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provinces, apportioning the imposts among themselves, had sometimes a balance in their favour: this they lent to a member, to half the value of his land, at an interest of 4 per cent. In case of failure, the states seized the land. The amount of this paper in circulation might be about 25 millions of thalers (4,000,000l. sterling.) - The French armies forced the proprietors of these lands to grant securities on this property to the very uttermost; and beyond the uttermost; for, had these invaders swept away all that was found on the premises, the soil would have remained; whereas they exacted obligations secured on this property, to such excess, that they lost more than 60 per cent. of their value, though resting on landed estates; and thus what was instituted for relief of the proprietary, became its most intolerable burden.
its parts, was absolutely exhausted. Every | province also, contemplated by itself, was overwhelmed by debts contracted on its own credit: and the institutions originally intended for its advantage, became means of its deeper depression.
The Bank was founded in 1765, by Frederic II. who granted it eight millions of thalers (about 1 millions of pounds sterling) as the basis of its operations :these were repaid to his successor Frederic William II. In 1806 the Bank had
In activity (thalers) 39,964,909 Passive S0,029,820
At the approach of the French Armies, the coffers of the Bank were carried off to Konigsberg and part of their contents were lent to the Emperor of Russia, to meet that short campaign which preceded
the Peace of Tilsit.
SOCIETY OF MARITIME COMMERCE.
This also is a creation of Frederic II. It was intended to participate in the profits arising from the sale of salt, furnished by the Salt Mines of Wieliska; then entirely the property of Austria.
In spite of the treasure stored by Frederic II. his successor left the state involved (in 1804) to the amount of 36,624,419 thalers; (full 6,000,000 sterling). Government paid off 24,788,863 thalers; but this sum 12,936,665 thalers were furnished by the Society of Commerce; so that in 1805 the sum was 24,780,220 thalers. Besides this, the Society furnished great assistance to the various provinces. But the services thus rendered to the State, with the course of political events, reduced the shares of this society from being above par, to below 50 per cent. discount. These have, in the issue, with those of the Bank, been converted into 66 Royal Assignations," bearing interest, and taken in payment for such of the royal domains as were ordered to be sold. There is also an emission of Treasury bills in circulation their amount may be 12 millions of
In some of the Prussian provinces, as in the Marches, (1777), Prussia East (1787)
and West (1797) Silesia (1770) and Pome rania (1781) there exists an association among the proprietors of noble lands, by which the general credit assists in furnish*ing aid to individuals of the body. These
Such (with abbreviations) is the Baron's statement of the finances of Prussia. Under disasters so distressing, it is pardonable in a government to draw closely, and to keep closely drawn, the veil that conceals the enormous burden by which it is overladen. A conjecture may be formed from a glance at the sufferings of the country during eight years. În 1807 and 1808 the territory of this sovereign was covered by the locust swarms which formed the immense armies of France under Napoleon. In 1809, 1810, and 1811, the whole receipt of the country was exhausted, with whatever could be raised (almost, per fas aut nefas) then, again, in 1811, Prussia maintained vast armies, in preparation for the invasion of Russia in
1812; in which year the oppression | even doubted, whether the Government was at its height: and so continued till itself has correct notions on the subject, affairs took a turn, and the whole popu- in all its branches; so great is the numlation, as it were, started up in arms ber of different nations composing this against the general oppressor. At vast dominion, so different are the whatever amount the deficit of these modes of collecting imposts, in such disasterous years be calculated, with various forms are they received, in kind, the waste and destruction, and the non-in compensation, in services, &c. &c. if production consequent on the bitter ne- it be not impossible fairly to value cessity of the time;-the sum total is these, by reference to a general estithe load imposed on the Finances of mate, it is an undertaking of extraor Prussia! dinary difficulty. We must, therefore, content ourselves with approximations, which, after all, can be no other than vague, and in many instances, must be erroneous.
