from the reports concerning the colony of Koenigsgrade, founded on the frontiers of Turkey, as a residence for such
The Bavarians, repulsed at first, returned with greater force, and avenged themselves in the most dreadful mauner. The Austrian Ceneral was defeated, and obliged by the events of the war in Italy to abandon the Tyrol.
The Tyrolese who had repulsed the Ba
Sermon remarkably popular-if judged by its
The seventh edition of a Sermon preached at Cadiz, by Father Blasius Ostolaza, has issued from the Spanish press! Whether this necessity for such almost unprecedented exertions to supply the public demand be owing to the intrinsic excellence of the Rev. Father's composition, to the energy of his language, or to the interest involved in his subject; the world, perhaps, will be better able to judge after the fury of perusal is. somewhat cooled. If all sermons pub lished in Spain are read with equal avidity -what a wonderful idea does this simple fact afford of the piety of the Peninsula! And truly the Spanish nation ought to be pious, if it bears any proportion to the exuberant piety of their Sovereign-on which, the Reverend Father Blasius Ostolaza enlarges, with wonderful delight, and more than miraculous unction. He describes the occupation of Ferdinand VII. at Valentia.-That Sovereign, he informs us, passed a part of the morning in prayers, confessions, and exercises of piety.-Then he directed his devotion to the embroidering of a silk gown and petticoat to adorn the image of the Holy Virgin!!! His devotion did not go unrewarded; for falling asleep, after the fatigue of his labours, the Virgin appeared to him in a dream,described herself as highly gratified by his religious
attentions; and promised him a speedy reestablishment on his throne! Father Blasius Ostolaza, narrates further, that the heavenly Virgin was not without earthly rivals; for certain French demoiselles-Parisians, beyond all doubt or denialnot of the most devout description, nor intent on the good of the church, were suspected by the pious father of meditating an ungodly effect of their charms on the saintly monarch. Happily the eagle-eyed protector in spirituals of this exemplary Sovereign, discovered the snare-repelled him from the toils-promptly administered spiritual assistance, and kept his pupil faithful to the Queen of Heaven!!!
It is but fair that in a sermon preached and published to acquaint the Spaniards with the religious propensities of their King, the good father who preached the sermon, and who presided so felicitiously over the royal conscience, should say something of himself: what an honour is such a man to his Convent! to his Order !—Well, we do not wonder-nor the reader, by this time, that his sermon has reached the SEVENTH edition. It cannot be as a satire that this performance is so popular, whatever some may pretend to fancy-for the Reverend Father Blasius Ostolaza, is beyond denial, Confessor and Director to Ferdinand VII.; and these particulars are given as proofs of piety, in a sermou, preached and published by him ex officio.
M. Llorente presented, soon after the abolition of the Inquisition in 1808, a Memoir to the Royal Academy of History in Madrid, which was printed by that Institution under the title of "Memoria Historica sobre qual ha sido l'opinion nacional de Espagna, acerca del tribunal de la Inquisicion." This publication gave such general satisfaction, that all the papers and documents in the Archives of the Inquisition were entrusted to the author, for a work, which he had undertaken, "Annals of the Inquisition of Spain," in which he had collected a great number of curious facts, that had been either unnoticed or misrepresented. The first volume was printed in 1812, and the second in 1813. But the recent changes in Spain, though conducive to the peace of that country in general, have, unfortunately for the cause of freedom, justice, and humanity, restored the Inquisition, and opposed the publication of the work. The author, obliged to change his plan, proposes to write his History in French, and to publish it in Paris. He will now be at liberty to add a considerable number of facts and observations, which it would have been impolitic to insert in his original work, in the Spanish language.
and the illumination was more brilliant than could have been anticipated towards the close of the day, when squally appear ances to the Eastward, and a partial fall of
BRITISH SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA. rain threatened to render another postpone
ment necessary. *
THE first place is certainly due to the rejoicings in this distant part of the world, on account of the peace agreed to, and established in Europe. What extensive consequences have attended that beneficent and humane proceeding!
The 12th of August, being the Prince Regent's birth-day, was fixed on, by general consent, in most places, as well as by Puppet-shows, and every kind of native the Government, for celebrating this happycing, singing, juggling, racing, tumbling, exhibitions were prepared; such as dan
The anniversary was observed with the regular formalities. The troops were reviewed, &c. &c. in the evening a grand entertainment, &c. but the most novel, and most distinguishing attractions, were the illuminations, which in the principal streets were grand, and in all were general. The weather, was at best, dubious. But the natural masquerade that took place on this occasion, by the intermixture of natives and strangers, Europeans and Hindoos, Castes of every colour and tribe, in carriages of all constructions, and in all possible diversities of appearance, deserves particular attention.
The illuminations were partially renewed on the Saturday.
the British inhabitants determined to demonstrate their joy and their loyalty on the same occasion, and on the same day: their arrangements partook still more of the nature of the country in which they were displayed. All classes repaired to the town, where,
hunting, &c. The tip top performers of each class were selected, and were in preparation for "the great, the important day."
erected for the occasion, and fitted to accomA magnificent and spacious Pendaul modate 10,000 people, was decorated in the most superb manner in its interior; the achievements of the heroes of the Purana were displayed, with the characters as big as life; and even Ravanan was obliged "to trip behind the victor's chariot." The mul titudes that attended, fully justified the expence of this noble erection.
in Tanjore and other parts, performed feats The celebrated Subàbadie șo long known of strength and skill scarcely to be surpassed. He successively balanced upon his chin and his teeth, palankeens, cofs, ladders, a bamboo, 50 feet long, and two ploughs at a time:-the oxen, however, were not attached to them.
Soaped pigs, foot races, &c. &c. followed. until dark, when all at once, (as if by ma
During the whole of the evening, the streets exhibited a most bustling scene, in which all classes of Europeans were min gled with the crowds of natives, who gagic) the Pendaul was illuminated with thered from every quarter to feast their eyes on the splendid exhibition. Their carriages, buggies, or palankeens conveyed many through every street where there were objects to attract particular attention, while others preferred walking at times, in order to examine more fully the objects which presented themselves to their view. The flight of rockets and other fireworks served to diversify the general exhibition, but these were not so general or numerous as to fix particular attention. The whole proceedings of the evening were more auimated than was perhaps to have been expected, from the delay that had taken place since the arrival of the intelligence;
thousands of lights.
The son of Subàbadie disguised as a dancing woman, danced on the edges of two hundred swords, the extreme sharpness of which was satisfactorily ascertained by the company. This surprising feat he performed with cousiderable grace and activity. As the clock struck a curtain which had hitherto appeared in front was drawn up, and displayed five beautiful transparencies to an admiring crowdPeace with her olive branch in one hand, and a crown of laurel in the other, was extending her arm to crown the hero, who had assisted in bringing her to the shores