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unnecessary to repeat it here. It may be almost superfluous to observe, that reflected verbs, implying no action done to another, are incapable of being inflected in the passive voice.
69. Having studied the full examples of conjugations, the learner will here see the original simplicity, and remarkable regularity, of the Irish verbs. That the imperative is the root, from which all the other parts are formed, will be evident, on the slightest inspection. The same observation occurred to Mr. Stewart (Galic Grammar, page 82); but it is somewhat singular, that, in giving the examples of the conjugations, he does not place the imperative first in order.
70. The form do buailed, corresponds more exactly with the general rule; although do bualad is more common. The same may perhaps be observed of some other verbs, but the difference is so inconsiderable, that it does not seem worthy of being noted as an irregularity.
71, 72. When these references were made, for notes, it was intended to insert the observations, which have already been made, at notes 57, and 59.
73. In the following tables, as many of these verbs as occurred to the author's observation are inserted. He does not pretend to say, that the lists are complete; but they contain, at least, the greater part of such words; and the learner will easily attain the knowledge of any others, in the course of reading, and speaking. 74. Some of the foregoing verbs may be otherwise formed, in the infinitive; as,
Corain,-do cosaint, do cornam, defend.
Note, that is often added to 1, where it might be well omitted; as,
len, do leaniyyt, for do leanṁyn follow.
75. This, with the three foregoing blank references, is intended to point out words, in which there is some deviation from the general rules. But these irregularities are more owing to local idioms, than to any radical variety of expression; and they are noted here, that the learner may not hesitate in generally inflecting all verbs, according to the common rules.
If the imperative tjoman, drive, were used, there would be no
irregularity in this verb, in which the “4” is the leading and radical vowel.
76. It has been justly observed by General Vallancy, that "from the description given of the irregular verbs, by M'Curtin and Molloy, they are sufficient to deter any one from attempting to learn this language; whereas, they are neither more numerous, nor more difficult, than those of the Latin, French, and English languages."
77. Nim, I do, in old manuscripts is written him; and niñear, I did, is written rogner. M'Curtin remarks that g should always be retained in this verb, to distinguish it from 11, not; but this is not observed in the Irish Bible, or many correct modern works.
The preter interrogative of all the irregular verbs, except ab4, say, is formed of 4 or an, instead of nar.
78. The imperative ab4 is propounded of 40, and beir; as also the preter oubt, of do and berʊ. Thus, in ancient manuscripts, we read, aṁîl is beirt an file, as the poet says; ad beard an file, the poet said. Hence dubras and, dubąt, will not admit of do as the sign of the preter, because this particle is compounded in the verb itself. Deirim dearaid, &c., are also contractions of do and bier.
The participles pad, rada, and the passive ráite, said, are from an obsolete verb, rajtear, it is said or called; to be found in old manuscripts.
79 80. Tab is compounded of to, an obsolete particle, or sign of the dative, and bein; and probably means give. Beir is often used alone, in the imperative, to signify give, bring, carry, lay hold on, overtake, or bring forth young.
The preter tense of tab4 is tugas, tug me, I gave or brought. The preter of beir is rugas, rug me, I took, laid hold on, overtook, er brought forth.
Beara si clañ.
Rug ĥ omra.
81 The entire imperative is thus formed :
2. Tam, come thou.
3. Tigead, se, let him come.
She will bear a child.
(1. Tigeamois, let us come.
3. Tigidis, or tigead siad,
written jaċt, tigeaċt,
The participle teacʊ, is also found and toizeaċT.
82. The obsolete verb rigim; preter, rainic to arrive at, or come to, is sometimes used in the preter. It seems to be compounded of no and tigim, ro and tainic.
83. It is probable that e is the radical letter in this verb, as in the Greek and Latin eo, I go; hence te go, having ʊ prefixed.
In ancient manuscripts, do deaċ is found, instead of do cuajo, in the preter; as, sočajo deaċ on maż, a troop went over the plain.
The participle passive is used, compounded with 11, or 101, fit or proper to be done; as, jondulta, fit, or proper to go or to be gone.
84. Faz signifies also get, and may be so translated throughout. In the north of Ireland it is pronounced as if written foż. 85. The passive infinitive, and participle, are not in use. Do Frit was formerly used, as well as fuaras, in the preter; as do frit Philip, Philip was found.