Nevertheless, says our author, the state of Prussia, completely deplorable as it is, is not remediless. There is no miracle beyond the power of a wise and steady administration. Already symptoms of a rapid amelioration are discernible, and a few years economy will soon render to the body of the State a part of its former vigour. The Treasury Bills, which were sunk to 30, are now at 80. The price current of the Territorial Assignations (which we have seen bear 4 per cent. interest) is equal to the French 5 per cent. stocks. No doubt, the successes attendant on the armies of the Allies have contributed to this improvement; but, it is supported by, if it be not rather owing to, the confirmed opinion of the GOOD FAITH of the government. It is one miracle more operated by the talisman of GOOD FAITH. In short, then, the people knew, that main force obliged the government to trespass on their property and patience; but, this force being removed, the good-the will of the government continued as favourable as ever. Hence the rise in the Prussian funds, in the value of landed property, and, no doubt, in that of property of every description. What a comment on the blessings of French connection, and of that Pandora's -the CONTINENTAL SYSTEM!!!
According to writers who have had the best means of information, the revenue of Russia was, in 1789, under Catherine II. about 200 millions of francs: the public service required 180 millions: the surplus was applied to the payment of interest, on debts contracted. The Government never was able to lay up any thing beforehand a war, therefore, always begun with loans. Caleulations published in Germany in 1807 stated the revenue of Russia at nearly Some have 300 millions of francs. since taken it at 450 millions of francs; which implies considerable accessions.
In 1807 the pressure on the Russian finances after the Battle of Eylau, was so severe, that recourse was had, of necessity, to the King of Prussia; although that moand retained little beside Konigsberg, and narch was then exiled from his dominions,
coffers of the Bank. Since that time, Russia has had no opportunity of re-establishing her finances: her conformity to the Continental System, had diminished the amount of her customs, and her revenue, generally the destruction of Moscow, and the ravages of the French invaders augBefore 1787 the box,mented these losses. emission of bank paper was 50 millions of rubles since that time, the quantity issued is so great, that it can only be traced in their progressive discount: which is now 75 per cent.
FINANCES OF RUSSIA.
The Finances of a State are calculations of its money concerns; but, in Russia the money of the country bears little or no proportion to the extent of its territory. It is only in a few leading ports, and on the edges of the Empire, where commerce is in activity, that money is of sufficient importance to grace! a financial budget.It is
Under these circumstances, whatever might be said on the balance of Trade in favour of Russia, on the profit of her mines, &c. does not properly enter into the present subject, as those resources are of necessity slow and gradual; and require the aid of commerce, to become proper subjects of Finance.
If we rightly understand, M. le Baron Bignon was not only in the service of Buonaparte as envoy Extraordinary to different courts on the Continent; but during the short period of confusion in perfection, previous to the second restoration of the King, he held the portfolio of Minister for Foreign Affairs, for France. From this, we infer his attach
ments ;-but, it also confirms our opinion of his opportunities for obtaining information. If any discrepancy between his statements and those of Louis's Ministers should appear, he, not we, must answer for it. He thinks four years might restore France to credit:that twelve years would be necessary for England;-from twelve to fifteen years for Austria ;-for Prussia, about seven or eight-for Russia, he does not venture to conjecture.
But, the British politician after reflecting on the facts stated, will not wonder that his country has been the life and soul of the European alliance. He will see, energy, courage, hatred to oppression, deep sense of honour, with every thing that can move the human mind to action, paralyzed by poverty. He will see absolute penury penetrating every corner of the Continent, and every corner of the Continent turning its wistful eyes, and stretching cut its imploring hands to Britain: not because it is unwilling to exert itself in its own behalf, but because it cannot maintain without assistance, those exertions which are necessary to accomplish the purpose desired. A momentary insurrection against tyranny was not all: it could not effect the overthrow of the colossal power that, bestrode the natious. Providence struck the first blow, in its own time, in its own manner. Providence endued Britain with the necessary strength to ensure perseverance; and her statesmen would not have discharged their duty to their country, and to the world, if they had not supplied that warlike ingredient in which Europe at large was miserably deficient.
What France may become under competent management, it is impossible to foretell. We heartily wish that country well; but, our wishes are far from being gratified, by present appearances.
VOL. II. Lit. Pun. New Series. Sept. 1.
