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was

Ni read, aċt ta reirean na No, but he is sitting.

Fujve.
Car codail tu a reir : Where did you sleep last night?
Na codail nios mo.

Do not sleep any more.
Bejó riadsan na searan. They will be standing.
Do cosa misi mar dyne balb. I was silent as a dumb man.
Bhi me mo cornaig a mBaile I was living in Dublin.

ac cliai.
Na bi do jearari añ rin.

Do not stand there.
Bhi me mo ourgad abfad I was awake long before day.

roime lo. Bhi seiren na ousgao romam, He awake before me ; agus do ouirg se me.

and he awakened me. Bi do coro.

Be silent.
Do codail me a nDúndealgan. I slept in Dundalk.
Bhi me mo codlaó areir. I was sleeping last night.

AUXILIARY VERBS. 1. The auxiliaries by, ir, or as, and tig, with their inflexions, are elegantly used to supply the place of all verbs denoting possession, want, power, necessity, or any affection of the body, or mind.

2. Bi is used with agam, orm, and uaim; ir, or as, with dan, and liom; tig, with liom only; as (133.) Ta rgian agam.

I have a knife. Ni bfuil rgian azamy.

I have not a knife. Ta rgian uaim.

I want a knife. Ni cig liom 4 veanan. I cannot do it. Ir eigin dan rgrjobao. I must write. Ta graó agam air Dhia. I love God. Ta fuaco orm.

I am cold. Ir ljom rin fór.

That is mine too. 3. Ir, or as, simply denotes the object in itself; but tu always denotes it as connected with some circumstance.

Hence, it affirms simply of its object, althongh that object be expressed by two or more words; as, ir me Dornall, I am Donald ; ir fuar an ojoċe s, it is a cold night. But ca has a twofold object, and shews the subject and predicate distinctly from each other; ta Dorinall ag an dorar, Donald is at the door; ta an ojoċe fuar, the night is cold. (134.)

Hence also the interrogative, of as, is an, is used in enquiring after any inherent quality of the subject; as, an tu Dorinall? are you Donald ? ir me, I am.

name

was

But the interrogative, of bi, is bfuil, is used in enquiring after any occasional quality, or circumstance; as, bfuil Dorinall ag an doras ? is Donald at the door ? ata, he is.

4. When as, or ir, ba, and bud, come in contact with vowels, they are contracted into r, b, or m; as, War (ma ir) ou fear an If you are the man of the house.

tige. Bean oarb (oar ba) ainm A_woman whose eblin.

Evelina. Da maill (ma aill) leat eist- If it were agreeable to you to eact liom.

listen to me. Bțeam (ba feam) variisa It were better for me bejt mo toso.

silent. 5. Ba, and buó, aspirate the following mutable consonants ; as bud rhajú liom, I would wish.

6. The auxiliary b), with the preposition an, is used to express existence; as, ta rubailce añ, there is a virtue; bij duine an, there was a man. (135.)

THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE AUXILIARY VERBS PROMISCUOUSLY

to be

EXEMPLIFIED.

She is a little wench.

An tu Seamus P ir me.

Are
you

James ? I am.
Bhfuil tu tin ? ataim. Are

you

sick ? I am. Ta an ojoče dorća.

The night is dark. Ir dorca un ojoče j.

It is a dark night. Bfear ljom 4 besc marb. I had rather be dead. Ir girseac beag í. Ta rí na gintig big. Ta éac majt ag m'atair. My father has a good horse. An leatra an peana ro ? ir Is this pen yours ? it is mine.

lomra e. Go de ta djcord ?

What is a wanting to you? Un é ro do busga rnaoisin ? Is this your snuff-box? it is. Wil arrus agam añ.

I have no doubt. U ndearna duine 4 bit rjar Did ever any man doubt of tre

amrus fa Dhia a beja añ. existence of God ? Nil cuid agam de.

I have no part in it. Ta fuaċt orm anoir, agus 61 I am cold naw, and I was very

tart mór orm ag teact thirsty when I came in.

asteac can. Bheara me an T43010 OUIT 4 I will give the money to you tomarac m4 cig ljom.

morrow, if I can.

ir ead.

If I had money:

Břeam liom go dtiocfa leat I would rather you couid have 4 cabairt anjug.

given it to-day. An lead fein an cior cnairin ? Is the bone comb

?

your own Ir ljom; agus ir ljom an It is mine; and the lookingTgatán fór.

glass is mine also. Da mbjad airgiod agam). Ta ublajše uata.

They want apples. Bhfuil tu tiñ ? ni bfuilim. Are

you

sick ? I am not. An tu an maor ? ni me. Are

you

the officer ? I am not. 'Sionan rin le raó agus gur That is the same as to say, that b'joñan 140 araon.

they were both alike. Ba voilig var é

It were difficult for me. Bhfuil tu fuar ? taim. Are

you

cold ? I am. Dob é an fear a b’airde ran He was the tallest man in the trybujoin.

company. Dobjan bean 4 b’ajlne oreaċ. She was the most beautiful

woman.