The future affirmative, geabad, and geabar, are borrowed from 34b, have, take, or receive.
86. Feuc signifies behold, or take a view of anything. Derc, and aṁarc, observe, or look at; with which may be classed breażnajż, notice, remark. Cim, I see, or perceive an object. Fejc, or flac, is used after negative, interrogative, and conditional participles; as, na feic 4 fn, do not look on that; ma fejc tu, if you see. And, in the imperative, first person plural, faiciom, or feiciom, let us see.
87. The passive infinitive and participle are not in use. Fajcean, or as it is sometimes written pejctean, is often used
impersonally, with a dative or the person, (as in other languages,) to express, think, or imagine; as, na habà a bfaicear dit, do not say what you think; ma ċitear dit, if you imagine To which may be added the ancient preter, concas; as, do concas daisa mar an gceadna, it seemed good to me also.
88. er, listen, is more commonly used, in the imperative, than clujn, hear. In ancient writings, cluar was the imperative of this verb; but it is now used to signify an ear.
Clom is used, as well as clujnim, in the present indicative; and do clor, (still used in Munster,) was the original preter, instead of do cualas; as, do člos żuż a Rama, a voice was heard in Rama.
89. This can be done only with adjectives signifying quality As to numerals, they are expressed adverbially by prefixing an, ansa, or, more commonly, 'ran, in the, (see page 91, rule 7,*) to the ordinal adjective, and adding 41, place; as, 'san treas 41ʊ, thirdly, i. e. in the third place. To express once, twice, &c., fa, upon, about, is used with the cardinal adjective; as fa do, fa tri, &c.
90. Adverbial expressions of this kind are very numerous; but those here exhibited will afford a specimen of the manner in which they are formed.
91. These words are commonly called inseparable prepositions. but, as the predicate no relation, they are more properly denominated adverbial particles.
To those here asserted, some authors have added the following, viz :
} Good, as,
Dażṁuintir, good people.
Droċṁuinte, ill taught.
Tomcut, a friendly visit.
But the five first of these are adjectives; the three next separable adverbs; and the two last, nouns.
The following particle was inadvertently omitted-viz.: Sár, very great; as, rárdomain, very deep.
92. Mun is only an abusive pronunciation, and orthography,
for muna, although it is very common.
See note 48.
93. It appeared simpler to give the following alphabetical list of prepositions, than to class them according to their influence, as usually done, which infringes on the business of syntax.
94. Some other words have been enumerated as prepositions; such as, amaċ, out, tall, beyond, ruas, up, and the like; but these are evidently adverbs, requiring the preposition de, or, as it is commonly written, co, after them; as, taob amaċ don this, the outer side of the house.
Do, and 30, both signify to; but the difference between them (as well remarked by Mr. Stewart) is, that do implies motion towards, and 30 motion terminating at an object; as, cuajo re do thig an rig, he went to, or towards the king's house; tajnic se go thig an riż, he came unto the king's house.
De is not used as a simple preposition; but it is clearly distinguished from oo, to, in compounds; as, ojom from me, de, or de, from him.
95, 96, 97, 98, 99. These words are uever used separately, as nouns, yet they appear to have a clear and distinct signification, which may be ascertained from the corresponding phrases.
100. It is more probable that de, of, is the simple preposition, in such phrases as do bjt; although it is always written co.
101. Some other conjunctive phrases might be added to these; but, as they are formed by the combination of the simple conjunctions with other words, it did not seem necessary to insert them.
The common conjunction agur, and, or, as it is often pronounced I, was inadvertently omitted in this table.
102. With these perhaps may be classed njar, neither.
103. For the use of muna, and mur, see note 92. Many words are used with ma, and 50, to form a variety of conjunctive phrases, the meaning of which is always ascertained by the leading word.
104. No language abounds more in passionate interjections than the Irish: but it would be vain and useless to attempt an enumeration of them.
105. This is certainly a common, but it is not a correct mode of speaking and writing. The Scottish Galic changes into m, before labials; as, an bár, the death, they say am bár. This licence, for sound's sake, is more allowable than that used in the Irish.
106. This mode of separating the 4 and 1, has been adopted in order to accommodate the written to the spoken language; but