Chemical Essays, principally relating to the Arts and Manufactures of the British Dominions. By Samuel Parkes, F.L.S. &c. 5 vols. sm. 12 mo. Price £2 2s. For the Author. Baldwin and Co. Loudon, 1815.
DIFFERENT qualities impart values of entirely distinct kinds to Books. Some are the offspring of fancy; others are the records of facts. Nobody expects a Poem to maintain such a strict regard to truth, and to the order of events forming that truth, as all demand in regular History, for the purposes of public justice.
On the other hand, the most scrupulous attention to accuracy is necessary in works proposed as records of facts: especially if those facts embrace objects of Philosophical enquiry. It is not enough, to say with Voltaire, "the battle was fought either the day I have assigned to it, the day before, or the day after": because, the before or after makes a wonderful difference in the result; and an experimentalist would find all his labour lost, who did not attend to the order in which his processes are
to follow one another.
Improvement in Art is the consequence of variations suggested by ingenuity, and continued with perseverance. To the world, it is the result of selection of the few which have succeeded, from among the thousands which have failed. Whoever has any practical ac-. quaintance with the Arts, knows, that the most promising plans, beforehand, such as appear almost mathematically infallible, do, nevertheless, very often deceive expectation, and mock the depending anticipations of their author. The slightest of all possible oversights, the most occult or incomprehensible of causes, shall effect this: and the world is infinitely obliged to the man who possesses courage sufficient to acknowledge want of success under that mode of operation to which his judgment had inclined. On the same rank we must place him who communicates the more fortunate results of his labours, for the benefit of others. It is the practical man who does the community service; 2 K
the Artist who has laboured skilfully and diligently,
Mere labourers in any process seldom see, or know, more than that identical operation in which they are employed; their absolute ignorance, when taken
Fortune sometimes effects more than labour; that the habit of observation, occasionally, takes a hint, not visible to others, and that one hint propagates a thousand.-
It must, however, be admitted, that out of that particular line of practice in which they have passed their lives, is astonishing. But, the superiors of any manufactory can scarcely ever rise to eminence, without acquaintance with the objects and endeavours of others. The mind is opened by such acquaintspeculates, it applies. auce; it receives ideas, it reflects, it
the man who sits down supinely conBut, this demands a caution: though tented with the routine of mere practice will never attain distinction, yet the lead the judgment. Many meet their imagination must not be allowed to mis
Till long experience do attain
That such favours should be offered
to the ignorant, is not credible: but, this is certain, that if they are offered, the ignorant take no advantage of then they can hardly be said to slight them, for, in fact, they do not discern
But, practice, infallibly in time, shakes off erroneous or preposterous modes of operation. The stream is purified
by the length of its course.
more immediate, more prompt, are the
This, in fact, is the real merit of these volumes. They relate in a clear manner much that has already been done; and they contain thoughts, hints, or suggestions, such as struck the writer, concerning many other things,
ledge can be followed: nor any better No better way of obtaing useful know
which it is desirable should be reduced to practice. We recommend them to the patrons of those manufactories, on which at this moment our national prosperity eminently depends. They will find much worthy to employ their inge-way of rendering knowledge useful, than nuity must what Parkes can only desire, or recommend. by repaying this information with the Parkes can only desire, or recommend. fruits of his own ingeuuity and expeMoreover, there are among us a number of liberal minds, active in pursuit of knowledge, who desire acquaintance
The subjects treated on are, Utility of Chemistry to the Arts and Mawith the processes employed in manu-nufactures.-On Temperature-On Spefactures to which they are beholden for cific Gravity.-On Calico Printing.the comforts of life; gentlemen, who On Barytes.-On Carbon.-On Sulexercise their talents in doing that for amusement, which others do for bread; fixed Alkalies-On Earthen Ware and phuric Acid.-On Citric Acid.—On the to such amateurs these Essays will afPorcelain.-On Glass.-On Bleaching. ford delight. The instruction they con-On Water.-On Salammoniac.-On tain, it is true, is not always within the reach of private students; yet they lumes: the fifth is composed of addiEdge Tools. These occupy four vo
may find much, susceptible of repetitional notes, and corrections, or furtion, on a moderate, or on a limited scale.
ther illustrations, &c.
ruin in their uncontroulable determina
tion to accomplish the impracticable.
that he has for many years, in the Mr. Parkes informs us in his preface
course of his business as a manufacturing the principal manufactories of the been in the habit of visitwith the most intelligent artists, in a kingdom; of associating occasionally great majority of the Counties of England; and of taking notes of every thing he thought worth registering.