Da ma lead é, nf bjad If it were yours, my namo m'ainmse an.

would not be in it. Un leadra an fhian so?

Is this knife yours ? Ni liom anoir é.

It is not mine now. was leis é cabair do ē. If it is his, give it to him. Bhfuil náire uirre ?

Is she ashamed ? An rajb mo leabarra agad ? Had you my book ? An rajb pojdigeact ona ? Did they think long? Ir rine ar macairne na bur Our mother is older than matairse.

yours. T4 bur mbatra ran gcoill. Your cows are in the wood.

ADVERB. 1. The following adverbs aspirate the words that follow them thus :

Ni, njar, not, and nar ? nacar ? not ? aspirate and prefix h to vowels;

Do, and a, to, aspirate infinitives ;
Do, sign of the preter, aspirates active verbs;
Ro, very, aspirates adjectives; and,

All the adverbial particles aspirate the words with which they
are compounded; as, (136)
Wiar tainic aon duine leir. No man came with him.
Do buail me an fear ejle. I struck the other man.

Ir cóir dúiñ urnaig co, or a We ought to pray every day

veanan gać la.
Ta an maidin ro fuar. The morning is very cold.
Ta se na ouine neiringlic. He is a goolish man.
Ni hamluig ca.

It is not so.
2. Nac, not, and ca ? where? eclipse active verbs; and

Jar, sign of the preter participle, eclipses it; as, (137) Nac ocig lejče rjubal. She cannot walk. Jar mbualao an dorais. Having struck the door. Ca mbon re na coriinuig? Where does he dwell ?

3. Adverbs signifying proximity, require the dative; as, te re angar darin. he is near me. (138.)

4. The following adverbs require the ablative viz. (139.)

Ubos, on this side. Arteac, within. Abfad, afar. Go léor, enough. Amać, out. and the like; as, Anall, call, beyond. Fan Abor uguiñe.

Stay on this side with us. Ta se abfad ona tij. He is far from his house. Chuajó ri amac ar an tír. She went out of the country. D'jt me go leor don bjad. I eat enough of the meat.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS PROMISCUOUSLY EXEMPLIFIED.

morrow.

Nar eiri5 tu go moć. Did you arise early ?
Tamull beag na ojaigri.n A little while after that.
Seal beag roine.

A little while before.
Niar codail me morán aréir. I did not sleep much last night.
Bhi me, uair no do, ar si cur I was once or twice about to
orm.

put on my

cloaths Ta dúil agam a oul ar baile I intend to go from home to

amárać. Cahuairatiucfar rif a hair? When will she come back again ? Ca fada o pósad 1.

How long is it since she was

married ? Do posao anuraig i.

She was married last year. eirig go clirde.

Rise quickly
Na déan muil, feasoa. Do not delay, henceforth.
Ir añar a teigimse sios įuca I seldom go down to them.
Ir minic a fuair me cuiread. I was often invited.
This re ub.

He comes sometimes. Deirim naċar joc pe eanšeor- I say that he did not pay a lin.

farthing

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Nar imtiž an fear, a bj añso Did the man depart who was aréir ?

here last night Nior ojol re dadan.

He did not pay any: Carb as do?

From whence is he ? Ca ndeacaió re?

Where went he ? Ca huair a dimtig re ? When did he go? Nac dtuigean tu me

? Don't

you understand me? Gud as nac neistean tu liom ? Why do you not hearken to me ? Ni crrego rerrim an. He would make no account of it. Cáit a bfuil re anoir

? Where is he now ? Car fág tu é ?

Where did you leave him?
Suió anaice liom.

Sit near me.
Na tar imo cóir.
Na tar angar dari.

Do not come near me.
Na tar abfogus dari:
Sujo go dluit le mo taob. Sit close by my side.
B'F404 liom amuig tu. I thought long when you were

abroad. Ir pada o'fan tu tall. You staid long beyond. Ca hug a tainic tu análl. ? When did you come over ? Ir cián a cuajo tu anos. It is long since you went over. Ir gear go rača me fararır. It is a short time, till I will go Cja he yn a dtaobriar ojot? Who is that behind you ? Cia he in a dtaob hall ojot? Who is that beyond you ? Bfear liom bejc hall, no bos. I would rather be beyond than

on this side, Na bi dul far 'r anjar.

Do not

back and forward. Táre sul nuñ 'r anall. He is going to and fro. Na bi oul ríos ir suas.

Do not go up

and down. Széul a cuala me cian o foin. A story that I heard long ago. On fear críoña a tainic a From a wise man that came gcéin

from afar. Gurglas na mullaižbfad uajñ. That hills are green far from us. Ta an carán tin ro mait. That bread is very good. Do buailead é le duine eile. He was struck by another man. An mar sin 4t4. ?

Is it so ? Nar vjol se na fjača ? Did he

pay

the debts ?. Da ririb ata me.

I am in earnest. Cred fa naċ mbuailfiñ é ? Why should I not strike him ? Na teig anon nos mó. Do not go over any more. Niar crir se moránaraig ynu He never gave much heed to her.

rann.

back again.

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