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it should not be practised, as it is commonly done, having the appearance, to the inexperienced reader, of deviating from the general rules of etymology.
107. If 30 de be considered as only an abbreviation for guid é, what (is) it? the phrase will run thus, in English, what is (it) the hour?
108. This is equivalent to the expression, ba saiġideoir me, I was a soldier.
109. This is not properly an exception to the general rule; for the latter substantive really forms the subject of a separate preposition; as, mac Ioseiph eadon, or, is é sin an saor, the son of Joseph, namely, or, that is the carpenter.
110. It may be observed, in general, that the form of the adjective depends upon the noun, only when it immediately follows the noun, in any degree of comparison.
111. The reason of this is well expressed by Mr. Stewart, in the following words (see his Grammar, page 143):
"The grammatical distinction, observable in the following examples, is agreeable to the strictest philosophical propriety.
Riñ mis' an sgian geur," I made the sharp knife; here the adjective agrees with the noun, for it modifies the noun, distinguishing that knife from others. “Riñ mis' an sgian geur," I made the knife sharp; here the adjectives does not agree with the noun, for it modifies not the noun but the verb. It does not characterize the object on which the action is performed; but it combines with the verb in specifying the nature of the operation performed. The expression is equivalent to" gheuraiċ me an scan," I sharpened the knife,"
112. Sometimes, when the possession is strongly expressed, the phrase is changed, by inserting 50, with; as, fear go bfallaing ndeirg, instead of, fear na fallainge deirge, the man of, or with the red cloak.
113. As this is only a licence, for better sound's sake it is not frequently done.
114. Le, with, by, or along with, is, very properly, the only sign of the ablative used under this rule; for it implies, not merely a tendency towards, according to the principle of other languages, but a juxta position and continuance.
115. Instead of na, than, jona was frequently used some years since. In Aod Mhac Aingil, Sgatan na hajċriże, printed at Brussels, in the 17th century, it is always 101a, before a singular, and ionaid, or inaid, before a plural: but why it should be forced to agree with the number, is difficult to conjecture.
116. Ni, c, may be abbreviations for ingean, or as it is pronounced in Scotland, and in the North of Ireland, njan a daughter.
117. It seems most convenient to treat of the several kinds of pronouns separately, though it may occasion some repitition; as the use of them is more clearly shewn thus, than by attempting to reduce them to general rules.
118. The anomaly, in the use of these pronouns, was probably introduced, for better sound's sake, and afterwards comitted writing. In the Scottish Galic, iñ, ¡b, &c., are much more frequently used as nominatives.
119. This might be variously expressed in Irish; thus, re an ni a dfág me a noċt faoj brón, a beit am aonar indiaiż ċajċ the thing that left me this night in sorrow, is to be alone after all.
120, 121. A distinction is observed in the use of these compound pronouns. Ljom is used to denote mental affection only; but agam, and orm, relate both to mind and body.
122. As there is nothing, in the Irish language, in which learners are apt to find more difficulty, than in the use of the emphatical increase the closest attention to these rules is necessary. There is a remarkable analogy between the emphatical Greek particle yε, added to pronouns, and the increase, in the Irish language.
123. This is agreeable to the principle of the most polished languages, in which these pronouns alone never can follow the verbs with which they agree.
124. The use of the personal terminations is very inconsiderable, in those parts of Ireland that are adjacent to Scotland. In the latter country they are now little used. But in ancient writings they are continually used. And in the south and west of Ireland, they are so frequent, in the mouths of the common people, that it occasions a considerable difficulty to an illiterate native of the north in understanding them.
125. The pronoun is never used in the first and second persons of the consuetudinal, after da; as, da mbuailfiñ, had I struck; da mbuailfead, hadst thou struck.
126. This corresponds exactly to the absolute case, in other languages; but it is much more frequently used in Irish. For wherever the word when can be used with a noun, or pronoun, in English, it may be turned in this manner, in Irish; as, when the old man heard that, 4g cloinn sin don tseanduine.
127. This form of expression is much more common, in Irish, than in any modern language; and corresponds remarkably with the idiom of the Greek language.
128. There is a considerable latitude in the use of this expression. When any thing is to be expressed positively, or definitively, the consuetudinal form is hardly ever used.
129. This corresponds exactly with the second supine in Latin; as, greaning le faicfjn dulce visu, pleasant to see, or to be seen. 130. It is not easy to account for this distinction between masculines and feminines; and, although generally used, it appears almost entirely arbitrary.
131. Chum, for the purpose, is commonly used before the infinitive; as, ċuad se čum contais a tabąt, he went to give an account. In rapid speaking, the sign do, or 4, is omitted before the infinitive; as, ni darla daṁ a leidid in faicfn ariaṁ, I never happened to see the like. And this elliptical form has been adopted in writing also.
132. Even nouns, and adjectives, are sometimes used in the same manner as reflected verbs; as, ta me mo suan, I am (in) my sleep; bi me mo toirċiñ suajn, I was in my drowsy sleep,
133. There were some auxiliary verbs in use anciently, which it is useless to enumerate here, as they are not met with, in any recent manuscript, or publication.
134 This distinction must be considered as purely logical; it is a very nice one, yet the native and illiterate Irish never err in the use of it.
135. May there not be an ellipsis of some noun, after añ ? Or is an here equivalent to the Greek wy, being?
136. This is upon the same principle, that monosyllabic adjectives, prefixed to their nouns, aspirate them. See page 76, rule 5.* 137. Passive verbs are not susceptible of any influence from particles.
138. This dative, however, is not governed by the adverb, but by the preposition do, to, which follows it; as angar don teine, near the fire.
139. This ablative is governed by de, of 4g, at, as, out of, or the like, by which the adverb is followed.
140. There is some variety, in the different provinces of Ireland, with respect to the prepositions that aspirate, &c., according to the ear of the speaker; but it is impossible to specify these local varieties.
141. The influence of jar, in this place, is the same as upon verbs. See note 137.
142. Re, with, was commonly written, some time since and still is, in the Scottish Galic; having the same influence with le.
143. It is evident, that the genitive here is governed by the noun, which forms the principal part of these expressions.
144. This is a licence taken, for sound's sake, deviating from strict orthography, but commonly received in speaking and writing.
145. "When two or more nouus, coupled by a conjunction, are governed by a preposition, it is usual to repeat the preposition before each noun; as, air fad agus air leitead, in length and in breadth." Stewart, 165.
146. The influence of some other conjunctions varies, according to the idiom of the place, but the only authentic and origi nal ones are here expressed.
147. It is not uncommon to say, a Tiarna Dia, or a tiarna, 4 Dhe; but the first of these expressions is ungrammatical, and the latter is only a distinct vocative.
148. The adjective, being joined to the noun, is aspirated in this case; and the pronoun may be aspirated or not, according to the ear of the speaker.
END OF PART I.