Our readers will perceive that for us, to examine each article fully, is impossible: all are important; but our space is to that duty. shall, therefore allow Mr. P. to speak for himself, by extracting a passage or two, which may be most generally useful.
of the new and important process, adopted about that time by Dr. Roebuck for mann facturing sulphuric acid, which reduced that acid to one fourth of its original price.
in bleaching, than it was discovered that No sooner was this new agent employed one souring with sulphuric acid might be finished in 12, 18, or, at most, 24 hours; whereas every souring by the milk process required always from two to six weeks, ac
Every body in this country wears linen; and the major part of respecta-cording to the state of the weather and to ble people wear linen of a fine texture, other adventitious circumstances. The inand a brilliant whiteness; but this is troduction of sulphuric acid occasioned, not natural to the plant which affords indeed, such an improvement in the art of the raw material: how is it produced bleaching, that the whole process might In this, too, we have regard to the fe- months, though it had formerly required then have been easily finished in four male part of our readers ;-whom we seven or eight months for its completion.. hope on some future occasion to oblige, by no despicable service; as Mr. Parke has fitted up a domestic bleachery, for the purpose of facilitating the process of washing. The results he will certainly communicate pro bono publico; and we, as certainly, shall circulate them with the greatest readiness.
The most important discovery, however, in this business is that of the oxy-muriatic acid, and of its application in whitening goods made either of linen or cottou. The introduction of this article forms absolutely a new era in the history of this art; for it not only expedites the progress surprisingly, but has become the means of reducing the practice of bleaching to a perfect science.
For this most important discovery we are indebted to Mr. Scheele, who in the year 1774 first formed the oxymuriatic acid by art, and ascertained its power in destroying vegetable colours; although it its nature more as a matter of curiosity appears that at this time he investigated
than of usé.
Bleaching is an important part of the linen manufacture. It was formerly thought, that in Holland, only, could this process be conducted to perfection; and this was popularly attributed to the slimy water of the Meer of Haerlem:to which ought to have been added, the
extreme cleanliness of the workmen employed.
The method, was by alternate wash-fore ing, drying, exposure to the air and on the grass, which was called croft-i.e. meadow bleaching:
Several years seem to have elapsed beany one thought of applying the peculiar properties of this singular gas to any important purpose, and, I presume it was uot suspected that this powerful agent might be employed in the process of bleach❘ing of linen or cotton, until about the year
The first who made experiments upon this gas, with a view to its successful application in the arts, was that respectabie French chemist M. Berthollet, who in the Journal de Physique for June 1785, and again in the number for August 1786, explained the nature of its action on vegetable colours, and directed how it might be
This method of bleaching was extremely tedious, so much so, that if the first operation was begun in the month of March, the goods were seldom finished before September; and such as were laid on the grass for the first time at midsummer, were only about half bleached that year, and were laid by to be finished in the spring of the following year. The probable reason why the proprietors of bleaching grounds took no measures to prevent this interrup-employed with advantage in any of the tion of the process, was, because they had existing establishments. found by experience that the atmosphere during the months of March, April, and May, acted more efficaciously in whitening the goods. About the middle of the last century, these tedious operations were, however, much shortened by the employ-printed and calendered it fit for the market ment of sulphuric acid in bleaching, in- in less than three days. The success of stead of sour milk; an improvement first this experiment was so decisive and unexsuggested by Dr. Home, in consequence ceptionable, that Mr. Cooper and some
In a following year (1788) Dr. Taylor then of Manchester, but now of the Adelphi, in conjunction with Mr. Thomas Cooper, also of Manchester, bleached a whole piece of cotton by the new process, and